ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)
Alexander Yu. Prosekov, Editor-in-Chief, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences
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Journal «Food Processing: Techniques and Technology»

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Founded in 1998, Food Processing: Techniques and Technology (the Journal) is an open access, double-blind peer-reviewed quarterly journal that encompasses a wide range of food research areas in Russia and neighboring regions. Articles are published in Russian; metadata, table headers, and figure captions are given in English.

The Journal’s mission is to present, integrate and disseminate the most important results of fundamental and applied research in the food industry of Russia and the CIS countries. We aim to create scientific content that would reflect the current state of food science in the post-Soviet space.

Volume 53, Issue 1 (2023)

The Impact of Technological Factors on the Air Phase of Defrosted Fermented-Milk Desserts
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Whipped desserts made of fermented milk are very popular. They also make it possible to expand the range of functional products. The consumer properties of defrosted desserts depend on the air phase. This research featured the impact of different formulations and methods on the dispersion of the air phase in the process of defrosting fermented-milk desserts.
The study featured several samples of whipped fermented desserts. Sample 1 contained gelatin; Sample 2 contained pectin. Samples 1 and 3 had different contents of fermented foundation while Samples 3 and 5 differed in the amount of gelatin stabilizer. Sample 4 contained a whey protein concentrate. The dispersion of structural elements was measured using microstructural methods.
The experiments included the quality parameters of mixes, as we ll as the dispersion of air phase in the frozen state and after 24 h of storage at 4 ± 2°C. The viscosity of the sample with pectin exceeded that with gelatin by 3.8 times. Extra whey protein increased the viscosity by 4.4 times and the overrun – by 1.4 times. In the whey protein sample, the average diameter of air bubbles was 36 μm after 24 h of storage at 4 ± 2°C and 50 μm after 12 months, while in the sample without protein it was 48 and 86 μm, respectively. Sample 3, which had a greater fermentation, demonstrated a smaller average diameter of air bubbles (by 21 μm) after 24 h of storage than the sample with yogurt. The sample with extra gelatin increased the overrun by 1.3 times and negatively affected the dispersion of the air phase. After 24 h of storage, the average diameter of the air bubbles in the sample with an increased content of stabilizer was higher by 27 μm. The air phase was less stable in the sample with pectin.
The research established the effect of gelling agents, whey protein concentrates, and fermented foundation on the dispersion and stability of the air phase in fermented-milk desserts. Pectin appeared to have a negative effect on the air phase during defrosting and caused excessive condensation and drainage. The increasing amount of fermented base and gelatin, as well as the use of whey protein concentrates, increased the stability of the air phase during 24 h of storage at 4 ± 2°C. The research results could be used to develop new production technologies of overrun fermented desserts and their preservation in the defrosted state.
Sonochemical Microstructuring of Sodium Alginate to Increase its Effectiveness in Bakery
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Algae are a source of many biologically active compounds that can be used in food production to expand the range of functional products. For instance, sodium alginate possesses a complex of scientifically proven biologically active properties. In the food industry, it usually serves as a thickener, stabilizer, gelatio n agent, and water-retaining agent. The biological activity of this polysaccharide and its effect on the technological properties of food systems depend on the molecular weight and particle size uniformity. The present research objective was to study the method of sonochemical microstructuring of sodium alginate to increase its biological activity and efficiency as part of v arious bakery formulations.
The research featured alginate gels, yeast suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and bakery products. The sonochemical microstructuring of sodium alginate involved a low-frequency ultrasonic treatment at 240, 435, and 630 W/L and 50°C for 20, 25, and 30 min. The effect of the treatment included the following indicators: particle morphology vs. distribution of the hydrodynamic particle diameter in a dispersed medium, antioxidant activity, dynamic viscosity, in vitro bioactivity, and bioavailability against Paramecium caudatum and S. cerevisiae. The quality assessment of bakery products followed State Standard 58233-2018.
The process of sonochemical microstructuring depolymerized large particles of sodium alginate into shorter ones: 5670 nm – 30.6%, 502 nm – 53.4%, 56.1 nm – 16%. It increased the antioxidant activity by 7 times and the potential in vitro bioactivity by 3.9%. The microstructured sodium alginate improved the fermentation activity of S. cerevisiae and reduced the yeast biomass by 8%. The resulting bakery products had a greater porosity by 5.9% and antioxidant activity by 3.7 times.
The sonochemical microstructuring reduced the particle size of sodium alginate, as well as increased its biological activity. The sonochemically microstructured sodium alginate demonstrated a great potential for baked foods.
Trace Elements in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus): Exposure Routes
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Urbanization leads to chemical pollution. Contaminants accumulate in feed and enter animal body through digestive tract. Numerous studies have established that the level of mineral content in the environment reflects the technogenic load on the territory and is transmitted in the system through products of plant and animal origin, which can be used to prevent and correct elementoses.
This research featured feathers of Indian peafowls Pavo cristatus (n = 33), diet components (n = 303), their drinking water (n = 94), soil (n = 123), and snow (n = 204). The micro-elemental profile was defined using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The samples were obtained from zoological institutions of Mosco w, Ivanovo, and Yaroslavl.
As for the feathers, the average Zn accumulation level was 122.74 ± 9.64 mg/kg, Cu – 5.36 ± 0.05 mg/kg, Fe – 508.06 ± 56.84 mg/kg, Pb – 6.75 ± 1.13 mg/kg, Cd – 1.65 ± 0.26 mg/kg, and As – 0.61 ± 0.23 mg/kg. The variability of the concentration of microelements in the sample was as follows, %: Zn – 73.9, Cu – 94.3, Fe – 111.6, Pb – 150.0, Cd – 136.88, and As – 203.87. The average levels of accumulation of elements in the biological media decreased in the following order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As. The share of Zn in the total of all determined elements was 0.7–48.0%, Cu – 0.04–2.8%, Fe – 46.2–92.8%, Pb – 0–2.5%, Cd – 0–2.5%, and As – 0–4.6%. The diet analyses showed the following results for Moscow, Ivanovo, and Yaroslavl, respectively: Zn – 11.35, 6.60, and 2.50 mg; Cu – 2.29, 0.75, and 0.41 mg; Fe – 55.83, 30.54, and 6.78 mg; Pb – 0.14, 0.18, and 0.01 mg; Cd – 0.02, 0.01, and 0.005 mg; As – 0.04, 0.02, and 0.002 mg. If the birds consumed all the food they received, the approximate total daily intake of the selected essential microelements Zn was 16.7–75.7% of the recommended daily intake, Cu – 13.7–76.3%, and Fe – 48.4–398.79%. Pb, Cd and As stayed within the daily norm. The oral route of intake was registered for Zn, Cu, and Fe in Yaroslavl and for Cd in all samples. Inhalation was registered as the main route of intake for Fe in Moscow and Ivanovo, as well as for As and Pb in Moscow. The highest intake of Pb was registered in Ivanovo and Yaroslavl.
The analysis revealed the multi-route and multi-environment exposure of urban birds to microelements, including heavy metals. The level of concentration of essential microelements in the biological media depended on the diet. Fe in Moscow and Ivanovo and As in all the samples came from the soil cover, which had a high content of these elements. The gross content of Pb in the soil samples from Moscow and the drinking water from Yaroslavl and Ivanovo demonstrated the greatest impact on the avian organism. The snow samples had the least effect on the el emental status of the bioenvironments.
Enzyme-Aided Treatment of Fruit Juice: A Review
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Enzymatic treatment is a common method of fruit juice production that facilitates juice extraction from plant cells. The choice of enzyme depends on the fruit composition. Pectinase and cellulase are the most popular enzymes while amylase remains less wide-spread. For some raw materials, enzymatic procedures are more efficient than mechanical comminution or thermal processing. The fruit juice industry uses enzymes for streamlining. Enzymes maximize juice extraction from raw materials and improve such processes as pressing, solid settling, and solid removal. Juices that underwent enzymatic treatment are clear and, as a result, more aesthetically appealing to consumers.
The review covered the most recent and influential publications on the enzyme treatment of fruit juices (2000–2021). The list of enzymes included pectinase, cellulase, and amylase. The research included the factors that affect the juice fermentation process, i.e., hydromodule, enzyme concentration, incubation time, temperature, and enzyme combination. The methods included data extraction, data analysis, and data compilation, as well as literature search and screening.
The review focuses on the effects that individual parameters have on specific responses, e.g., yield, viscosity, total soluble solids, acidity, turbidity, clarity, pigment concentration, phenolic content, color, and solids. A greater enzyme concentration, incubation time, and temperature decrease the viscosity of juice and turbidity but cause color changes. If used in different combinations and at different concentrations, enzymes boost the production of bael pulp, banana, sapodilla, durian, pawpaw, grape, white pitaya, and water melon juices. A longer incubation period improves the production of bael pulp, citron, date, and pawpaw juices. However, higher incubation temperatures seem to have no positive effect on the juice yield. Cellulases, pectinases, amylases, and their combinations are able to produce more fruit juice of higher quality with a more favorable time-temperature combination of incubation.
The optimal enzyme concentration, incubation time, and temperature can increase the juice yield. Therefore, enzymatic treatment is an effective method that ensures favorable properties of the finished product.
Conversion of Wheat Bran into Target Biosynthetic Products
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A more efficient bioconversion of renewable plant resources is a priority in modern biotechnology. An important aspect of the processing and pretreatment of cellulose raw materials is to obtain a high content of reducing substances in the final product. The present research objective was to determine the optimal conditions for the chemical transformation of plant polymers to obtain biologically valuable substances. The research results will reduce the final cost of biotechnological production.
This research featured wheat bran polymers treated with sulfuric acid and relied on a set of standard research methods. The degree of polymer conversion was tested on native and mechanically activated wheat bran fractions of 600, 200, and 100 microns. The kinetics of the high-temperature chemical hydrolysis was as follows: temperature – 120–130°C, sulfuric acid concentration – 0.6–0.9%, treatment time – 30–60 min, hydromodule – 1:8;9;10. The quantitative and qualitative composition of mono- and disaccharides of hydrolysates was determined using the high performance liquid chromatography method.
The composition of wheat bran showed a low content of lignin (7.55%) and a high content of pentosans (17.9%). The highest content of reducing substances in hydrolysates was 640 mg/g bran. The optimal technological conditions with the highest content of reducing substances were as follows: hydromodulus – 1:10, temperature – 120°C, treatment time – 45 min, and sulfuric acid concentration – 0.9%. The greatest change in the content of mono- and disaccharides of hydrolysates belonged to pentoses: 78.2 mg/g of bran (in terms of xylose). The amount of easily hydrolysable carbohydrates and wheat bran fiber decreased by 80 and 19%, respectively.
This research revealed the optimal parameters for the chemical hydrolysis of wheat bran to obtain biologically valuable carbohydrates. This area of research can be of practical use for producers of biofuels, chemicals, and food additives.
Resistance to Sulfur Dioxide as a Criterion for Selecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Organic Winemaking
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Sulfur dioxide is a popular conserving agent and antioxidant in winemaking. Unfortunately, it is bad for human health. Some yeast strains can reduce the dose of sulfur dioxide. Such yeasts should have good fermentation activity and dominate when inoculated into grape must. In addition, it should not synthesize sulfur dioxide and SO2-binding substances. The synthesis of sulfur dioxide and carbonyl compounds by yeast is related to the mechanisms of sulfur dioxide detoxification. The research objective was to study the relationship between the resistance of yeast to sulfur dioxide and its ability to synthesize sulfur dioxide and acetaldehyde during growth.
The study featured 17 yeast strains of the genus Saccharomyces. The yeasts were cultivated on grape must in a CGQ device until the stationary growth phase. The concentration of free and bound forms of sulfur dioxide was determined by titration, while that of aldehydes was determined by bisulfite method. The sulfite resistance of strains was measured by the growth response of yeast cells to sulfur dioxide using CGQ technology.
Yeast strains differed in the degree of sulfur dioxide resistance. The samples were divided according to the increase in the lag phase time: by ≥ 8 h (sensitive), by 2–6 h, without changes (resistant). At Wilks L = 0.228 and α = 0.05, the sensitive cultures in a SO2-free medium had the highest value of minimal generation time in the exponential growth phase (5.3 ± 2.1 h). The resistant samples demonstrated the highest synthesis of acetaldehyde (54.7 ± 11.1 mg/L) and sulfur dioxide (21.0 ± 10.3 mg/L). The second group cultures had the lowest content of SO2-bound forms in the medium (10.9 ± 4.2 mg/L) and were in an interposition in terms of other indicators.
The time it takes a yeast strain to adapt to sulfur dioxide can be used as a parameter for the primary culture selection in eco-winemaking. According to the physiological and biochemical profile, the resistant strains can be recommended for the production of SO2-low wines, while the samples from the second test group proved optimal for organic wines. Further research will expand the range of yeast strains and their indicators.
Effect of Whole Barley Tolokno on the Quality of Biscuits
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Benefit of dietary fiber has proven by clinical studies. Dietary fiber can be incorporated into food products with whole grain cereals. Whole barley tolokno is a valuable source of soluble dietary fiber β-glucans. As a result, it is often used in fortified bakery products. The research objective was to modify the dietary profile of biscuits by substituting refined wheat flour with barley tolokno.
The study featured refined wheat flour, barley tolokno, composite flours, model suspensions, and formulations of biscuits. Standard methods helped to measure the sensory profile, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition, structural characteristics, and mechanical properties of the research objects.
The content of dietary fiber in the flour and the tolokno was 3.7 and 19.8%, respectively. The fatty acid composition of the tolokno differed from that of the wheat flour. The content of oleic acid was 21.1 in the tolokno and 15.9% in the flour, while the content of linoleic acid was 46.8 in the tolokno and 54.0% in the flour. A greater proportion of tolokno in the composite flour led to an increase in the content of dietary fiber (3.7–11.8%), protein (11.5–12.8%), and fat (1.4–2.7%). The water and fat absorption capacity of composite flours increased by 125 and 65.7%, respectively, when the share of tolokno reached 50%. As the proportion of tolokno increased, the viscosity of the model suspensions rose from 3.1 to 17.3 Pa·s at a minimal shear rate. The water absorption capacity of the control sample was 190%: in the experimental biscuits, it rose from to 221 and 227% at 30 and 40% of tolokno, respectively. Extra tolokno also increased the content of dietary fiber in the biscuit, which reached 7.53% in the sample with 50% tolokno. The experimental biscuits were even in shape, surface, and porosity; they had a balanced taste and a pleasant smell with a slight grainy tint.
The optimal proportion of barley tolokno was 40%. This amount brought up the content of dietary fiber to 6.5 g per 100 g. The resulting biscuits could be classified as products rich in dietary fiber (Technical Regulations of the Customs Union 022/2011). The research made it possible to expand the range of functional biscuits fortified with native dietary fiber and whole grain raw materials.
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Soy Protein
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Soy continues to be one of the top sources of vegetable protein. Structurally modified soy proteins and processed products are used as part of functional foods. Enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins have different degrees of hydrolysis and functional profiles, hence the constant search for the optimal hydrolysis parameters. The present research objective was to design a two-stage enzymatic conversion process of soy protein using mathematical methods, as well as to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the hydrolysate in laboratory conditions.
Soy protein isolate was tested to define the maximal value of the hydrolysis degree. It underwent a series of two-factor experiments in the presence of pepsin and trypsin. The study focused on the hydrolysis time and the enzyme-substrate ratio. The results were optimized using the response surface methodology in MathCad 15. The total antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate during hydrolysis was determined on a Tsvet-Yauza-01-AA chromatograph using the amperometric method.
For the pepsin test, the processing time was 7 h and the enzyme-to-substrate ratio was 1:22. For the trypsin test, the time was 7 h and the ratio was 1:30. The mathematical modeling revealed the following optimal parameters. The first stage involved hydrolysis with pepsin for 5 h at an enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 1:20; the second stage involved hydrolysis with trypsin for 3 h at an enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 1:19. The resulting hydrolysate demonstrated 88% hydrolysis. The highest summary antioxidant activity was registered after 5 h of hydrolysis and amounted to about 250 mg/100 mL.
The resulting enzymatic hydrolysate of soy protein can be used as a food component or an antioxidant feed additive. The obtained peptides can immobilize essential microelements, e.g., Zn, I, and Se, as well as produce polyvalent complexes. Further studies will be aimed at the residual antigenicity of the hydrolysate and other functional indicators.
Biotechnology of Lactulose Production: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects
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Lactulose is a prebiotic that has found a wide application in medicine and food industry. Commercial lactulose is usually synthesized by isomerization in alkaline media at high temperatures. Enzymatic methods offer a more sustainable alternative and require more moderate processing conditions.
This review covers 44 years of scientific publications (1978–2022) on the enzymatic synthesis and purification of lactulose. The materials were retrieved from Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Elibrary databases.
The enzymatic approach to lactose-to-lactulose conversion has two methods: isomerization (direct) and transgalactosylation (via hydrolysis). Isomerization exploits cellulose-2-epimerases, but their safety status is still rather vague. As a result, cellulose-2-epimerases are not commercial. Epilactose is a by-product of isomerization. Transgalactosylation involves β-galactosidases with an official international safety status (GRAS). It is available on the market, and its action mechanism is well understood. This article systematizes various data on the conditions for obtaining the maximal yields of lactulose by different enzymes.
The Kluyveromyces lactis yeast and the Aspergillus oryzae mold are the main sources of β-galactosidases in lactulose production. The yield can reach 30% if the processing conditions are optimal. Fructose remains the main problem in the production process. No scientific publications revealed a direct relationship between the maximal yields of lactulose and the molar fructose-tolactose ratios. Cellobiose epimerases make it possible to achieve high yields of lactulose (70–80%). However, these enzymes are associated with genetic engineering and mutagenesis, which challenges their safety status. The most promising trends in lactulose biotechnology include secondary dairy raw materials, immobilized enzymes, membrane reactors, complex production processes, lactose-to-lactulose conversion, and purification of final product.
Effect of Microwave Radiation on the Chemical Composition of Chickpeas
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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is rich in protein and has a balanced amino acid profile. However, its characteristic bean flavor limits its use as a functional food ingredient. Microwave treatment may help to solve this problem. The research objective was to select the optimal parameters of microwave treatment to obtain chickpea samples with no bean flavor and to study their chemical composition.
The study featured chickpeas of the Volzhanin variety. The experimental samples were processed in a microwave oven with a magnetron frequency of 2450 MHz at different power and time values. The protein tests, the analysis of amino acid profile, and the sensory assessment involved standard research methods.
The microwave processing loosened the consistency of chickpeas and eliminated the bean flavor after 5–6 min at 200 W or 3 min at 400 W. A longer treatment time resulted in a peanut flavor followed by bitterness. The microwave treatment reduced the mass fraction of protein and the amount of essential amino acids. This process could be slowed down by increasing the power of microwave radiation and reducing the processing time. However, the intensification had a negative effect on the content of arginine, methionine, and tyrosine in chickpea protein.
The results obtained can make it possible to use chickpeas as a functional food ingredient.
Chemical Composition and Sensory Profile of Sauerkraut from Different Cabbage Hybrids
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Fermented foods have a longer shelf life and higher nutritional value. Sauerkraut products depend on the quality of the raw material. Not every cabbage variety is suitable for processing. The present research objective was to test several cabbage hybrids for natural fermentation, microbiological parameters, and native sugar content after four months of storage.
The study featured twelve new-generation white cabbage hybrids of Russian selection and sauerkraut foods. The experimental batches were stored for four months at –1–0°C. Fermentation occurred at 21°C and final pH ≤ 3.6. The sugar content and titratable acidity were measured by standard methods. The method of limiting dilutions was applied to determine the microbial count. The microbiological seeding process followed standard procedures.
The highest content of total sugars before fermentation belonged to the late-ripening hybrids Prestizh F1 (5.92%), Gertsoginya F1 (5.82%), and Idillia F1 (5.28%), as well as to the late-ripening Atlant F1 (5.49%). The greatest sugar content was registered in Prestizh F1 (4.78%), Kontinent F1 (4.30%), and Gertsoginya F1 (4.07%). The mass fraction of titratable acids in terms of lactic acid averaged 1.04% for all the samples. The difference in the chemical composition depended on the hybrid and microbial count during fermentation. The lactic acid bacteria content was as high as 8.17×107 CFU/cm3 in Severyanka F1. All the samples were resistant to undesirable microflora, i.e., yeasts and molds.
All the cabbage hybrids were suitable for fermentation even after four months of storage. Their own lactic microflora was sufficient for fermentation and traditional sensory properties.
Public Catering Enterprises: Analysis and Prospects of Innovative Development
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Public catering has become an important healthy food provider in Russia. As a rule, this sphere is represented by small businesses with no experience in innovation. Their prospects for innovative development depend on the form of ownership, size, and target audience. The present research objective was to develop recommendations on how to restructure a public catering enterprise as part of an innovative development strategy.
The study featured public catering enterprises together with their innovative potential, activities, and factors that contribute to or hinder their development. The innovative restructuring scenarios were based on the synthesis method.
The authors developed a goal-centered classification which includes commercial and socially oriented public catering enterprises with their own advantages and disadvantages. The list of disadvantages includes decentralization, overstaffing, and multi-format, which make it difficult to introduce innovations and strategizing. The restructuring process requires a new management system optimized by specialists competent in the field of innovation, as well as a new matrix of strategic resources.
An audit of public catering enterprises makes it possible to assess their competitiveness and strategic prospects. The current lack of personnel with experience in innovations hinders the development of the industry. Universities and regional innovation infrastructure should provide public catering with specialists in innovation management.
Peptides of Trypsin Hydrolyzate in Bovine Colostrum
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Bovine colostrum contains biologically active substances, e.g., immunoglobulins, peptides, and cytokines, which makes it a logical component of numerous functional products. Colostrum peptides also possess antimicrobial activity. This bioavailability increases during colostrum fermentation with proteolytic enzymes. The research objective was to describe peptides isolated from the trypsic hydrolyzate supernatant of bovine colostrum and to evaluate their antimicrobial and antifungal properties.
The supernatant of trypsin hydrolyzate of bovine colostrum was isolated by centrifugation at 3900 rpm for 7 min. The supernatant was separated by preparative chromatography. Its peptide composition was determined on a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, while the protein sequences were deciphered using the Mascot database. Proteins were precipitated with ammonium sulfate, and the antimicrobial activity was measured by the disk-diffusion method against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and dipoloid fungi. Strains were cultivated on a thick LB nutrient medium at 37°C. The antimicrobial activity was defined experimentally on Wistar rats infected intraperitoneally with Salmonella enteritidis 92.
The trypsin hydrolyzate supernatant of bovine colostrum revealed four peptides, one of which belonged to short peptides, while the remaining three belonged to polypeptides. The isolated peptides had different molecular weights of 8.4, 6.5, 13.0, and 18 kDa. The enzymatic hydrolyzate proved bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and demonstrated antifungal activity against Candida albicans. When rats infected with S. enteritidis 92 were administered with trypsin hydrolysate, it promoted their survival, decreased LD50, and increased the mean day of death period from 2 to 4 days.
The research proved the antimicrobial effect of colostrum peptides and suggested their immunotropic properties. The peptides obtained from the trypsin hydrolyzate supernatant of bovine colostrum can be recommended for functional food industry as part of antimicrobial products.
Transformation of Apple Composition during Cider Production
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Cider is obtained by fermenting mashed apples of special cider varieties. The Russian State Register of Selection Achievements includes 476 varieties of apples, some of which can be used in commercial cider production. To identify potential cider cultivars, food scientists study the transformation of chemicals in apple mash during fermentation.
The research involved 16 samples of apple mash and cider obtained from apples of foreign and domestic selection. Their physicochemical, biochemical, and sensory parameters were identified using standard methods, as well as the methods of high-performance capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography.
The samples revealed a wide range of concentrations of titratable acids, phenolic substances, ascorbic acids, and phenolcarboxylic acids, depending on the cultivar. After fermentation, the content of ascorbic acid decreased by an average of 76%. The content of phenolcarboxylic acids in the cider samples increased by an average of 51% compared with the apple mash samples. The ciders contained succinic, oxalic, lactic, and acetic acids, which were not registered in the apple mash, and the concentration of amino acids doubled. The cider from the Virginia variety had the best sensory profile, and it also had the highest concentration of phenolic substances (1121.6 mg/dm3).
In this research, the best characteristics belonged to the ciders from apple varieties with a complex interspecific origin, obtained by a complex of polyploidy and distant hybridization methods, and with high concentrations of sugars and phenolic substances in the apple mash. Further research will test varieties of other origins and physicochemical properties for their potential use in cider, vodka, and calvados production.
Extracting Hydrophilic Components from Pomegranate Peel and Pulp
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Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) processing focuses on the extraction of polyphenols from peel. However, pomegranate peel is also rich in other biologically active water-soluble components, and their commercial extraction remains understudied. The research objective was to evaluate the degree of extraction of hydrophilic substances, such as simple sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols, from raw pomegranate peel and pulp under different experimental conditions in order to select the optimal extraction parameters.
The study featured pomegranates of the Iridanaly variety (Geokchay, Azerbaijan). Raw peel and pulp were crushed to the state of a coarse gruel. Extraction occurred by maceration at a hydromodulus of 1:2 and a temperature of 40 or 60°C with pure water and aqueous ethanol solutions (10–14 % vol.). The process lasted 30, 60, or 90 min in one or two stages with separate extraction at each stage. The research involved standard physicochemical methods.
In 31.0 ± 2.0 g/100 g of dry peel, the hydrophilic fraction accounted for 85.32%; in 35.7 ± 2.8 g/100 g of dry pulp, it was 59.36%. Only 54.6% solids were extracted from raw peel after 30 min of extraction with pure water at a hydromodulus of 1:2 and 60°C. Pomegranate peel contained hydrophilic colloids, which caused water absorption and reduced the yield. The optimal extraction included an aqueous solution of ethanol with an ethanol concentration of 10–14 % vol. and two thirty-minute stages. The coagulating effect of ethyl alcohol on water-soluble pectin made it possible to increase the degree of extraction of water-soluble substances to 83.93 and 91.4% of their initial content in raw peel and raw pulp, respectively. Such extraction yielded 4 kg of mixed extract from 1 kg of raw pulp. The extract was boiled under vacuum and yielded 260 g of concentrate with 60 wt.% solids, including 46.70 g/100 g simple sugars, 4.73 g/100 g organic acids, 3.70 g/100 g polyphenols, and 10.10 mg/100 g vitamin C.
The extraction of raw pomegranate peel and pulp with aqueous ethanol (10–14 % vol.) provided the maximal degree of extraction of hydrophilic substances and facilitated the separation of the resulting extracts. However, strong alcohol solutions may increase the cost of distillation of alcohol from the extract. To eliminate this shortcoming, the extraction can be carried out with pure water and a pectolytic enzyme.
Hybrid Gel as a Substitute for Hard Fats in Confectionery
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The World Health Organization recommends reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids. However, a direct replacement of solid fats with liquid oils affects the technological and consumer properties of food. The research objective was to develop a hybrid gel with a dense structure based on oleogel and hydrogel to replace saturated fats in semi-finished confectionery products.
The study featured samples of oleogel from sunflower oil and beeswax at a concentration of 10, 15, and 20% and hybrid gels prepared by mixing the oleogel with a 2% aqueous solution of sodium alginate at ratios of 99:1, 95:5, and 90:10. The samples were tested for strength, adhesive power, viscosity index, consistency, and Young modulus using a TA-XT Plus texture analyzer (Stable Micro Systems Ltd., UK). The water activity was studied using a water activity analyzer LabMaster (Novasina, Lab Master, Switzerland).
The oleogel samples with wax concentrations of 20 and 15% demonstrated good adhesive strength. The best hybrid gel was the oleogel with 20% wax at the ratio of 95:5 to hydrogel. This ratio resulted in a considerable gel strength (≤ 408.222) while maintaining a dense and uniform texture (Young modulus ≤ 17.05) for a long time. The oleogels had low moisture content (Aw = 0.6 ± 0). The shelf life at 4–10°C was 6 months. The samples had good sensory properties, i.e., clear taste and smell, strong uniform structure and consistency, etc. The paper introduces a formulation for a semi-finished confectionery product with a hybrid gel instead of 30% cocoa butter substitute.
Hybrid gels can be recommended as a substitute for cocoa butter or confectionery fats to reduce the amount of saturated and trans fatty acids. Such a replacement improves the consumer properties of semi-finished and finished products.
Assessing the Biological Safety of Dairy Products with Residual Antibiotics
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Antibiotics have traditionally been used to prevent and treat common diseases in farm animals. However, residual antibiotics in dairy products and meat remain a serious public health problem, which is associated with antibiotic resistance. The research objective was to assess the impact of antibiotic contamination on the quality and safety of dairy products, the microbiological composition of milk, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
The study featured six years of Russian and foreign scientific articles registered in PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA), Scopus and ScienceDirect (Elsevier, the Netherlands), Web of Science (Clarivate, USA), and
The analysis involved 63 foreign and domestic sources. Residual antibiotics in milk inhibits the vital activity of lactic acid bacteria, which, in its turn, disrupts the technological process of yogurts, cheeses, etc. After such processing as normalization, pasteurization, and homogenization, antibiotics accumulate in fermented dairy products and bind with milk proteins and fats. Antibiotics, in their initial amount, enter yoghurts from dairy raw materials. In cheese production, antibiotics usually pass into the whey, but aminoglycosides, quinolones, and tetracyclines remain in the finished product because they bind with the protein fraction.
The problem of biological safety of dairy products is associated with antibiotic resistance developed by human intestinal microbiota. This problem remains understudied, and the number of scientific papers on the matter is limited.
Micro-Ingredient Markets and Their Impact on the Sustainability of Food Systems
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Commercial micro-ingredients of certain types are a gap in the Russian food industry. This article describes the Russian market for micro-ingredients, their impact on the sustainability of domestic food systems, and state support prospects.
The study featured the development of micro-ingredient markets in the context of sustainable food systems. It relied on the theory of world-system analysis, as well as on the methods of comparative and statistical analyses. The materials were obtained from the Federal State Statistics Service, the Federal Customs Service, the Russian Export Center, and various rating and information agencies, including publically available data from the UN, the FAO, and the Union of Food Ingredients Producers.
The authors assessed the impact of micro-ingredient markets on the sustainability of food systems and the effect of global and domestic market trends on the demand and supply of micro-ingredients. When strategizing state support for domestic producers of micro-ingredients, government should proceed from the availability of raw materials and competition. The article introduces a comparative analysis of the Russian market of flavoring agents, which includes both foreign and domestic producers, and the Russian market of citric acid, represented solely by Chinese companies. In the first case, the government should support the existing domestic producers and strengthen their positions in the Russian markets, with prospects for foreign market penetration. In the second case, the Russian food industry has to launch domestic products able to occupy the Russian market and defeat the powerful foreign competitors that are ready to use dumping. The analysis also revealed the main directions of state support for the domestic production of competitive micro-ingredients and their components.
The results can be used to strategize state support measures for the domestic micro-ingredients in order to improve food security and the stability of the Russian food system to external shocks.
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The analysis of nutrition of schoolchildren and students of the Kemerovo region is presented in the article. On the results of the conducted analysis, the actual individual nutrition is estimated according to the content of the basic nutri-ents, and biologically active substances. The influence of nutrition on the health of the younger generation has been shown. To provide the schoolchildren’s bodies with necessary nutrients the way of correcting their diets by introducing biologically active additives has been offered.
Quality and Safety of Game Meat from the Biocenosis of the Beloosipovo Mercury Deposit
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Introduction. Mercury contamination is one of the most common environmental problems. The research objective was to study the qualitative composition and physicochemical properties of raw game meat obtained from the area near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit in order to define any possible contamination with xenobiotics.
Study objects and methods. The research featured rib eye muscle tissue and soft flesh of elks shot on the hunting farms of the Kemerovo Region aka Kuzbass.
Results and discussion. A complex set of experiments revealed the chemical composition of elk muscle tissue and flesh, as well as the mineral composition of elk muscle tissue. The samples were obtained from different parts of carcasses. The amino acid and fatty acid composition of elk muscle tissue made it possible to describe the biological value, mineral composition, and vitamin profile of elk meat. The physicochemical analysis included toughness, cooking losses, and moisture-retaining capacity, i.e. the properties that ensure juiciness. The research also featured the accumulation of xenobiotics in elk meat samples obtained from the biosinosis near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit.
Conclusion. The slaughter yield of elk meat was 51–53%, which exceeds the average yield of farm cattle meat by 4–6%. The moisture content was 73–78%, while the content of protein was between 20–24% and depended on the anatomical location of the muscle sample; the fat content reached 0.75–1.75%. The mercury accumulation at different storage temperature conditions ranged from 0.004 ± 0.001 to 0.009 ± 0.001 mg/kg, while the maximum allowable concentration of mercury is 0.03 mg/kg.
The purpose of the present work is the investigation and the development of the production technology of the low-calorie fat imitator on the basis of casein for the improvement of organoleptic properties of dairy products. Before the development of the technology it is necessary to choose an optimum way of milk protein coagulation. The object of the research was skim milk subjected to coagulation. The analysis of the obtained results has shown that the most rational way of coagulation for the formation of particles of the required sizes and forms is rennet coagulation. To form the particles of the required sizes and forms it is offered to start and to stop rennet coagulation at the moment when particles have already increased in size, but haven't yet formed a clot. On the basis of the presented data the production technology of protein microparticls that can be used as fat imitators in dairy products has been developed.
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Problems concerning the efficiency of production processes and manufacturing high quality goods are important for productions based on the activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The paper identifies major reasons for the need to regulate yeast culture metabolism, considers existing practice and proposed methods of changing its metabolic activity. The purpose of the research is to create the classification of the supplements / preparations of different origin to improve yeast vital activity by adjusting its culture medium composition with the use of complex hierarchical faceted method. The classification is based on the division of the set of "supplements / preparations to enhance yeasts vitality" into subsets related to the intended use of the preparation, stage of its application, chemical and structural organization, and ultimate goals. Preparations are divided into groups for various purposes: to fill in the medium with missing compounds and / or additional enrichment with biostimulating components; to extract undesirable components from the medium for the yeast development; preparations-stressors; antibacterial agents, creating favorable conditions for the development of basic yeast culture; contributing to the degradation of raw material biopolymers and intermediates. Medium composition adjustment is possible at the stage of preparation the yeast for fermentation, directly at the main step of the technological process, during pure culture growing and seed yeast storage, at earlier stages of manufacture by processing raw materials or intermediates. According to chemical nature supplements / preparations can be organic, inorganic, mixed (complex) ones and those obtained by chemical or microbial synthesis or be of natural origin. This classification enables a more targeted approach to choosing preparations that provide the change of metabolic activity of the yeast culture by adjusting the composition of the culture medium.
Fermented Cream for Curd Fortified with Probiotic Cultures: Biotechnological Aspects
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Introduction. Contemporary food industry strives to increase the production volume of high-quality and biologically complete protein products. The Foodnet market also raised the demand for functional foods in Russia. The research objective was to develop a new functional curd product fortified with probiotic microflora.
Study objects and methods. The study featured cow’s milk, skimmed milk, cream, whey protein concentrate Milkiland-WPC 80, pollen, glutamine, starter cultures DVS Danisco Probat 576 and Howaru Bifido ARO-1, buckwheat flour, and oat flour. The experiment included physicochemical, sensory, biochemical, and microbiological methods.
Results and discussion. The milk-protein base of the curd product was produced in a GEA Westfalia KDB 30 curd separator. The research involved 15 and 20% cream with two different starter cultures. In case of 15% cream, Probat 576 Howaru Bifido appeared to be 1.66 times more active than ARO-1 Howaru Bifido, in case of 20% cream the result was even higher – 1.73 times. Probat 576 also demonstrated a better active acidity, i.e. 5.5 after three hours, which was two hours faster than ARO-1. Mathematical modeling revealed the positive effect of buckwheat and oat flour on the cream fermentation process. Oat flour (5%) was the optimal prebiotic, while buckwheat flour added its color to the final product, thus spoiling its market quality.
Conclusion. The new biotechnology for a curd product fortified with probiotic cultures can expand the range of functional products for sports diet.
Effects of Oils and Fats on the Quality Characteristics, Nutritional Value, and Storage Capacity of Cookies
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Introduction. The quality profile and nutritional values of cookies depend on the raw material. The research objective was to study the effect of oils and fats on the quality characteristics and storage capacity of cookies.
Study objects and methods. The study involved such types of oils and fats as margarine, confectionery fat, milk fat substitute, palm oil, sunflower oil, and high oleic sunflower oil. It was based on standard methods of sensory, physicochemical, structural, and rheological analyses.
Results and discussion. The experimental formulations relied on contemporary dilatory recommendations, consumer acceptability, and traditionality of sensory indicators. The mass fraction of fat was limited to ≤ 18%; added sugars – to ≤ 22%; salt – to ≤ 0.3%. For each type of oil and fat, as set of experiments was performed to define the optimal technological emulsion and dough parameters. Other aspects involved the patterns of moisture transfer, indicators of oxidative spoilage, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, physicochemical and microbiological indicators, storage capacity, etc. The samples with vegetable oils instead of fat had a lower content of saturated fatty acids, which fell from 8–9 to 2–3 g/100 g. However, the risk of oxidative spoilage increased significantly. On storage day 104, the content of linoleic acid in the samples with sunflower oil decreased from 62.0 to 60.4%, while the samples with high oleic sunflower oil maintained the same level of linoleic acid. The samples with confectionery fat and palm oil demonstrated the lowest rate of oxidative processes, while those with margarine and milk fat substitute had the best sensory profile after storage.
Conclusion. The cookies with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil appeared to have a shelf life of two months, while for those with milk fat substitute, margarine, palm oil, and confectionery fat it was six months. Further research should focus on various emulsifiers and antioxidants capable of forming bonds with proteins and starch fractions of flour, which could increase the resistance of liquid vegetable oils to oxidation.
Callus cultures of Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense as a source of geroprotectors
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Introduction. Geroprotectors are biologically active substances that inhibit the aging process. Many plant species are natural geroprotectors. For instance, Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense are callus cultures with strong geroprotective properties. Study objects and methods. The present research featured T. vulgaris and T. pratense grown in vitro on various nutrient media. Their extracts were obtained by aqueous-alcoholic extraction using the following parameters: water-ethanol solvent Se = 30, 50, and 70 %; temperature Te = 30, 50, and 70°C; time τe = 2, 4, and 6 h. The quantitative and qualitative analysis was based on high-performance liquid mass spectrometry, gas mass spectrometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The optimal extraction parameters for T. vulgaris were τe = 4 h, Te = 50°C, Se = 70 %, for T. pratense – τe = 6 h, Te = 70°C, Se = 70 %. The chromatography detected flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, simple phenols, higher fatty acids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. T. vulgaris appeared to have the highest content of thymol (23.580 ± 1.170 mg/mL); its thymol, apigenin, gallic, chlorogenic, and caffeic components demonstrated geroprotective properties. The extract of T. pratense possessed the highest rutin content (10.05 ± 0.35 mg/mL), and it owed its geroprotective characteristics to rutin, chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids. Conclusion. The callus cultures of T. vulgaris and T. pratense proved to be promising sources of geroprotective biologically active substances.
Reclamation of Post-Technological Landscapes: International Experience
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Introduction. Anthropogenic activities cause large-scale environmental problems. The growing volumes of toxic emissions contribute to soil, water, and air pollution, thus posing a serious threat to all living systems and the global ecosystem. New reclamation methods are a relevant research topic as they help to restore and preserve ecosystems.
Study objects and methods. The research covered sixteen years of scientific publications from PubMed of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (USA), Elsevier (Scopus, ScienceDirect), Web of Science, and the national electronic library service
Results and discussion. The authors reviewed various scientific publications to define the main technogenic objects that have a toxic effect on biota. Soil is more vulnerable to destructive effects, and mining wastes are responsible for the largest share of technogenically disturbed objects. Pollutants include many compounds, such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, acids, etc. Reclamation technologies reduce the man-induced impact on the environment, e.g. pollutants can be completely or partially destroyed, processed into non-toxic products, completely removed, stabilized into less toxic forms, etc. This review provides information on the main methods of reclamation of disturbed soils and substantiates the prospect of developing integrated reclamation technologies.
Conclusion. The present review featured the main pollutants of anthropogenic origin and the traditional soil reclamation methods. The most prospective new technologies of soil reclamation appeared to be a combination of such biological methods as phytoremediation, bioaugmentation, and biostimulation.
Prospects of Using Soil Microbiome of Mine Tips for Remediation of Anthropogenically Disturbed Ecosystems
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Introduction. Coal industry increases soil pollution with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, resoiling is an urgent problem that requires an immediate solution. The present research objective was to substantiate the use of microorganisms from mine tips in order to decrease soil pollution with heavy metals and oil compounds.
Study objects and methods. The review featured five years of publications in Scopus, Web of Science, and Elibrary, which were subjected to analysis, systematization, and generalization.
Results and discussion. Coal industry changes landscapes, flora, fauna, and soil microbiome. Bioremediation uses various microorganisms as means of resoiling. Some microorganisms isolated from coal mining waste are resistant to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and are able to utilize them. For instance, such bacteria as Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are capable of degrading oil pollutants. Microorganisms of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species were found to be resistant to copper, iron, lead, and manganese. Bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Pseudoarthrobacter, and Sinomonas are now to be resistant to nickel, arsenic, and chromium. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase the activity of soil enzymes, improve soil fertility, and decompose various organic compounds.
Conclusion. Sequencing methods make it possible to determine the species composition of soils in mine tips in order to search for new strains capable of restoring former mining areas.
Molecular Genetic Methods in Microbiological Control of Food Products
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There are a number of technologies and business applications that identify nucleic acids of various microorganisms. Technologies based on DNA analysis are the most promising direction in the molecular-genetic identification of the microbiota in food substrates. The present paper is a review of various aspects of microorganism identification in food substrates, their advantages and disadvantages. It features modern regulatory, scientific, and methodological sources, as well as patented solutions. The authors pay considerable attention to the classical methods and describe the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in microbiota analysis. Then, they trace the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA and how it can be used to identify pathogens in food substrates. So far, NGS proves to be the most advantageous method that identifies prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, as well as pathogens.