Rus / Eng

ISSN 2074-9414 (Print)

ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)
Publishing office, Editorial office:

Kemerovo State University

Alexander Prosekov

Executive Editor:
Anna Loseva

Publishing Editor:
Alena Kiryakova

Online Media Registration Number:
EL FS 77 - 72312 (01.02.2018)

6 Krasnaya Str.,
Kemerovo 650000,
tel.: +7 (3842) 58-80-24
Submit manuscript

Article information

Views: 182


Gilmanov K., Cand.Sci.(Bio.), Researcher, All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,

Semipyatniy V., Cand.Sci.(Eng.), All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,

Bigaeva A., Junior Researcher, All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,

Vafin R., Dr.Sci.(Bio.), Professor of the RAS, Senior Researcher, All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,

Turovskaya S., Senior Researcher, All-Russian Dairy Research Institute,

Year 2020 Issue 3 UDC 637.07:637.05
DOI 10.21603/2074-9414-2020-3-525-535
Abstract Introduction. High-quality dairy products depend on the properties of raw materials. Milk is the basic raw material for all dairy products. Its quality is subject to requirements of biological safety, and its physicochemical and technological properties comply with strict indicators. ϰ-casein gene is a basic milk protein. Its allelic variants affect milk productivity, as well as its composition and technological properties, e.g. cheeseability and heat resistance. The research objective was to develop a new method for determining the ratio of the relative proportions of selection-significant kappa-casein gene alleles in bulk cow’s milk powder by means of molecular genetics and bioinformation system. The method can help to test raw materials for further processing rationality.
Study objects and methods. The research included a genetic analysis of samples of bulk whole milk powder, bulk powdered skimmed milk, and bulk raw milk. The developed method involved DNA extraction, combined PCR-RFLP technique, electrophoretic results, and analysis detection of information data using new mathematical algorithms and software.
Results and discussion. The ratio of the relative proportions of the kappa-casein gene alleles in milk powder was determined using primer sets JK5 and JK3, as well as restriction endonuclease HinfI for PCR-RFLP analysis. The experiment showed satisfactory reproducibility and interpretation of the obtained data. The program provided a ratio calculation of the kappa-casein gene alleles relative proportions in the studied milk powder samples, expressed as a percentage of the A allele proportion with additional indication of the absolute and relative errors. It also placed the information block of the generated numerical indicators into the percentage scale.
Conclusion. The developed methodology was implemented by a set of laboratory procedures. The new specialized program «Calculation of the relative proportions ratio of ϰ-casein alleles in bulk milk» is on open access. It provides a correct and prompt data interpretation, generated during the analysis of dry milk raw materials of bulk origin.
Keywords Milk products, casein, heat resistance, cheese suitability, allele, CSN3, PCR, RFLP, algorithms
Artice information Received August 13, 2020
Accepted September 25, 2020
Available online October 8, 2020
For citation Gilmanov KhKh, Semipyatnyi VK, Bigaeva AV, Vafin RR, Turovskaya SN. New determination method for the ratio of the relative proportions of ϰ-casein alleles in milk powder. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2020;50(3):525–535. (In Russ.). DOI:
  1. Belyakova ZYu, Makeeva IA, Stratonova NV, Pryanichnikova NS, Bogatyrev AN, Diel F, et al. Role of organic products in the implementation of the state policy of healthy nutrition in the Russian Federation. Foods and Raw Materials. 2018;6(1):4–13. DOI:
  2. Vesnina A, Prosekov A, Kozlova O, Atuchin V. Genes and eating preferences, their roles in personalized nutrition. Genes. 2020;11(4). DOI:
  3. Galstyan AG, Petrov AN, Illarionova EE, Semipyatniy VK, Turovskaya SN, Ryabova AE, et al. Effects of critical fluctuations of storage temperature on the quality of dry dairy product. Journal of Dairy Science. 2019;102(12):10779–10789. DOI:
  4. Yurova EA, Meldenberg DN, Parfenova EYu. Criteria of the raw milk assessment used to obtain products with guaranteed quality. Dairy industry. 2019;(4):26–29. (In Russ.). DOI:
  5. Kharitonov VD, Sherstneva NE, Kharitonov DV, Yurova EA, Kurchenko VP. Changes in physico-chemical properties of milk under ultraviolet radiation. Foods and Raw Materials. 2019;7(1):161–167. DOI:
  6. Donnik IM, Vafin RR, Galstyan AG, Krivonogova AS, Shaeva AY, Gilmanov KhKh, et al. Genetic identification of bovine leukaemia virus. Food and Raw Materials. 2018;6(2):314–324. DOI:
  7. Galstyan AG, Aksenova LM, Lisitsyn AB, Oganesyants LA, Petrov AN. Modern approaches to storage and effective processing of agricultural products for obtaining high quality food products. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2019;89(2):211–213. (In Russ.). DOI:
  8. Bonfatti V, de Freitas DR, Lugo A, Vicario D, Carnier P. Effects of the detailed protein composition of milk on curd yield and composition measured by model micro-cheese curd making of individual milk samples. Journal of Dairy Science. 2019;102(9):7863–7873. DOI:
  9. >Huppertz T. Heat stability of milk. In: McSweeney PLH, O’Mahony JA, editors. Advanced dairy chemistry. Volume 1B: Proteins: applied aspects. New York: Springer; 2016. pp. 179–196. DOI:
  10. Topnikova EV, Mordvinova VA, Sviridenko GM, Danilova ES. Study of fatty acid composition of milk for cheese production. Food systems. 2019;2(4):34–37. DOI:
  11. Neamț RI, Saplacan G, Acatincai S, Cziszter LT, Gavojdian D, Ilie DE. The influence of CSN3 and LGB polymorphisms on milk production and chemical composition in Romanian Simmental cattle. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 2017;64(3):493–497. DOI:
  12. Asmarasari SA, Sumantri C, Gunawan A, Taufik E, Anggraeni A. Candidate gene of milk protein for genetic improvement of dairy cattle. Wartazoa: Buletin Ilmu Peternakan Dan Kesehatan Hewan Indonesia. 2019;29(2):97–107. DOI: https://
  13. Bijl E, de Vries R, van Valenberg H, Huppertz T, van Hooijdonk T. Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: genetic variants and glycosylation of k-casein. International Dairy Journal. 2014;34(1):135–141. DOI: https://doi. org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2013.08.001.
  14. Miluchová M, Gábor M, Candrák J, Trakovická A, Candráková K. Association of HindIII-polymorphism in kappacasein gene with milk, fat and protein yield in Holstein cattle. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 2018;65(3):403–407. DOI: https://doi. org/10.18388/abp.2017_2313.
  15. Ionel NR, Ilie D, Toma CL. Effects of sires genotyping for k-Casein on B allele frequency in Romanian Brown Cattle. Research Journal of Biotechnology. 2017;12(12):9–13.
  16. Tyulkin SV, Vafin RR, Zagidulin LR, Akhmetov TM, Petrov AN, Diel F. Technological properties of milk of cows with different genotypes of kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin. Foods and Raw Materials. 2018;6(1):154–162. DOI: https://doi. org/10.21603/2308-4057-2018-1-154-162.
  17. Wedholm A, Larsen LB, Lindmark-Månsson H, Karlsson AH, Andrén A. Effect of protein composition on the cheesemaking properties of milk from individual dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006;89(9):3296–3305. DOI: jds.S0022-0302(06)72366-9.
  18. Donnik IM, Loretts OG, Bykova OA, Shkuratova IA, Isaeva AG, Krivonogova AS. Genetic formation factors of dairy efficiency and quality of cattle milk. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;4(11):4163–4169. DOI: https://doi. org/10.5281/zenodo.1048989.
  19. Yefremov AA, Karamaev SV, Soboleva NV. Technological properties of milk produced by cows of different genotypes as to kappa-casein. Izvestia Orenburg State Agrarian University. 2011;32(1):157–160. (In Russ.).
  20. Pokorska J, Kułaj D, Dusza M, Żychlińska-buczek J, Makulska J. New rapid method of DNA isolation from milk somatic cells. Animal Biotechnology. 2016;27(2):113–117. DOI:
  21. Liao J, Liu Y. Purification procedures meaningfully influence DNA quantification in milk. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2018;94:8–12. DOI: