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ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)
Alexander Yu. Prosekov, Editor-in-Chief, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences
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Journal «Food Processing: Techniques and Technology»

Dear readers, we are glad to inform you that our Journal has received a favourable review from the Content Selection & Advisory Board (CSAB). The CSAB has recommended to accept the title for inclusion in Scopus.​ Congratulations to our authors, reviewers, and members of the editorial board!

Founded in 1998, Food Processing: Techniques and Technology (the Journal) is an open access, double-blind peer-reviewed quarterly journal that encompasses a wide range of food research areas in Russia and neighboring regions. Articles are published in Russian; metadata, table headers, and figure captions are given in English.

The Journal’s mission is to present, integrate and disseminate the most important results of fundamental and applied research in the food industry of Russia and the CIS countries. We aim to create scientific content that would reflect the current state of food science in the post-Soviet space.

Volume 52, Issue 2 (2022)

A New Approach to Developing the Quality of Yoghurts with Functional Ingredients
Abstract
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Only high-quality products are competitive, and competitive products have to meet all kinds of requirements, from regulatory documentation to consumer expectations. Functional foods, such as yogurt, are designed with targeted properties, which is a complex task that requires a methodologically universal approach. The research objective was to develop and test a new approach to developing the targeted properties in functional yoghurts.
The research featured a new technology and formulation of functional yogurt with sea buckthorn and cryopowdered germinated rye. The study involved qualimetric forecasting methodology, as well as standard quality assessment tools and methods.
The new approach included several stages: 1) identifying requirements for product quality and production processes, 2) analyzing discrepancy reports, 3) predicting the effect of quality-forming factors, and 4) developing universal solutions to ensure the required properties. The research resulted in a nomenclature of consumer expectation indicators and a comprehensive assessment formula. It revealed the reasons behind the poor quality of yogurt at different stages. The key requirements for yoghurt included: 1) high moisture-binding capacity, 2) natural functional ingredients that give the product high consumer properties and reduce the risk of microbiological spoilage. The article introduces a formulation and production technology for the new functional yogurt, which proved to have a high content of vitamin C, potassium, and β-carotene. The sensory evaluation demonstrated its high consumer properties.
The new approach to the development and production technology proved to be effective. It can be used in the design and quality control of yoghurts with functional ingredients.
Isoflavonoids in Soy and Soy-Containing Foods
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Soy is exceptionally rich in isoflavonoids, which are linked to various health benefits. The aim of the research was to determine the content of isoflavonoids in soy and some soy-containing foods.
The research featured the Sentyabrinka soy variety developed at the All-Russian Research Institute of Soy, as well as such novel soy-containing foods as soy-and-pumpkin drinks and desserts, e.g. soy-and-pumpkin okara crackers. The content of isoflavonoids was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using a Millichrom F-02 chromatograph.
The total content of isoflavonoids was 221.10 mg/100 g in the soy beans, 44.50 mg/100 g – in the soy-and-pumpkin dessert, 36.15 mg/100 g – in the soy-and-pumpkin jelly, 30.80 mg/100 g – in the cracker with soy-and-pumpkin okara, 21.19 mg/100 g – in the protein drink, 12.72 mg/100 g – in the vitamin drink. The samples were tested for such isoflavonoids as genistein, diadzein (major), and glycetein (minor), which took the form of aglycones, glycosides (genistin, diadzin, and glycitein), and malonyl derivatives of glycosides. The highest content of malonyl diadzin and malonyl genistin was registered both in the soy beans and the soy-containing foods: from 42.56 in the crackers to 67.50% in the soy beans.
The content of isoflavonoids in the soy-containing food products depended on the formulation and production technology, namely, on the amount of soy. A daily intake of 200 g of soy-and-pumpkin drink or 100 g of soy-containing dessert could provide the daily intake of isoflavonoids, which makes these products beneficial for human health.
Antioxidant Properties of Triterpenoids in Fat-Containing Products
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Natural antioxidants of plant origin include chemical compounds, extracts, and essential oils isolated from plant raw materials. They are able to inhibit oxidative spoilage in fat-containing foods. The present research featured the antioxidant and in vivo properties of triterpene alcohol botulin, isolated from the bark of Betula pendula Roth., in fat-containing products, e.g., mayonnaise.
Experimental samples of mayonnaise were prepared using the Provencal mayonnaise technology: 6 of 0.2% betulin solution was introduced in vegetable oil during emulsification. The control sample contained no betulin. The experiment relied on standard methods to study the sensory, physicochemical, and microbiological properties of mayonnaise samples. Antioxidant activity was calculated as the inverse of the value of the peroxide number. The antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties underwent hysiological and biochemical in vivo tests on certified white male Wistar rats.
The research resulted in a new formulation of mayonnaise with triterpenoid botulin, which proved to be a good plant antioxidant as it reduced the values of acid and peroxide numbers. In freshly processed samples, the acid number was 0.013 g/dm3 in the experimental sample and 0.033 g/dm3 in the control. After 60 days of storage, it increased by 1.4 and 2.3 times, respectively. The peroxide number was 8–10 times higher in the control sample during the storage period. Betulin inhibited the oxidation of triacylglycerides. The antioxidant activity of the fresh prototype was 5.00 units and 0.50 units after 60 days. In the control, it was 0.50 and 0.06 units, respectively. In the experimental sample, betulin slowed down the growth rate of microorganisms. In the control sample, the yeast content increased 1.6 times, and mold exceeded the permissible value by 20%.
The antioxidant properties of experimental mayonnaise were proven in vivo on a model of acute toxic hepatitis in rats. Based on biochemical studies of animal blood plasma, the use of mayonnaise with betulin improved the antioxidant protection. Betulin had a positive effect on antioxidant enzymes that destroy organic peroxides, e.g., lipid peroxides, which violate the structure of cell membranes.
Effect of Technological Processing of Plant Raw Materials on the Reduction of Pesticide Residues in Finished Products
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Pesticides in food cause great harm to human health. Unfortunately, agricultural pests make their use unavoidable. However, special processing can lower the content of pesticides in plant products. The present article summarizes and systematizes the previously obtained data on the possible reduction of contaminant residues in plant products during various processing stages.
The review featured 30 years of domestic and foreign publications on pesticides in Elsevier, Taylor & Francis, Springer, PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar.
Proper technological processing can reduce the concentration of pesticides by 99%. However, particular physicochemical properties can lead to the accumulation of the xenobiotics, which may later transform into more dangerous compounds. Such cases require special operations to remove pesticides. Most contaminants usually remain on the surface. As a result, peeling and chemical washing seem to be the most effective method of anti-pesticide technological processing. These procedures can lower the amount of pesticides by 85% and more, if repeated. Eventually, the remaining pesticides fall below 7.5% of the initial content.
The review structured information on the anti-pesticide procedures in food industry. By combining various methods, farmers can increase the biosafety of their products. Further research is prospective because the number of compounds used as pesticides continue to grow.
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Miscanthus Biomass
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Forests being mostly non-renewable, miscanthus seems to be a promising alternative energy resource. This study investigates the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated miscanthus biomass.
The research featured Miscanthus sinensis Strictus biomass. The methods included raw material pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) of monosaccharide residues, and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectrometry of non-hydrolyzed lignin.
A hammer mill with a particle size of 0.2–0.3 mm proved to be effective for preliminary mechanical processing of miscanthus. This type of treatment provided the maximal yield of carbohydrate-containing biomass (62.33 ± 1.87%). The optimal multi-enzyme composition included Cellulase Ultra obtained from Trichoderma reeseii, xylanase obtained from Thermomyces lanuginosus, and β-gluconase obtained from Myceliophtorafergusii. The fermentation temperature was 50 ± 1°C (72 ± 1 h). At these parameters, the conversion of holocellulose of miscanthus biomass was 96.0 ± 4.8%, and the yield of reducing substances was 97.00 ± 4.85%.
The article introduces the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis parameters for pretreating Miscanthus sinensis Strictus biomass as a source of carbohydrate-containing substrates and describes their subsequent use for bacterial cellulose biosynthesis. The carbohydrate composition of hydrolysates included residual lignin, such polysaccharides as glucan and xylan, and various monosaccharides, namely arabinose, xylose, galactose, glucose, and uronic acids. Hydrolyzed miscanthus proved to be an effective renewable and environmentally friendly biodiesel.
Development and Quality Evaluation of Quick-Frozen Fruit-and-Berry Desserts
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New functional foods based on local vegetal raw materials can accelerate the implementation of the Strategy for Improving Food Quality in the Russian Federation through 2030. The present research aimed at developing formulations and technology for new functional quick-frozen fruit-and-berry desserts.
The study featured four dessert mixes: apricot-persimmon-buckthorn, apricot-feijoa-sloeberry, apricot-persimmon-cornel, and apricot-feijoa-currant. The quality of the finished products was evaluated using conventional methods according to the mass concentration of sugars, solids, pectin, titrated acids, vitamin C, β-carotene, and minerals. The desserts were tested for toxic elements based on the atomic absorption method. The microbiological safety parameters were determined after six months of refrigeration storage (t = –18°C) using standard methods.
The physicochemical data made it possible to design formulations where all components complemented each other’s beneficial properties. To stabilize the quality and obtain the optimal structural and mechanical properties, the formulations were completed with a sugar-pectin solution (380 g per 1 kg) with 30% sugar and 1.3% pectin. The mass concentration of some biologically active substances made the desserts functional: 250 g of each product satisfied the daily intake of pectin substances by 51.9–61.3%, vitamin C – by 42.9–123.4%, β-carotene – by 22.5–47.5%, iron – by 8.9–20.5%, and iodine – by 13.3–30.0%.
The new quick-frozen functional fruit-and-berry desserts proved to have advanced organoleptic indices and met the safety requirements provided by Technical Regulations of Customs Union TR TC 021/2011.
The Impact of Value Chains on Food Security
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Value chains are conduits that play an important role in global food security. The purpose of the study was to analyze the increasing impact of global value chains on national food security and develop proposals for improving the level of food security in Russia.
The research featured the impact of value chains on food security. The study was based on a systematic analysis of data obtained from national statistical services, information and rating agencies, international organizations, etc.
The impact of value chains on food security proved to be complex. On the one hand, they combine disparate links into a single system and allow for the rapid delivery of food to the end consumer. On the other hand, they increase the monopolization of the control links. The article introduces key features of the transformation of food value chains in recent decades. First, the list of participants often changes due to the growing contradictions between different countries and unpredictable foreign policy. Second, processing, logistics, and trade chains often get monopolized. Third, companies from other industries enter value chains from outside. Fourth, the distribution of income among chain participants becomes more uneven. Fifth, the influence methods of control links get more elaborate, etc. In general, companies tend to globalize their value chains while national governments strive to keep the chains within the country.
The results of the study can improve value chains and food security in the country, while taking into account the interests of both chain participants and society, as well as the principles of sustainable development.
Development and effect of poultry lymphoid tissue supplement on cell viability in culture
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Peptides are biologically active. This quality depends on the technological modes of protein hydrolysis. The research objective was to isolate peptides from the bursa fabricii and evaluate their immunotropic effect on mice of various lines with experimental immunodeficiency and the morphofunctional state of their immunopoiesis organs, i.e., thymus and spleen.
The research featured bursa fabricii hydrolysate and peptides, as well as thymus and spleen of male mice. Amine nitrogen was determined according to State Standard R 55479-2013; molecular weight of peptides was determined by gel electrophoresis. The morphometry of the thymus and spleen was calculated using VideoTesT-Morphology 5.0.
The research revealed the rational modes of enzymatic hydrolysis of the bursa fabricii protein by papain with subsequent isolation of peptides by ultrafiltration. According to the content of amine nitrogen in the bursa fabricii hydrolysate, the rational concentration of the papain enzyme was 0.15%. The molecular weight of peptides after ultrafiltration of bursa fabricii hydrolysate through membranes with a 43 kDa permeability had different values and depended on the concentration of papain, hydrolysis time, and temperature. The maximal amount of 27–18 kDa peptides was isolated at 36°C (85%) when the concentration of papain was 0.15% (73%), the hydromodule was 1:3 (78%), and the hydrolysis time of the raw material was 6 h (82%). The rational technological parameters of the hydrolysis of the bursa fabricii protein were as follows: concentration of papain – 0.15%, temperature – 36°C, hydromodule – 1:3, and hydrolysis time – 6 h. In immunodeficient mice, bursal peptides prevented a decrease in total cellularity in the thymus, sustained the content of CD3+ cells, activated the maturation of T-lymphocytes and proliferation of B-lymphocytes, and reduced the immunocytotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide.
The article offers a new technology for obtaining peptides with a pronounced immunotropic effect that can be used in functional food production.
Comparative Assessment of the Quality of Rose Hip Puree Produced by Different Technological Methods
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Fruit puree is one of the most popular semi-finished products. Rose hips have a wide range of positive effects on the human body due to the biologically active substances they contain. The research objective was to assess the quality rosehip puree produced using a mechano-acoustic homogenizer and to define its shelf life.
The study featured several samples of puree made of fresh or dried rose hips. The experiment involved two types of processing methods: traditional and mechano-acoustic. The analysis was based on standard methods. The mechano-acoustic homogenizer made it possible to combine several technological operations: grinding, homogenization, deodorization, and disinfection.
The processing conditions were as follows: exposure intensity – 100–500 W/kg, time – 15–30 min, temperature – 50–65°C, disinfection time – 20–60 s, disinfection temperature – 95–97°C. Both fresh and dried rose hips puree samples produced with the help of a mechano-acoustic homogenizer had the best sensory properties, which exceeded those of the control samples by 9% for appearance, 15% for color, 21% for smell, and 30% for texture and taste. The test samples were by 10% richer in sugars, proteins, free organic acids, and minerals. They contained more biologically active substances: dietary fiber and β-carotene – by an average of 10%, phenolic substances – 20%, ascorbic acid – 40%. According to the sensory, physical, chemical, and microbiological indicators, the shelf life of rose hip puree produced using mechano-acoustic equipment was 24 months in glass packaging.
The mechano-acoustic homogenizer method optimized the technological operation, and the finished product had more nutrients and better quality indicators than those of puree obtained by traditional technologies. The rose hip puree retained its quality characteristics for 24 months at ≤ 25°C and humidity ≤ 75% in glass jars in a dark place.
Color Sensors in Smart Food Packaging
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The quality of food products depends not only on the technological parameters of production process, but also on storage conditions. Smart packaging controls storage conditions and tracks violations. The research objective was to review the use of sensors in food storage.
The study featured publically available information on sensor-equipped smart food packaging. The information was obtained from open sources published in 2016–2021.
The paper describes biosensors, chemical sensors, and indicators that determine some of the characteristics of food products and provide information to the producer, retailer, and consumer. Indicators proved to be the most promising type of sensors used in smart packaging. This type of sensor indicates the presence and concentration of various analytes through color change. The best indicators are those based on radio frequency (RFID), poison identifiers, compaction/leaks indicators, indicators of freshness/ripeness, etc. All the considered indicators visualize their data by changing color, which makes it possible to assess the quality of food products on the market.
Sensor-based smart packaging is a promising direction in food industry because they make it possible to monitor and control product quality. Smart packaging allows consumers to check the freshness of products by themselves.
Diet of the Gray Partridge (Perdix perdix L.) in the Central Ciscaucasia
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The gray partridge (Perdix perdix L.) is a commercial bird species of the Central Ciscaucasia. In the steppe regions, these birds are found in cultivated gardens, vineyards, green belts along agricultural fields, roads, and railways, etc. The research objective was to study and analyze the diet of the gray partridge in different seasons in the Stavropol Region.
The study featured the food spectrum consumed by the gray partridge based on the contents of 42 stomachs and 26 crops of birds caught by hunters and hit by vehicles in various Stavropol biotopes in 2008–2021.
Gray partridges are phytophages, which means they feed mostly on plants and, to a lesser extent, on animals. Their autumn and winter diet includes green mass and wheat grains, seeds of cultivated and wild plants, and insect larvae. The gray partridge prefers weedy herbaceous plants: Polygonum aviculare, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, and Setaria viridis.
The data obtained can be used to assess food resources of commercial bird species, in gray partridge conservation projects, and winter feeding of birds.
Pâté with Inulin Supplement
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Pâté are very comfortable for consumption, which makes them very popular. Pâté also has a good functional potential. The research objective was to assess the composition and sensory properties of new functional pâtés with chicory powder.
The study featured beef liver pâté and chicken liver pâté with hydrated inulin-containing chicory powder. The tests relied on standard methods.
The new pâté had 3% of hydrated inulin-containing chicory powder. The sensory assessment proved that the appearance, taste, and texture complied with the normative documentation. The function product had a high content of carbohydrates, including inulin.
100 g of ready-made pâté provide 13% of the daily intake of prebiotics.
Ecotoxicological Analysis of Fallow Soils at the Yamal Experimental Agricultural Station
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The agricultural use of soils is limited by their contamination with various compounds and low contents of nutrients. We aimed to study the unique soils of the Yamal Experimental Station to determine their contamination with heavy metals and assess their potential fertility.
Established in 1932, the Yamal Experimental Station (Salekhard, Russia) has bred new varieties of vegetable crops in open and protected ground. In August 2021, we made a soil section and 40 pits in a 0–10 cm layer. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine 11 metals and oxides. The qualitative assessment was based on the total soil pollution, soil pollution, and geoaccumulation indexes. Finally, we determined the contents of nutrients.
The metals and metal oxides showed regressive-accumulative distribution along the soil profile. The concentrations of all ecotoxicants (except for arsenic) were within the maximum/approximate permissible values. Since arsenic has a high regional background content, its elevated concentrations make the soil suitable for agricultural use if proper quality control is in place. The total soil pollution index classified the level of pollution as “acceptable”. The geoaccumulation index showed the soils as mostly “unpolluted” with metals. The soil pollution index had values below 1, which indicated the absence of pollution.
The fallow soils of the Yamal Experimental Station have a high level of potential fertility and are suitable for agricultural reuse according to the soil quality indexes applied. They can also serve as a local geochemical standard that has a long history of agrogenic transformation in cryogenic ecosystems. Taking into account increased concentrations of arsenic, we recommend primary quality control of agricultural products to identify its possible migration in the soil-plant system.
Bacteriophages of Lactic Acid Bacteria
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Bacteriophages harm food production, disrupt fermenting, spoil dairy products, and cause financial loss. The article describes the biodiversity and properties of bacteriophages capable of lysing lactic acid bacteria used in fermented dairy and meat products.
The research featured bacteriophages obtained from fermented meat and dairy products. The methods included microbiological analyses, sensory evaluation, physico-chemical tests, genetic studies, electron microscopy, optical reassociation, and mathematical data processing.
Violation of the fermentation process always resulted in bacteriophages in the finished products, e.g., fermented dairy products, curd whey, raw smoked and dry-cured sausages, etc. The list of bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria included 20 bacteriophages of Lactococcus ssp., 11 – of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, and 5 – of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The study revealed the diversity of the isolated bacteriophages, their molecular and biological profile, the titer and range of their new hosts, and the differences from standard ones. The bacteriophages proved to be able to infect a wider range of lactic acid bacteria.
The article describes the change in the biodiversity and evolution of bacteriophages depending on their lytic action and virulence. The improved collection of bacteriophages and their detection cultures contribute to an earlier and more effective identification of bacteriophages in fermented products.
Multicomponent Composites of Cyclodextrin Nanocomplexes with Biologically Active Substances for Functional Foods
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Enzymatic protein hydrolysates of milk are used as a protein component of functional foods intended for children, athletes, and senior citizens. They are easy to absorb and possess hypoallergenic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic properties. However, the peptides in their composition have a bitter taste, which limits the use of milk protein hydrolysates in food industry. Functional foods are often fortified with fat-soluble vitamins and other hydrophobic ingredients. They require multicomponent compositions that contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Complexes of β-cyclodextrins with peptides of whey protein hydrolyzates and fat-soluble vitamins can solve this problem.
The present research featured nanocomplexes of β-cyclodextrins with whey peptides and their multicomponent mixes with vitamins D3 and A. The methodology involved HPLC-MS, electrophoresis, thermogravimetry, and fluorimetry.
The obtained clathrates were used to develop new multicomponent compositions for functional nutrition. The article introduces a new production method for hypoallergenic peptide fractions with a molecular weight of 300–1500 Da from enzymatic whey protein hydrolyzates. The obtained peptides contained 6–14 amino acid residues and demonstrated hypoallergenic properties because they contained no antigenic determinants capable of causing IgE synthesis. The complexes of inclusion contained hydrolyzate peptides of dairy proteins and fat-soluble vitamins A and D3. The research revealed some antioxidant and antimutagenic properties, as well as the toxicological and hygienic profile of the clathrates. The resulting peptide clathrates had a less bitter taste. The inclusion complexes of fat-soluble vitamins D3:β-cyclodextrins, and A:β-cyclodextrins could be converted from an olive oil solution into a soluble powder. 100 g of the multicomponent composite contained 47.0 g of whey protein hydrolyzate of low molecular weight fraction peptides, 1.06 mg of vitamin D3 (42 500 IU), 3.44 mg of vitamin A (10 000 IU), and 1.54 g of olive oil. The article also describes the structural and functional properties of the inclusion complexes. Nanocomplexes of whey protein hydrolyzate of low molecular weight fraction peptides:β-cyclodextrins, D3:β-cyclodextrins, and A:β-cyclodextrins and their multicomponent composite were tested for toxicological and hygienic properties using Tetrahymena pyriformis. They appeared to belong to the 5th hazard class in terms of the average lethal dose (non-hazardous substances).
The obtained powder forms of fat-soluble vitamins and peptides are easily dosed and can be used to design new functional foods.
Traditional and Innovative Uses of Ultraviolet Treatment in the Dairy Industry
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Traditional heat treatment methods are an integral part of the dairy industry. However, non-thermal methods ensure microbiological safety while preserving nutritional value of the dairy product, as well as improving its technological properties. The article reviews scientific and technical publications on ultraviolet (UV) treatment and its effect on the structure and properties of milk proteins and technological indicators of dairy products.
The review includes English and Russian articles published in Scopus, Web of Science, Elsevier, ResearchGate, and Elibrary databases in 2004–2021.
Most publications focus on maintaining the microbiological safety of milk and dairy products. Depending on the radiation dose, UV treatment was reported to cause denaturation and aggregation of milk proteins, followed by new cross-links. Conformational changes improve the functional properties of milk proteins, which makes them valuable food ingredients of film coatings and fermented milk products.
Electromagnetic treatment polymerizes whey proteins. This property can be used to produce strong film coatings with low vapor permeability. In fermented milk production, UV radiation improves such technological properties of yogurt as viscosity and water-holding capacity. The effect of electromagnetic waves on animal proteins and dairy products remains an understudied area of advanced research.
Various Flours in Pastry Production Technology
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Cereals and oilseed flours increase the nutritional value of pastry products. Their composition is different from traditional wheat flour, which means their technological properties are also different. The research objective was to study the functional and technological properties of various types of flour to develop a multicomponent powder mix formulation for functional cookies.
The research included baking wheat flour of the highest grade, whole-wheat flour, corn flour, semi-skimmed flax flour, and rice flour. The flours and their multicomponent mix were tested for functional and technological properties, i.e., water-holding capacity, fat-retaining capacity, fat-emulsifying capacity, emulsion stability, etc.
These propertied appeared to depend on the protein and carbohydrate composition of the flour. The water-holding capacity of the flax flour sample was 6–8 times greater than that of other types, while the fat-retaining capacity of the corn flour sample was 30% higher. Corn and flax flours demonstrated the best fat-emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability. The research resulted in a new multicomponent corn-flour-based powder mix for high-quality butter cookies.
The formulation included corn flour and vegetable oil, which increased the nutritional value of the final product and expanded the range of gluten-free cookies.
Biological Protein Value of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn
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Contemporary human diet is poor in proteins. Therefore, the modern food science should find new sources of high-grade protein. The bracken fern is rich in proteins can be an unconventional solution to this problem. The research objective was to study the protein contents of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, which grows on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Region.
The study featured Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn harvested in several districts of the Kozulka, Kuragino and Shushenskoye districts Krasnoyarsk Region in May 2021. Spectrophotometry and chromatography were used to assess the proteins and amino acids, respectively.
The protein content in the dried fern samples ranged from 24 to 27%. All the samples contained fifteen amino acids, including seven essential ones, mostly represented by phenylalanine+tyrosine (2.17 g/100 g of protein). Glutamine was the dominating essential amino acid (4.98 g/100 g of protein). The score of all the essential amino acids was more than 100%. The limiting amino acid was represented by methionine+cystine. From the total of fifteen amino acids, twelve belonged to various classes of aliphatic amino acids, one – to aromatic amino acids, and two – to heterocyclic amino acids. In terms of biological value, the samples collected in the Kuragino district surpassed those from the Kozulka and Shushenskoye districts because they had a lower value of amino acid score difference coefficient (78) and the highest value of coefficient of amino acid utility (0.55). The index of essential amino acids for all the fresh fern samples ranged from 1.04 to 1.1, which indicates a greater value of the total of essential amino acids than in the reference protein.
The qualitative and quantitative composition of amino acids of the bracken fern in the Krasnoyarsk Region showed that it can be used in food industry as an additional source of protein.
THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON THE HEALTH OF SCHOOLCHILDREN AND STUDENTS OF THE KEMEROVO REGION
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The analysis of nutrition of schoolchildren and students of the Kemerovo region is presented in the article. On the results of the conducted analysis, the actual individual nutrition is estimated according to the content of the basic nutri-ents, and biologically active substances. The influence of nutrition on the health of the younger generation has been shown. To provide the schoolchildren’s bodies with necessary nutrients the way of correcting their diets by introducing biologically active additives has been offered.
Quality and Safety of Game Meat from the Biocenosis of the Beloosipovo Mercury Deposit
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Introduction. Mercury contamination is one of the most common environmental problems. The research objective was to study the qualitative composition and physicochemical properties of raw game meat obtained from the area near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit in order to define any possible contamination with xenobiotics.
Study objects and methods. The research featured rib eye muscle tissue and soft flesh of elks shot on the hunting farms of the Kemerovo Region aka Kuzbass.
Results and discussion. A complex set of experiments revealed the chemical composition of elk muscle tissue and flesh, as well as the mineral composition of elk muscle tissue. The samples were obtained from different parts of carcasses. The amino acid and fatty acid composition of elk muscle tissue made it possible to describe the biological value, mineral composition, and vitamin profile of elk meat. The physicochemical analysis included toughness, cooking losses, and moisture-retaining capacity, i.e. the properties that ensure juiciness. The research also featured the accumulation of xenobiotics in elk meat samples obtained from the biosinosis near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit.
Conclusion. The slaughter yield of elk meat was 51–53%, which exceeds the average yield of farm cattle meat by 4–6%. The moisture content was 73–78%, while the content of protein was between 20–24% and depended on the anatomical location of the muscle sample; the fat content reached 0.75–1.75%. The mercury accumulation at different storage temperature conditions ranged from 0.004 ± 0.001 to 0.009 ± 0.001 mg/kg, while the maximum allowable concentration of mercury is 0.03 mg/kg.
INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS WAYS OF MILK COAGULATION FOR THE PURPOSE OF MILK PROTEIN MICROPARTICLES FORMATION
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The purpose of the present work is the investigation and the development of the production technology of the low-calorie fat imitator on the basis of casein for the improvement of organoleptic properties of dairy products. Before the development of the technology it is necessary to choose an optimum way of milk protein coagulation. The object of the research was skim milk subjected to coagulation. The analysis of the obtained results has shown that the most rational way of coagulation for the formation of particles of the required sizes and forms is rennet coagulation. To form the particles of the required sizes and forms it is offered to start and to stop rennet coagulation at the moment when particles have already increased in size, but haven't yet formed a clot. On the basis of the presented data the production technology of protein microparticls that can be used as fat imitators in dairy products has been developed.
CLASSIFICATION OF PREPARATIOPNS TO PROMOTE YEAST VITAL ACTIVITY
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Problems concerning the efficiency of production processes and manufacturing high quality goods are important for productions based on the activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The paper identifies major reasons for the need to regulate yeast culture metabolism, considers existing practice and proposed methods of changing its metabolic activity. The purpose of the research is to create the classification of the supplements / preparations of different origin to improve yeast vital activity by adjusting its culture medium composition with the use of complex hierarchical faceted method. The classification is based on the division of the set of "supplements / preparations to enhance yeasts vitality" into subsets related to the intended use of the preparation, stage of its application, chemical and structural organization, and ultimate goals. Preparations are divided into groups for various purposes: to fill in the medium with missing compounds and / or additional enrichment with biostimulating components; to extract undesirable components from the medium for the yeast development; preparations-stressors; antibacterial agents, creating favorable conditions for the development of basic yeast culture; contributing to the degradation of raw material biopolymers and intermediates. Medium composition adjustment is possible at the stage of preparation the yeast for fermentation, directly at the main step of the technological process, during pure culture growing and seed yeast storage, at earlier stages of manufacture by processing raw materials or intermediates. According to chemical nature supplements / preparations can be organic, inorganic, mixed (complex) ones and those obtained by chemical or microbial synthesis or be of natural origin. This classification enables a more targeted approach to choosing preparations that provide the change of metabolic activity of the yeast culture by adjusting the composition of the culture medium.
Fermented Cream for Curd Fortified with Probiotic Cultures: Biotechnological Aspects
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Introduction. Contemporary food industry strives to increase the production volume of high-quality and biologically complete protein products. The Foodnet market also raised the demand for functional foods in Russia. The research objective was to develop a new functional curd product fortified with probiotic microflora.
Study objects and methods. The study featured cow’s milk, skimmed milk, cream, whey protein concentrate Milkiland-WPC 80, pollen, glutamine, starter cultures DVS Danisco Probat 576 and Howaru Bifido ARO-1, buckwheat flour, and oat flour. The experiment included physicochemical, sensory, biochemical, and microbiological methods.
Results and discussion. The milk-protein base of the curd product was produced in a GEA Westfalia KDB 30 curd separator. The research involved 15 and 20% cream with two different starter cultures. In case of 15% cream, Probat 576 Howaru Bifido appeared to be 1.66 times more active than ARO-1 Howaru Bifido, in case of 20% cream the result was even higher – 1.73 times. Probat 576 also demonstrated a better active acidity, i.e. 5.5 after three hours, which was two hours faster than ARO-1. Mathematical modeling revealed the positive effect of buckwheat and oat flour on the cream fermentation process. Oat flour (5%) was the optimal prebiotic, while buckwheat flour added its color to the final product, thus spoiling its market quality.
Conclusion. The new biotechnology for a curd product fortified with probiotic cultures can expand the range of functional products for sports diet.
Effects of Oils and Fats on the Quality Characteristics, Nutritional Value, and Storage Capacity of Cookies
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Introduction. The quality profile and nutritional values of cookies depend on the raw material. The research objective was to study the effect of oils and fats on the quality characteristics and storage capacity of cookies.
Study objects and methods. The study involved such types of oils and fats as margarine, confectionery fat, milk fat substitute, palm oil, sunflower oil, and high oleic sunflower oil. It was based on standard methods of sensory, physicochemical, structural, and rheological analyses.
Results and discussion. The experimental formulations relied on contemporary dilatory recommendations, consumer acceptability, and traditionality of sensory indicators. The mass fraction of fat was limited to ≤ 18%; added sugars – to ≤ 22%; salt – to ≤ 0.3%. For each type of oil and fat, as set of experiments was performed to define the optimal technological emulsion and dough parameters. Other aspects involved the patterns of moisture transfer, indicators of oxidative spoilage, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, physicochemical and microbiological indicators, storage capacity, etc. The samples with vegetable oils instead of fat had a lower content of saturated fatty acids, which fell from 8–9 to 2–3 g/100 g. However, the risk of oxidative spoilage increased significantly. On storage day 104, the content of linoleic acid in the samples with sunflower oil decreased from 62.0 to 60.4%, while the samples with high oleic sunflower oil maintained the same level of linoleic acid. The samples with confectionery fat and palm oil demonstrated the lowest rate of oxidative processes, while those with margarine and milk fat substitute had the best sensory profile after storage.
Conclusion. The cookies with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil appeared to have a shelf life of two months, while for those with milk fat substitute, margarine, palm oil, and confectionery fat it was six months. Further research should focus on various emulsifiers and antioxidants capable of forming bonds with proteins and starch fractions of flour, which could increase the resistance of liquid vegetable oils to oxidation.
Callus cultures of Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense as a source of geroprotectors
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Introduction. Geroprotectors are biologically active substances that inhibit the aging process. Many plant species are natural geroprotectors. For instance, Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense are callus cultures with strong geroprotective properties. Study objects and methods. The present research featured T. vulgaris and T. pratense grown in vitro on various nutrient media. Their extracts were obtained by aqueous-alcoholic extraction using the following parameters: water-ethanol solvent Se = 30, 50, and 70 %; temperature Te = 30, 50, and 70°C; time τe = 2, 4, and 6 h. The quantitative and qualitative analysis was based on high-performance liquid mass spectrometry, gas mass spectrometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The optimal extraction parameters for T. vulgaris were τe = 4 h, Te = 50°C, Se = 70 %, for T. pratense – τe = 6 h, Te = 70°C, Se = 70 %. The chromatography detected flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, simple phenols, higher fatty acids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. T. vulgaris appeared to have the highest content of thymol (23.580 ± 1.170 mg/mL); its thymol, apigenin, gallic, chlorogenic, and caffeic components demonstrated geroprotective properties. The extract of T. pratense possessed the highest rutin content (10.05 ± 0.35 mg/mL), and it owed its geroprotective characteristics to rutin, chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids. Conclusion. The callus cultures of T. vulgaris and T. pratense proved to be promising sources of geroprotective biologically active substances.
Prospects of Using Soil Microbiome of Mine Tips for Remediation of Anthropogenically Disturbed Ecosystems
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Introduction. Coal industry increases soil pollution with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, resoiling is an urgent problem that requires an immediate solution. The present research objective was to substantiate the use of microorganisms from mine tips in order to decrease soil pollution with heavy metals and oil compounds.
Study objects and methods. The review featured five years of publications in Scopus, Web of Science, and Elibrary, which were subjected to analysis, systematization, and generalization.
Results and discussion. Coal industry changes landscapes, flora, fauna, and soil microbiome. Bioremediation uses various microorganisms as means of resoiling. Some microorganisms isolated from coal mining waste are resistant to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and are able to utilize them. For instance, such bacteria as Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are capable of degrading oil pollutants. Microorganisms of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species were found to be resistant to copper, iron, lead, and manganese. Bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Pseudoarthrobacter, and Sinomonas are now to be resistant to nickel, arsenic, and chromium. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase the activity of soil enzymes, improve soil fertility, and decompose various organic compounds.
Conclusion. Sequencing methods make it possible to determine the species composition of soils in mine tips in order to search for new strains capable of restoring former mining areas.
Reclamation of Post-Technological Landscapes: International Experience
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Introduction. Anthropogenic activities cause large-scale environmental problems. The growing volumes of toxic emissions contribute to soil, water, and air pollution, thus posing a serious threat to all living systems and the global ecosystem. New reclamation methods are a relevant research topic as they help to restore and preserve ecosystems.
Study objects and methods. The research covered sixteen years of scientific publications from PubMed of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (USA), Elsevier (Scopus, ScienceDirect), Web of Science, and the national electronic library service eLibrary.ru.
Results and discussion. The authors reviewed various scientific publications to define the main technogenic objects that have a toxic effect on biota. Soil is more vulnerable to destructive effects, and mining wastes are responsible for the largest share of technogenically disturbed objects. Pollutants include many compounds, such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, acids, etc. Reclamation technologies reduce the man-induced impact on the environment, e.g. pollutants can be completely or partially destroyed, processed into non-toxic products, completely removed, stabilized into less toxic forms, etc. This review provides information on the main methods of reclamation of disturbed soils and substantiates the prospect of developing integrated reclamation technologies.
Conclusion. The present review featured the main pollutants of anthropogenic origin and the traditional soil reclamation methods. The most prospective new technologies of soil reclamation appeared to be a combination of such biological methods as phytoremediation, bioaugmentation, and biostimulation.
Spicy Plant Raw Materials in Choux Dough
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Introduction. Semi-finished choux dough has neither vitamins nor minerals. However, its nutritional value can be increased by adding vegetable raw materials. The research objective was to evaluate the possibilities of using spicy vegetable raw materials in the formulation of semi-finished choux dough.
Study objects and methods. The study featured fresh parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum), celery (Apium) leaves and stems, and IR-dried powder of celery stalks. Standard research methods were used to determine the sensory, physico-chemical, and nutritional properties of the resulting choux samples.
Results and discussion. Classical semi-finished choux dough with craquelin served as control sample. Fresh spicy vegetable raw materials degraded the sensory characteristics of the product. However, powdered celery stalks did not interfere with the taste of the choux dough. They were added in the amount of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% by weight of wheat flour. The celery powder gave the dough a sour-spicy flavor, as well as increased the content of vitamins B (up to 10%) and beta-carotene (up to 70%) in the finished product.
Conclusion. The sample with 5% of IR-dried celery powder proved optimal for choux dough. It increased the content of vitamin B2 and beta-carotene, thus improving the nutritional value of the semi-finished product. In future, the powder can be tested as part of bakery filling in combination with ingredients that mask the typical celery taste.