Volume 45, Issue 2, 2017
THE USE OF SECONDARY RESOURCES OF FRUIT RAW MATERIAL IN TECHNOLOGY OF CONFECTIONERY AND BAKERY PRODUCTS
The results of research on improving the technology of flour confectionery and bakery products enriched with components of secondary resources of fruit raw material to increase their nutritional value are given in the article. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the production of flour confectionery and bakery products with increased nutritional value when using secondary resources of fruit raw material on the basis of studies of quality indices of semi-finished and finished products. Different samples of secondary fruit raw material in the form of cake and meal have been analyzed. A secondary product is obtained after pressing the berries or after the extraction with water and water-alcohol solvents. It is suggested to dry up secondary products in the form of cake and meal in the convective dryer at the temperature of 40°C to the humidity of 20 % to improve their technological properties. The possibility of adding extra raw material into the dough for producing butter biscuits and bakery goods has been studied. It has been established that consumer characteristics of bakery goods with added dried-up blackcurrant cake are worse than those of check samples. By results of research it has been determined that introduction of the dried-up cake of blackcurrant berries into dough for producing butter biscuits doesn't influence its properties and physical and chemical properties of a finished product. It has been found that the optimum dosage of the additive is 15% of the flour mass which doesn't lead to the worsening of organoleptic factors of finished products. The data on the analysis of the chemical composition of butter biscuits with added cake of blackcurrant berries ispresented. It has been found that the content of food fiber in the product increases by 33.5% compared to the check sample. Produced biscuits are enriched with trace elements and mineral substances (ferrum, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine), P-active substances and antotsiana. Experimental and calculated data prove the possibility of using the cake of blackcurrant berries for the production of butter biscuits with increased nutritional value.
The article deals with the results of researches on the effect of modern plant growth regulators (PGR) on yield, quality and preservation of potatoes. Field experiments were performed in 2012-2014 (storage 2012-2015) in the educational-experimental farm of the Yelets State University after I. A. Bunin, on leached chernozems of the Central Black Earth Region (Lipetskaya oblast). Studied have been the following RGR: Epin-Extra, Ecopin, Ecogel, Novosil, Zircon, Humate N/K including the controls free of drug treatment. The PGP test has been performed on two backgrounds of mineral fertilizers, namely, N60P90K60 and N90P150K120. The “Udacha” variety of potato has been used. The most effective PGR options appeared to be 3.10 - Ecopin and 5.12 - Novosil. According to the background of N60P90K60 the yield of potatoes as the result of their use amounted to 30.2 and 29.1 t/ha, respectively, against 22.9 t/ha for the 1st control variant. The starch content of the tubers has increased to 15.4 and 14.9% against 14.2% of the control. Total weight losses have decreased by of 1.1-1.0% and the incidence of the products during storage has reduced up to 1.4-1.5%, against 1.9% in the control. Advanced background of N90P150K120 fertilizer has led to the increase of potato yield in the 10 and 12 versions to 33.2-32.2 t/ha when using Ecopin and Novosil against 26.8 t/ha in the 8 control variant. The yield increase against the background of higher doses of fertilizers appeared to be less amounting to 23.0 - 20.1%, compared to 31.9 and 27.1% for N60P90K60 background. A significant yield increase for both fertilizer backgrounds when using Zircon and Ecogel PGRs has been demonstrated. In major potato production it is expedient to apply the most effective PGPs Ecopin at the dose of 60g/ha and Novosil at the dose of 200 ml/ha at recommended treatment time. The use of effective drugs leads to the increase of the yield of potatoes by 27.1-31.9% and 20.1-23.0%, increases starch content of tubers and significantly reduces losses during storage.
The article discusses the possibility of using a number of aspects of system-dialectical approach and economic analysis when developing functional fermented milk product technology. The approach to the selection of supplements, their optimum dosages, methods and stages of introduction has been grounded taking into account the system patterns. It describes the enrichment factors of functional fermented milk product that enhance its nutritional value. It is shown that the majority of today's technological researches consider the objects in a specialized technological mode ignoring the fact that these objects are also complex systems and have not only a specially-technological but also systemic properties and patterns. In our research we used the following system patterns: focusing of actions, complexity, highlighting of the decisive link, staged development (conversion) of the object, multifunctional organization of the object. On their basis, we have determined the system grounds for choosing the most appropriate variant for the enrichment of fermented milk product in the aspects of functional components ratio and the sequence of their introduction into the developed product. Consideration of economic trends and the prospects for the development of functional dairy products market reveals several problems hindering the development of this market. Consideration of patterns in our study is to promote methodological bases for food technology development. System and economic vision of these technologies makes it possible to find extra opportunities for the improvement of consumer qualities and health-impact of enriched products. The doses ofF DVS YF-L904 (FRO) starter culture; HOWARU Bifido FRO starter culture of direct inoculation; "Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG Grade G"bacterial."Valio Ltd." dried bacterial concentrate of direct inoculation, stahis, "Green Apple" fruit filler have been established. They improve organoleptic, physico-chemical, reological properties of the functional fermented milk product.
The technology of producing the whole muscle product from pork enriched with bioavailable forms of iodine and selenium has been developed. The objects of the research are the meat product and seeds of lentil, pregerminated in solutions of potassium iodide and sodium selenit for enrichment with iodine and selenium. Germinated seeds of lentil are subjected to extruding then milled into flour and hydrated for convenience of introduction at the stage of salting. The use of “Glimalask” nutritional supplement allowsus to lower a mass fraction of diazotizing salt in a finished product more than twice and, at the same time, to keep the uniform pink coloring of the baked meat product. The developed way of combining meat and vegetable components makes it possible to obtain the enriched product aimed at providing a modern person’s diet with minerals and food fibers. The enrichment of food with vegetable components in a hydrated form in amount of 15% enables meeting the daily requirement for iodine and selenium by 16.8% and 36.1%, respectively. The use of the emulsion made of flour of extruded seeds of lentil and water increases the content of a mass fraction of protein in a finished product by 1.1%, and reduces the content of a mass fraction of fat by 4.21%. The introduction of vegetable components enriches the meat product with minerals without worsening organoleptic indices of the finished product.
Flour confectionery products are a promising group of food products for enrichment with food fibers. In the domestic literature studies on the development of recipes and technologies for muffins with various types of dietary fiber obtained from natural sources of raw materials are presented. However, there is no information on the use of the functional ingredient - pectin of woody greens of Scotch pine - in the cake. It has been revealed that this group of flour confectionery products with taste-aromatic foodadditives is realized in the food market of Krasnoyarsk. The development of the recipe and the evaluation of the quality of a new type of cake having chemical raising agent based on pectin of woody greens contributes to the solution of regional problems in providing population with a mass product that allows satisfying consumer's growing demand for "healthy products" that reduce the negative impact of the unfavorable ecological situation in the city of Krasnoyarsk. Carrying out the research we used common standardized methods of analysis; the results obtained were processed by regression analysis. It has been established that the introduction of pectin does not affect the smell of finished products. Constructing the mathematical model the factors "form", "smell", "taste" have been excluded since they are statistically insignificant in the process of regression analysis. The resulting regression equation linking the complex evaluation, the results of surface estimates, fracture type, structure and pectin content allowed us to determine the optimum amount of pectin of woody greens of Scotch pine equal to 9% of the fat mass in the cake recipe. The set dosage does not affect the sugar content and alkalinity. At the same time, an increase in the porosity and specific volume of the enriched finished product to 13.5% and 22.6%, respectively, compared to the control sample has been revealed. The developed "Krasnoyarskiy" cake recipe makes it possible to enrich the flour confectionery product with a functional ingredient in the volume of 50% of FNR to reduce the fat content by 8%. The results obtained are necessary for the development of technical documentation.
SOME ASPECTS OF DISTILLATE PRODUCTION FROM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS. Part 2. Balance of distribution of volatile compounds between fractions
Distillation is a complex physico-chemical process consisting of ethanol concentrating and controlled regulation of volatile compound content in the product (distillate). Conditions of passing of volatile compounds into the distillate depend on many factors. These factors include the evaporation coefficient of the compound, its solubility in various ethanol concentrations, compounds’ mutual solubility in a multicomponent system, the rectification coefficient. The purpose of this research is to study the balance of distribution of volatile compounds between fractions (“cuts”) during distillation of fermented Jerusalem artichoke wort in a water- bath distilling plant. It has been discovered that extending of fermentation process and pre-saccharifying of the Jerusalem artichoke wort lead to methanol concentration increase in the distillate fractions. It has been discovered that the main part of methanol concentrates in the medium fraction. It is shown that during fermented wort distillation neoplasm of acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate takes place by 24-41% and 2.5-3.8 times. The clear dependence of acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate balance between the factions of the distillate on the method of raw material preparation and the time of fermentation has not been found. It has been found that overwhelming amount of 1-propanol, isobutanol and isoamyl goes to the middle fraction irrespective to the method of the raw material preparation for distillation and time of fermentation. Total amount of higher alcohols in the medium fraction is 74.6-96.9% to their concentration in fermented wort. Total amount of phenylethyl alcohol, a compound that gives the distillate flowery tones and the scent of honey, in the fractions is 11-25% to its initial concentration in the wort, herewith it concentrates in the tail fraction. The return of the tail fraction to a new portion of the distilled wort allows increasing the amount of phenylethyl alcohol in the distillate.
The article considers the possibility of using the extract of Manchurian walnut pericarp as a dye, a preservative, and a source of biologically active substances in the production of marmalade. The content of biologically active substances and antioxidant activity of extracts of Manchurian walnut pericarp extracted at the temperature of 100 °C for 5 min have been determined. It has been shown that the pericarp extract of Manchurian walnut of milky stage has the highest content of rutin, yuglon and quercentin which amounts to 54.7 mg/100 g, 76.3 mg/100 g, 11.2 mg/100 g, respectively. It has been established that the antioxidant activity of the extracts depends on the stage of Manchurian walnut maturity. The pericarp extract of Manchurian walnut of milky stage of maturity has the highest antioxidant activity. The recipes of jelly marmalade with the use of water extract of pericarp of Manchurian walnut of milky and consumer stages of maturity have been developed. Organoleptic characteristics of the samples of marmalade and the content of biologically active substances, and their antioxidant activity have been defined. Marmalade containing 5% of pericarp extract of Manchurian walnut of milky stage has the best organoleptic indices, as well as the highest values of antioxidant activity and bioactive substances. The extract gives a pleasant yellow-brown color and rich sweet-sour taste to marmalade. In addition, the introduction of the extract of Manchurian walnut pericarp into the marmalade formulation has a positive effect on physico-chemical and microbiological quality indices of the finished products.
NEW HIGH-TECH METHODS OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES EVALUATION IN CHEESEMAKING: STUDY OF MILK COAGULATION AND FORMATION OF CHEESE CURD STRUCTURE
The coagulation of milk mixture is an important technological stage of cheese-making. Peculiar features of curd formation affect the choice of cheese-making conditions and determine the quality of cheese. At the Siberian Research Institute of Cheese- making two instruments and two methods allowing monitoring of milk coagulation process and rheological properties of curd formation have been developed. The methods allow us to investigate the dynamics of milk coagulation and to measure the rheological characteristics of the curd (strength and elasticity). The first method and the instrument are designed to study the effect of conditions of milk mixture coagulation and curd treatment. The advantage of this method is the possibility of obtaining undistorted curd in the vessel which is then transferred to the device for measuring strength tensile. The device allows making comparative experiments on the same milk sample changing the factors (dose of enzyme, pH, and mass fraction of solids). The second instrument is a modernized version of a reconciler and has been designed to measure the ultimate strength. The ultimate strength of cheese curd reflects its technological properties and correlates with the loss of the cheese mass in the development of cheese curd. Analyzing the dynamics of formation of curd rheological characteristics it has been established that ultimate strength is not always a function of time: in many cases local extremes are observed. This phenomenon depends on the kind of milk coagulating enzyme, the protein composition of milk, the concentration and the state of calcium ions, the presence of inhibitory substances in milk. The developed methods make enable us to adjust processing at early stages of cheese-making, to specify binding properties of the cheese mass and the losses of milk components. The instruments and methods can be used more effectively when making cheese from mixtures which include dry and condensed components.
Red currant berries are characterized by high contents of pectin substances and an optimum combination of organic acids and sugars. Freezing is an efficient method of retaining high quality of raw material for a long time. The aim of this research is to study technological features of pectin in fresh and frozen berries of red currant and in jelly produced on their base. As a result of the studies it has been determined that berries of studied red currant varieties are characterized by high contents of pectin substances, their contents being slightly reduced in a process of low temperature freezing and storage, namely, by 4% on average within the varieties. At the same time the pectin in berries of red currant are highly etherificated because the degree of their methoxylation exceeds 50% in a majority of varieties (Bayana, Valentinovka, Vika, Dana, Dar Orla, Marmeladnitsa, Niva, Orlovskaya zvezda, Orlovchanka, Podarok leta) during the whole period of experimental studies. This fact confirms the technological value of berries of the studied red currant varieties and advantageously characterizes them as a raw material for production of jelly products. The analysis of the obtained data allows revealing a close dependence of texture-mechanical characteristics of the jelly according to the force of load and such indices of chemical composition of the raw material as the pectin substance quantity and the degree of their etherification. It is supposed that the protopectin is able to turn into the soluble pectin during cooking, thus increasing the jelly- forming value of the finished product. The genotypes with higher values of pectin substances and degree of their etherification are characterized by better ability to form jelly.
STUDYING OF FRACTIONAL COMPOSITION OF MILK-PROTEIN CONCENTRATES FOR THE PURPOSE OF THEIR APPLICATION IN PRODUCTION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Now, in order to increase the level of consumption of protein by population there appear food products enriched with milk- protein concentrates in the market of dairy products The article deals with the results of the research on the composition of two samples of milk protein concentrates - Neoprolakt U (1) and Promilk Kappa Optimum 85 for the purpose of their further application in production of dairy products. Fractions of proteins of milk-protein concentrates have been identified using the value of molecular weight. The initial electrophoregram has been obtained as a result of electrophoretic fractionation of proteins with the method of free electrophoresis by means of a MINI-PROTEAN cell for electrophoresis. The number of fractions of whey proteins and casein has been identified in the studied samples. Absolute values of fractions of whey proteins and casein in the samples of milk-protein concentrates have been defined. On the basis of the obtained absolute values of fractions of whey proteins and casein their percentage in milk-protein concentrates has been calculated. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the studied samples of milk-protein concentrates can be used in production of dairy products as an additional component in order to increase nutritive value of the finished product.
Various plant raw materials are used to produce low-alcohol beverages. A goal of the article is to show the possibility of obtaining gluten-free low-alcohol beverages fermented from light and scalding buckwheat malt and to evaluate their quality. Light malt is made from Pri 373 and Izumrud buckwheat grain varieties; scalding malt is made from Izumrud variety. Barley malt or amylolytic enzymes are added to saccharify the mash. The wort is fermented using Saflager 34/70 dry beer yeast of bottom fermentation. It has been found that when barley malt is used for saccharification the proportion of light buckwheat malt (Pri 373) in a malt charge cannot be higher than 50% but the buckwheat malt content rises to 100% when the amylolytic enzyme is added to the mash. Low-alcohol beverages fermented from light and scalding buckwheat malt obtained by adding the amylolytic enzyme are gluten-free. They correspond to GOST 52700-2006 by quality factors and are characterized by high sensory properties. No significant differences in sensory and analytical characteristics of beverages obtained from light buckwheat malt prepared from grain of different varieties (Pri 373 and Izumrud) have been found. For the first time the possibility to use scalding malt from buckwheat for obtaining a low-alcohol beverage has been demonstrated.
The article shows that a wild herbaceous plant (Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch ) can be referred to promising food-borne wild plants that have high nutritional value due to the presence of vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, minerals, organic acids, carbohydrates. Leaves and roots of bergenia are widely used in the manufacture of medicines, food and biologically active additives, balms, syrups, beverages, various kinds of herbal tea. There are perspectives of using bergenia in the technology of such groups of food products as foods of animal origin, bakery and confectionery products, various sauces, canned foods and others. Studies have shown that practically all the compounds found in the leaves pass into the aqueous extract, but only in different amounts while the solids of the extract contain the largest amount of tannins and phenolic compounds. The results of the study on chemical composition of black leaves of bergenia and aquatic bergenia extract are presented, as well as studies on the use of black leaves of bergenia extract in the technology of meat and fish products - smoked-boiled pork products and preserves from omul. The peculiarity of the developed technologies is the use of the bergenia extract in the amount of 10% of the syringe brine during production of the carbonade "Osobyi" and 20% of the pickling brine during the production of “Omul marinated” preserves. The increase in the shelf life of the developed products has been proved in comparison with the regulatory data due to the bacteriostatic and antioxidant properties of the bergenia extract. The result of evaluation of commercially valuable properties of the selected promising plant source of biologically active substances - black leaves of the bergenia - as a food component and the study of the possibility of its use in the production of meat and fish products enable us to conclude that to produce products of a new generation with high consumer properties is possible.
In Russia, more than 50% of whey is drained as a waste product, which brings no profit and poses a threat to the environment. One possible solution to this problem is the introduction of technology of separation freezing out. The present paper is devoted to the research on the effectiveness of cryoconcentration of whey using a multistep method. Experiments were performed on separation freezing out of whey in a capacitive crystallizer. Freezing out was carried out in three stages At the first stage a coolant temperature was -4°C, at the second stage it was -5.5°C, at the third stage it was -7°C. The duration of each step was 180 min. The nonlinear relationship between the thickness of the layer of ice on the heat exchange surface and the length of whey crystallization has been established. The corresponding regression equation has been developed. Physical and chemical indices of concentrates and ice formed have been defined. It has been found that the three-stage separation freezing out improves solids content of the whey by 2 times. The structure of the resulting ice has been studied. It has been found that the ice structure is more solid when the process of freezing out is slow. The value of solids losses during separation freezing out of whey has been determined. They are 37.7, 29.5 and 27.4% of the initial content at the first, second and third stages, respectively. In this case the losses of protein and lactose at the first and third stages of concentration are approximately the same and constitute 21-25%. They are a bit higher (28-33%) at the second stage.
Berries are the most promising source of raw materials for the Siberian region to create products enriched with biologically active substances. Noted are drawbacks of the common method of processing of frozen fruit raw material in the field of low- frequency mechanical vibrations. The expediency of improving its technical and economic characteristics is shown. The experimental device is an apparatus with a diameter of 0.146 m and having a flat bottom. A 3 mm thick flat plate with a diameter of0.142 m and having perforated holes with a diameter of 2.5 ... 3.5 mm is installed in the device. The plate is rigidly fixed on the rod which performs reciprocating motion through a crank mechanism and is connected with the motor shaft. The distance from the plate to the bottom is 0.045 m; the frequency of the plate oscillation is 20 ... 13.3 Hz, and the amplitude of 6, 7 and 8 mm. The device is sealed with a lid which is placed at a distance of 0.02 m from the free surface of the liquid. On the plate periphery a flange is set uniformly upward and downward having the overall height of 0.02 m. The content of dry water-soluble substances is measured with refractometer. Carrying out the experiments we use cranberry collected in 2015 in the Mariinsk district of the Kemerovo region. A 300 gram batch of cranberry frozen at -18°C is placed in a space under and over the plate, 1200 ml of water at the temperature of 18 ± 2°C being poured into the vessel. Then the plate is set in motion. Processing is stopped when equilibrium in the system is reached. Basing on the obtained data the influence of the studied parameters on the extraction of dry water-soluble substances has been established: the diameter of the holes is the most influential parameter while the amplitude of oscillations is less influential but interacting with other parameters it does influence the process. Experimentally-statistical model valid for the studied system in the range of parameter changes has been obtained. The optimization of parameters using Newton's method has been fulfilled. It has been shown that in this case the content of dry substances in the extract increases by almost 2 times in comparison with the known method.
The paper deals with the preparation of the wafer dough, the main characteristics and methods for evaluating its quality. The design of the dough mixer to prepare the wafer dough in a vacuum medium has been proposed. The presence of vacuum provides a differential pressure for transporting the dough ingredients from one container to another and intensifies the kneading of the dough, reduces the dough kneading time and the specific energy consumption. The experiments carried out on the experimental setup made it possible to determine the optimum technological parameters of the wafer dough kneading process: the kneading time, the pressure drop in the dough mixer and the rheological parameters of the wafer dough. It has been established that the selection of the rational time of the dough kneading makes it possible to regulate the degree of its aeration and to improve the quality of the baked wafer sheets. The kneading time required for achieving the degree of homogeneity of its structure and readiness for its use for baking waffle sheets has been determined on the basis of the analysis of its morphology and minimum values of dynamic viscosity. The experiments have shown that the full cycle of kneading the dough (taking into account the time for loading of the original components and that for unloading of the finished dough) is 80 seconds. During an hour the proposed dough mixer can carry out 44 complete kneading cycles of the wafer dough, its productivity being 330 kg/h. It is shown that the use of the proposed dough mixer makes it possible to reduce the specific energy consumption for the preparation of the wafer dough by 1.5 times as compared to the serial samples of turbo-mixers.
SPECIALIZED PRODUCT FOR WATER-SALT BALANCE IMPROVEMENT IN THE BODY OF WORKERS OF HOT WORK SHOPS OF METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES
A concentrate of non-alcoholic beverage has been developed to improve the water-salt balance in the body of workers of hot work shops of metallurgical enterprises. The recipe composition of the drink which includes active forms of minerals - magnesium, sodium, potassium and chlorine - is scientifically grounded. The composition includes organic acids such as lemon acid and apple acid to ensure faster and full absorption of minerals. Production technology includes the preparation of raw material, its dosing and sieving, mixing of components, quality control, prepackaging, packing, marking and storage. The use of a high capacity mixer under moderate technological conditions ensures homogeneity of the mixtures obtained and the quality of the product. Sanitary hygienic and sanitary-toxicological studies of the beverage concentrate safety were carried out at the end of 15 months of storage and showed the compliance of the tested factors with permissible standards. Established have been shelf life, storage conditions (1 year in a dry place at 25 ± 5оС) and nutritional value characterizing the functional property of a specialized product. According to thedeveloped methodical recommendations one glass (200 cm3) of the reconstituted drink is consumed by workers 5 times during the shift which ensures guaranteed supply of the body with necessary nutrients providing 60% of sodium, 48% of potassium, 50% of magnesium, 56% of chlorides of daily requirements. The effectiveness of a specialized product in the program of therapeutic- preventive nutrition in organized groups of workers at hot work shops of metallurgical enterprises is shown. The drink concentrate is approved and produced at the enterprises of the "Art Life" company in the city of Tomsk.
The article presents the results of monitoring of the study on the current state of nutrition of children of different age groups at secondary schools in Primorsky Krai (Vladivostok city, Nakhodka city, Arsenyev town, Lesozavodsk town). Schoolchildren’s health directly related to the violation of the principles of rational nutrition has been defined. It has been revealed that the incidence of digestive organs diseases of children and adolescents in Primorsky Krai exceeds the average data across Russia up to 40%. The consumption and deficiency of certain vitamins, micro- and macroelements is also associated with the food factor. The dependence between the quality of food services and the condition of the material and technical base of catering enterprises of educational institutions, the qualification of personnel, and the cost of meals have been established. The level of diseases of children and adolescents directly related to the violation of the principles of rational nutrition which can be a result of the children’s lack of basic knowledge about dietary cultures has been determined. The following problems in the organization of catering in schools in Primorsky Krai have been found: violation of the sanitary and epidemiological condition in the kitchens, violation of cooking technology as well as the storage conditions and shelf-life of food products, deviations from food standards, lack of proper documentation confirming the quality and safety of food products etc. Basing on the results of the current research a number of measures aimed at improving the quality of schoolchildren food are proposed. Special attention is paid to the development of a schoolchildren diet plan taking into account regional socio-economic, climatic and other characteristics.
Freezing is one of the most common methods of preserving vegetables. Frozen vegetable semi-finished products are characterized by high relevance, adaptability of usage; therefore, widening of frozen vegetable assortment due to the use of local raw materials having high nutritional value has important social significance. Rhubarb is a promising raw material for processing due to high content of biologically active substances and wide usage in food service industry, confectionery industry, and medicine. The purpose of the study was to determine the ability of local rhubarb petioles to freezing and long storage in terms of some qualityfactors (organoleptic, biochemical, microbiological ones). The study of qualitative profiles was carried out using conventional standard methods. The technology of production of frozen rhubarb petioles consisted of preparatory (sorting, washing, peeling, slicing, washing, draining, packaging, sealing) and main (freezing) stages. It is established that the freezing temperature of minus 32°C does not significantly effect the organoleptic quality (4.76 points for fresh and 4.50 points for frozen goods); the content of organic acids and pectin increased by 10 and 5.9%, respectively; sugar and vitamin C contents decreased by 5.3 and 7.1%. The ability of frozen rhubarb petioles for long-term storage under standard conditions has been proved. They are 12 months, 30 and 7 days at minus 18°C, to minus 12°C and minus 8°C, respectively, under relative humidity of 90-95%, their quality (organoleptic, biochemical) and sanitary (mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic, as well as pathogenic microorganisms, yeast organisms and fungi, E. coli bacteria) factors remaining stable. Nutritional value of frozen rhubarb petioles is as follows: carbohydrate - 3.0 g; pectin - 3.2 g; organic acids - 1.0 g; energy value -14.5 kcal/100 g.
EVALUATION OF QUALITY AND AUTHENTICITY OF FRUIT RAW MATERIAL USING FTIR SPECTROSCOPY OF FRUSTRATED TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
The use of FTIR spectroscopy to determine the authenticity of the raw material has been actively applied in recent years. This method has several advantages: one can examine any of the samples, in any form or state of aggregation - solids and liquids, powders, pastes, granules, suspensions, fibers, etc. The study of the obtained IR spectra of fruit raw material has shown that each type of raw material has differences in patters, in the degree of intensity of absorption bands and the area under the spectral absorption curve that appears to be determined by chemical composition characteristics of raw materials. It has been found that using the method of FTIR spectroscopy of frustrated total internal reflection one can obtain IR spectra of individual fruit raw material. It is experimentally proved that FTIR attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy method allows identification of fruit raw materials. The obtained individual IR spectra and spectral characteristics (absorption band intensity and the area under the spectral absorption curve) are strictly specific to each type of raw material and due, apparently, the morphological features of structure and chemical composition. They allow us to identify species when introducing the standard sample spectrum into the instrument library. The investigation of the possibility of applying the method of FTIR spectroscopy to identify the fruit raw material in complex food systems has shown that this method allows us to determine the presence of the fruit raw material in the product, but it is impossible to identify the species it belongs to.
ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF LABOUR RESOURCES THAT DETERMINE PERSONNEL SECURITY AS A COMPONENT OF ECONOMIC SECURITY
The operation and development of enterprises depend largely on economic security which is composed of several functional components that depend on the industry and the nature of existing problems in business. Special attention is paid to personnel security as one of the components of economic security. The purpose of the analysis of personnel security is to identify the factors that determine personnel security and the level of employment security. The analysis and evaluation should be an importantcomponent for the development of labour security strategy of the enterprise in the framework of the policy of economic development. Currently, there are different methods to analyze the labour resources and their status, but their use does not always provide an opportunity to determine the adequacy of certain factors. The uncertainty arises that prevents to characterize the situation in a specific organization more objectively. The study shows the problems of objective analysis of personnel security, reviews and analyzes its components and proposes the method of analysis of personnel security on the basis of fuzzy sets, which allows us to calculate the impact of each component on its value with the greatest degree of certainty. Using the method of fuzzy sets the personnel security of the public corporation “Khleboob''edineniye Voskhod” has been assessed which enabled a more objective analysis. A qualitative assessment of the impact of such factors as: average wages; the incidence of injuries; the level of saturation with specialists; the level of professional training of employees; the average age of workers; the proportion of young workers on the level of personnel security of the enterprise has been given. The analyzed period was five years (2011-2015). According to the analysis the level of personnel security is decreasing beginning from 2013. The reason for personnel security decline of the enterprise is the reduction of the number of specialists especially young ones in the total structure of employees as well as the worsening of the dynamics of personnel qualification improvement. The measures to improve human security of the public corporation “Khleboob''edineniye Voskhod” have been proposed.
Considered are enterprises of food industry, connected with technological integration of the production and processing of grain (grain procurement enterprises, flourmills, bakery plants). It is proved that the bakery plant is the final link in the "agriculture - grain procurement enterprises - grain processing" technology chain of grain product sub complex of Russia. That’s why; the quality and quantity of their products, as well as financial and economic results of their activities largely depend on the efficiency of crop production, grain elevators and flour mills. Analytical calculations confirm the conclusion that the quality of raw materials, and first of all, the baking properties of flour affect both the quality and the cost of the bakery products. In the turn, the quality of flour depends on the quality of grain raw materials produced in agriculture and adjusted to the required conditions in the process of improving and storage at grain elevators. It is proved that to-day the production of valuable wheat and durum high-class wheat has been reduced considerably.
The article considers the problem of improving the range of confectionery from the standpoint of satisfaction of consumer demand in functional foods. The analysis of domestic and foreign scientific literature on promising directions of improving the range of functional confectionery is given. The article provides information on volumes of staple foodstuffs consumption in the Russian Federation taking into account the consumer basket. Identified is the diet imbalance as far as basic food substances, vitamins, micro- and macroelements are concerned. The structure of confectionery market in Russia and the Kemerovo region, as well as trends of its development is analyzed. The choice of the priority range for the development of functional flour confectionery products that meet modern requirements of healthy eating and Strategies for increasing the quality of food products in the Russian Federation until 2030 is substantiated. Doing their research the authors applied the methods of systematization, analysis and synthesis; sociological andstatistical ones. The research has been carried out on the base of the "Kemerovo technological Institute of food industry (University)". The new data compensating the lack of information about the dynamics and trends of the consumer market of flour confectionery products in Russia and abroad have been obtained. They also helped us to justify the need for innovative approaches to the increase of resource base, and the development of formulations and technologies of functional confectionery to improve their range. The findings have theoretical value and can be used by scientists and practitioners, whose activities are connected with the formation of the product range and the development of functional flour confectionery products.