ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Development of Lactic acid Microorganisms during Fermentation of Substrate with an Increased Concentration of Carbohydrates

Introduction. Creating favorable conditions for the development of lactic acid microorganisms is one of the main factors in obtaining high-quality fermented products. The cycle of their life directly depends on the amount and composition of carbohydrates in plant tissue. Since a significant part of carbohydrates is consumed at the initial stage of fermentation process, additional fortification is needed. The research objective was to study the development rate of lactic acid microorganisms during the fermentation of plant substrate with a modified carbohydrate composition. Study objects and methods. The research featured model medium based on white cabbage of the Parus variety. The medium was fermented with different strains of lactic acid microorganisms: at the first stage of fermentation – Leuconostoc mesenteroides, at the second stage – Lactobacillus casei VKM 536, Lactobacillus plantarum VKM B-578, Lactobacillus brevis VKM B-1309, and their paired consortia. The initial plant material was subjected to grinding and removal of native microflora for the development of target lactic acid microorganisms, then inoculated with L. mesenteroides. The target lactic acid microorganisms were introduced after the first stage of fermentation with simultaneous adjustment of the carbohydrate composition. Results and discussion. The technology included modes of controlled two-stage microbial transformation of plant raw materials using modification of the carbohydrate composition of the substrate. A number of experiments made it possible to select the optimal composition of the consortium and establish the optimal fermentation time at the main stage of microbial processing. When the plant substrate was fermented by the consortium of L. casei + L. plantarum with an increased carbohydrate component, the decrease in the concentration was quite small: after 5–30 days, the decrease in the concentration of microorganisms did not exceed one order of magnitude, which was insignificant at an initial concentration of eight orders of magnitude. In other consortia, the decrease in the concentration of microorganisms was more pronounced. Conclusion. The fortification of the vegetable substrate with carbohydrates made it possible to maintain the concentration of lactic acid microorganisms at a level comparable to the concentration at the time of inoculation. The concentrations of microorganisms varied slightly in both monocultures and their paired consortia during the entire main fermentation stage of the model medium with a modified carbohydrate component. By the end of the main fermentation stage, the concentration of microorganisms did not fall below 107 CFU/g. Therefore, the resulting system “microflora – substrate” proved to have probiotic properties. The study can be used to develop new technological modes of controlled step-by-step fermentation of plant raw materials in order to improve the quality indicators of the final product.
Fermentation, white cabbage, microorganisms, consortia, medium, sugars
  1. Cuvas-Limon RB, Nobre C, Cruz M, Rodriguez-Jasso RM, Ruiz HA, Loredo-Trevino A, et al. Spontaneously fermented traditional beverages as a source of bioactive compounds: an overview. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;1–23.
  2. Szutowska J, Rybicka I, Pawlak-Lemanska K, Gwiazdowska D. Spontaneously fermented curly kale juice: Microbiological quality, nutritional composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Journal of Food Science. 2020;85(4):1248–1255.
  3. Yang X, Hu W, Xiu Z, Jiang A, Yang X, Saren G, et al. Microbial community dynamics and metabolome changes during spontaneous fermentation of northeast sauerkraut from different households. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2020;11.
  4. Albuquerque TG, Nunes MA, Bessada SMF, Costa HS, Oliveira MBPP. Biologically active and health promoting food components of nuts, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables, cereals, and legumes. In: Pico Y, editor. Chemical Analysis of Food. Techniques and Applications. Academic Press; 2020. pp. 609–656.
  5. Szutowska J. Functional properties of lactic acid bacteria in fermented fruit and vegetable juices: a systematic literature review. European Food Research and Technology. 2020;246(3):357–372.
  6. Behera SS, Ray RC, Zdolec N. Lactobacillus plantarum with functional properties: An approach to increase safety and shelf-life of fermented foods. BioMed Research International. 2018;2018.
  7. Marco ML, Heeney D, Binda S, Cifelli CJ, Cotter PD, Foligne B, et al. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2017;44:94–102.
  8. Zhao W, Liu Y, Latta M, Ma W, Wu Z, Chen P. Probiotics database: a potential source of fermented foods. International Journal of Food Properties. 2019;22(1):197–216.
  9. Monika, Savitri, Kumar V, Kumari A, Angmo K, Bhalla TC. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from traditional pickles of Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017;54(7):1945–1952.
  10. Sáez GD, Flomenbaum L, Zárate G. Lactic acid bacteria from argentinean foods: Isolation and characterization for their potential use as vegetable starters. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2018;56(3):398–410.
  11. Yang X, Hu W, Jiang A, Xiu Z, Ji Y, Guan Y, et al. Effect of salt concentration on quality of northeast sauerkraut fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum salt effects on northeast sauerkraut fermentation. Food Bioscience. 2019;30.
  12. Emser K, Barbosa J, Teixeira P, Bernardo de Morais AMM. Lactobacillus plantarum survival during the osmotic dehydration and storage of probiotic cut apple. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017;38:519–528.
  13. Ye J-H, Huang L-Y, Terefe NS, Augustin MA. Fermentation-based biotransformation of glucosinolates, phenolics and sugars in retorted broccoli puree by lactic acid bacteria. Food Chemistry. 2019;286:616–623.
  14. Torres S, Veron H, Contreras L, Isla MI. An overview of plant-autochthonous microorganisms and fermented vegetable foods. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2020;9(2):112–123.
  15. Oh YJ, Kim TS, Moon HW, Lee SY, Lee SY, Ji GE, et al. Lactobacillus plantarum PMO 08 as a probiotic starter culture for plant-based fermented beverages. Molecules. 2020;25(21).
  16. Zabat M, Sano WH, Wurster JI, Cabral DJ, Belenky P. Microbial community analysis of sauerkraut fermentation reveals a stable and rapidly established community. Foods. 2018;7(5).
  17. Kuznetsova OA, Dydykin AS, Aslanova MA. High priority scientific research in the field of population nutrition. Meat Industry. 2018;(7):8–12. (In Russ.).
  18. Kondratenko VV, Posokina NE, Semenova JA, Tereshonok VI. Study of the dynamics of the development of lactic acid microorganisms in the two-stage process of fermenting cabbage varieties “Pams”. Vegetable Crops of Russia. 2019;49(5):88–93. (In Russ.).
  19. Kondratenko VV, Posokina NE, Lyalina OYu, Kolokolova AYu, Glazkov SV. Correction of the carbohydrate composition of raw materials for microbial transformation based on microbial consortia. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2020;50(4):749–762. (In Russ.).
  20. Semenova JA, Posokina NE, Tereshonok VI. Influence of carbohydrate correction of raw materials on the growth of lactic acid microorganisms in the process of directed fermentation of vegetables. Vegetable Crops of Russia. 2020;(6):99–103. (In Russ.).
How to quote?
Kondratenko VV, Posokina NE, Kolokolova AYu, Zakharova AI. Development of Lactic acid Microorganisms during Fermentation of Substrate with an Increased Concentration of Carbohydrates. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2021;51(3):584–592. (In Russ.).
About journal