Rus / Eng

ISSN 2074-9414 (Print)

ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)
Publishing office, Editorial office:

Kemerovo State University

Alexander Prosekov

Executive Editor:
Anna Loseva

Publishing Editor:
Alena Kiryakova

Online Media Registration Number:
EL FS 77 - 72312 (01.02.2018)

6 Krasnaya Str.,
Kemerovo 650000,
tel.: +7 (3842) 58-80-24
Submit manuscript

Article information

Views: 1342


Gorbatovskiy A., Department of Chemistry, candidate of technical sciences , Hulunbuir University ,

Rakityanskaya I., Department of Physical Chemistry, candidate of chemical sciences , Perm State National Research University ,

Kaledina M., Department of Technology of Raw Materials and Animal Products, docent, candidate of technical sciences , V.Ya. Gorin Belgorod State Agricultural University ,

Year 2020 Issue 2 UDC 664.959:597.555.51
DOI 10.21603/2074-9414-2020-2-361-371
Abstract Introduction. Cod is of great importance for fishing and fish processing. The main cod-based food products are frozen fish, frozen fillet, and canned cod liver. To increase the degree of processing and reduce the amount of waste, fish producers obtain minced cod from mechanically deboned leftovers of filleting. Minced fish has specific technological parameters, which limits its use in food industry. The research objective was to develop a new commercial technology of minced cod products.
Study objects and methods. The research featured minced Atlantic cod. The fish was processed without thawing to reduce losses from defrosting, microbiological spoilage, and oxidation. The final product was obtained by cutting blocks of frozen minced cod on a cutter and then stabilizing the food mass with vegetable textures and food additives. The methods included selection and determination of the rheological and sensory properties of samples processed on industrial equipment. The optimal formulation was chosen according to the best results of coextruder processing.
Results and discussion. Using a cutter improved the processing quality of the mechanically deboned minced cod. The samples of cold minced cod proved easier to process at a lower temperature of –7°C and below, if compared to the samples of warm minced fish (0°C and above). Adding 15% of a sunflower oil and water emulsion improved the sensory properties of finished products, e.g. fish balls in bread crumbs. Adding 4% of wheat fiber improved the texture of the products, while a higher dose made them dry and crumbly. 20% of crushed soy granules resulted in a rough texture, typical of chopped fish products.
Conclusion. Rheological and organoleptic properties of highly watered mechanically deboned minced cod, as well as the texture of the finished products, could be improved by adding vegetable fillers and emulsions at a low temperature.
Keywords Gadidae, Gadus morhua, food products, cutting, frozen fish, fish processing
Artice information Received June 11, 2020
Accepted June 26, 2020
Available online June 29, 2020
For citation Gorbatovskiy АА, Rakityanskaya IL, Kaledina MV. Food Processing from Mechanically Deboned Minced Cod. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2020;50(2):361–371. (In Russ.). DOI:
  • The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Meeting the sustainable development goals. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization; 2018. 227 p.
  • Simpson BK. Food biochemistry and food processing. Wiley-Blackwell; 2012. 912 p.
  • Pham QT. Refrigeration in food preservation and processing. In: Bhattacharya S, editor. Conventional and advanced food processing technologies. John Wiley and Sons; 2015. pp. 357–386. DOI:
  • Bechtel PJ. Properties of different fish processing by-products from pollock, cod and salmon. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2003;27(2):101–116. DOI:
  • Zhang M, Sparrow S, Pantoja A, Bechtel PJ. Crop nutrient recovery from applied fish coproducts. In: Bechtel PJ, Smiley S, editors. A sustainable future: fish processing by-products. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program; 2010. pp. 87–104.
  • Bechtel PJ. By-products from seafood processing for aquaculture and animal feeds. In: Shahidi F, editor. Maximising the value of marine by-products. Woodhead Publishing; 2007. pp. 435–439 DOI:
  • Bechtel PJ, Johnson RB. Nutritional properties of pollock, cod and salmon processing by-products. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 2004;13(2):125–142. DOI:
  • Bechtel PJ, Oliveira AC. Chemical characterization of liver lipid and protein from cold-water fish species. Journal of Food Science. 2006;71(6):S480–S485. DOI:
  • Shahidi F, Li Q. Biologically active peptides from foods. In: Ustunol Z, editor. Applied food protein chemistry. John Wiley and Sons; 2015. pp. 75–98. DOI:
  • Daniela B, Anca IN, Peter R. Trends in fish processing technologies. New York: CRC Press; 2018. 356 p.
  • Backi CJ. Methods for (industrial) thawing of fish blocks: A review. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2018;41(1). DOI:
  • Li B, Sun DW. Novel methods for rapid freezing and thawing of foods – a review. Journal of Food Engineering. 2002;54(3):175–182. DOI:
  • Ghaly AE, Dave D, Budge S, Brooks M. Fish spoilage mechanisms and preservation techniques: review. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 2010;7(7):859–877.
  • Gorbatovskiy AA. Razrabotka retseptur i tekhnologii farshevykh izdeliy iz presnovodnykh ryb slozhnogo syrʹevogo sostava [Development of recipes and technologies for minced products from freshwater fish of complex raw material composition]. Cand. eng. sci. diss. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University of Low Temperatures and Food Technologies; 2006. 124 p.
  • Codex Alimentarius. Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) Online Database [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 14]. Available from:
  • Kim S-K, Venkatesan J. Introduction to seafood processing by-products. In: Kim S-K, editor. Seafood processing by-products. New York: Springer; 2014. pp. 1–9. DOI:
  • Mohan CO, Carvajal-Millan E, Ravishankar CN. Research methodology in food sciences: integrated theory and practice. New Jersey: Apple Academic Press; 2018. 394 p.
  • Archer M, Edmonds M, George M. Seafood thawing. Seafish Research and Development; 2008. 45 p.
  • Sampels S. The effects of storage and preservation technologies on the quality of fish products: a review. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2015;39(6):1206–1215. DOI: