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ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)
Alexander Yu. Prosekov, Editor-in-Chief, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences
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Journal «Food Processing: Techniques and Technology»

Dear readers, we are glad to inform you that our Journal has received a favourable review from the Content Selection & Advisory Board (CSAB). The CSAB has recommended to accept the title for inclusion in Scopus.​ Congratulations to our authors, reviewers, and members of the editorial board!

Founded in 1998, Food Processing: Techniques and Technology (the Journal) is an open access, double-blind peer-reviewed quarterly journal that encompasses a wide range of food research areas in Russia and neighboring regions. Articles are published in Russian; metadata, table headers, and figure captions are given in English.

The Journal’s mission is to present, integrate and disseminate the most important results of fundamental and applied research in the food industry of Russia and the CIS countries. We aim to create scientific content that would reflect the current state of food science in the post-Soviet space.

Volume 52, Issue 1 (2022)

New Structured Dairy Products Based on Quality Complaints and Risk Qualimetry
Abstract
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Successful food production business depends on how well entrepreneurs identify, assess, and take into account various risks, including technological, at the stage of product design. The analysis of quality complaints and consumer opinions is vital for product design or improvement. The research objective was to develop structured dairy products based on the quality complaint analysis and risk qualimetry.
The research featured quality complaints and factors that affect the quality of structured dairy products. It involved the methodology of the technological risk qualimetry and generally accepted control tools and quality assessment methods.
Popular structured dairy products were identified and tested for the weight coefficients of their consumer properties and technological risks. The analysis covered five years of quality complaints and made it possible to identify and rank the reasons behind nonconforming structured dairy products. Matrix diagrams helped to forecast various factors, e.g. those based on raw materials or formulation, technological, organizational, etc. The diagrams reflected the degree of factor influence onthe identified risks. The research established control coefficients of each risk, as well as the importance of each factor as a risk management tool. The article introduces several risk management tools related to nonconforming products and aimed at improving consumer properties at the design stage. It also features the formulation of a new structured curd product with production technology and technical documentation.
The proposed approach to the development of structured dairy products is based on risk qualimetry and takes into account quality complaints. It provides a prompt formulation assessment, guarantees high consumer properties, and minimizes the risks of producing nonconforming products.
Regional Experience in Supporting the Development of Agricultural Consumer Cooperation
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The development of agricultural consumer cooperation in Russia is one of the main tasks of national food security. The research objective was to analyze the current state of agricultural consumer cooperation in the Lipetsk region, Altai Territory, and the Republic of Tatarstan, as well as their development prospects.
The research featured agricultural consumer cooperatives and their market environment. It was based on empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, modeling, and abstraction.
The paper introduces various patterns of formation and development of agricultural cooperation at the regional level. In the Lipetsk region, the number of agricultural consumer cooperatives was found to increase every year. The regional three-level system for managing the development of “region – district – settlement” cooperation proved to be very effective, as did the local cooperation development institutions. The Altai territory appeared to have implemented a pilot model of agricultural consumer cooperation. This model allows cattle farmers who received financial support from the Agrostartup to sell their products to a cooperative. In the Republic of Tatarstan, agricultural consumer cooperation is based on models that are specific for each area.
The Lipetsk region appeared to be on the cutting edge of cooperation development. The three-level management they use coordinates the efforts of local authorities and regional governments in the chain “settlement – district – region”. This integrated approach provides an effective regional system of agricultural consumer cooperation in the Russian Federation.
Effect of Polysaccharide Compounds on the Stability of Oil-In-Water Emulsions during Storage
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Polysaccharides interact synergistically to form sedimentation-resistant emulsions. However, data on the effect of polysaccharide combinations on oxidative stability are scarce. Sedimentation and oxidative stability are equally important for fat emulsion products. In fact, emulsions owe their stability to various substances of polysaccharide nature. The research objective was to study the effect of polysaccharides and their combinations on the oxidative and sedimentation stability of direct emulsions during storage.
The study involved direct emulsions of sunflower oil, stabilized polysaccharides, and their combinations. The dispersed phase of sunflower oil was gradually added to the continuous phase of dissolved polysaccharides with intensive stirring. The emulsions were stored at 60°C for eight days. The sedimentation stability was assessed by analyzing sedimentation rate, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and droplet size. The oxidative stability was studied using standard methods for determining the peroxide value and conjugated dienes.
The emulsions had an average particle size from 6.78 ± 2.50 to 12.67 ± 6.53 µm. The samples based on xanthan gum and its combinations with other polysaccharides showed the highest sedimentation stability: exfoliated liquid proportion was 0–5.3%, highly esterified pectin being the only exception. The samples based on locust bean gum and its combination with low esterified pectin demonstrated the highest oxidative stability: peroxide value – 9.85 ± 0.45 mEq/kg. The lowest oxidative stability was found in the sample of locust bean gum with highly esterified pectin: peroxide value – 1.44 ± 0.85 mEq/kg. The combination of locust bean gum and xanthan gum provided satisfactory sedimentation (exfoliated liquid proportion – 2.2%) and oxidative (peroxide value – 11.8 ± 1.1 mEq/kg) stability of the emulsion. The experiment revealed weak correlation (r = – 0.096) between the sedimentary and oxidative stability parameters. Therefore, it was the nature of the polysaccharides themselves that affected these systems. The authors proposed such modes of action as metal chelating, free radical scavenging, and adding polysaccharide phenolic com-pounds.
Combinations of different polysaccharides increased the sedimentation and oxidative stability of direct emulsions. The research results can help food producers to develop new types of stable emulsion-based fat products.
Hybrid Strategy of Bioinformatics Modeling (in silico): Biologically Active Peptides of Milk Protein
Abstract
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Bioinformatic analysis methods are an auxiliary tool in the preliminary stage of research into biocatalytic conversion of proteins with predicted release of biologically active peptides. However, there are a number of factors ignored in current strategies for designing biologically active peptides, which prevents the complete prediction of their biological properties. This determines the relevance of the research objective, i.e. developing a hybrid strategy for bioinformatic modeling to study biologically active peptides of milk protein. The new strategy ranks key criteria based on high-performance algorithms of proteomic database.
The research featured the scientific publications on in silico methods applied to biologically active peptides. Modern taxonometric methods of information retrieval were applied using the RSCI, Scopus and Web of Science databases.
The article introduces and describes step by step the optimal in silico hybrid strategy algorithm for studying biologically active milk protein peptides. The algorithm takes into account the safety assessment of all hydrolysis products, their physicochemical and technological properties. The strategy algorithm relies on analytical data on the protein profile, the amino acid sequence of proteins that make up the raw material, taking into account their polymorphism, and the subsequent identification of bioactive amino acid sites in the protein structure. The algorithm selects optimal enzyme preparations, as well as models the hydrolysis and assesses the peptide bioactivity using proteomic databases.
At the preliminary stage of protein hydrolysis, the new in silico strategy scientifically predicts the targeted release of stable peptide complexes of biologically active peptides with proven bioactivity, safety and sensory characteristics. The hybrid algorithm contributes to accumulation of the necessary primary data so as to reduce the time and cost of laboratory experiments.
Effect of Vibration on the Porosity and Strength of Instant Drink Granules
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Instant food products are extremely popular, and food industry knows numerous ways and methods of their production. To remain competitive, an instant drink production process should be efficient and flawless. The research objective was to improve the physical profile of granular instant products.
The study featured a vibrating drum unit controlled segregated flows. The granulometric composition, porosity, and strength of the obtained granules were tested in a vertical vibration cl assifier.
The new design of the drum with an installed classifier was able to grind larger granules. The research revealed the effect of frequency and amplitude on the porosity and strength of the granules. The rotation rate of the belt mixer had a greater effect on the agglomeration process than the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations in the generator. The porosity and strength of the granules depended on the parameters of the classifier. Therefore, the new drum design made it possible to control the operating parameters depending on the required properties of the finished product. The rational parameters were obtained as follows: frequency and amplitude of the vibration generator – 1 mm and 40 Hz, respectively; rotation speed – 7 rpm; drum tilt angle – 3°; amplitude and frequency of the classifier – 2 mm and 100 Hz, respectively.
The study revealed the optimal technological parameters for a new instant drink. The new vibration classifier increased the distribution density of the granular composition.
Innovative Environment in Public Catering
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Public catering is a very specific sphere with a number of factors that hinder innovative development. As a result, local public catering businesses require innovative elements that would be tailored for their needs. The research objective was to analyze the prospects of the public catering industry in the Kemerovo Region and design an instrument for its innovative environment.
The research featured public catering enterprises, food industry universities, consumers, and market, as well as related products, services, and technologies. It also involved such elements of local innovation infrastructure as business incubators, technology transfer centers, core facility centers, and industry-specific innovation clusters. The analysis relied on such basic methods as analysis, generalization, systematization, and synthesis.
State regulation stimulates research and innovative activity by financing projects in priority areas of science and technology. For example, programs UMNIK and START choose applicants with the best innovative project. These programs need new methods of selecting the winners and organizing their cooperation. The research offers a stage-by-stage mechanism of interaction, goal setting, and decision making. The infrastructure elements belonged to the innovation cycle: a student business incubator, an Infopark, a core facility center, a technology transfer center, and a industry-specific cluster. Industry-specific clusters proved effective for the public catering sector.
Innovative activity makes sense when it is integrated with universities and regional infrastructure. Regional food catering infrastructure needs innovative elements and innovative projects, and industry-specific clusters can bring these novelties to the market.
Determining the Residual Amount of Amphenicol Antibiotics in Milk and Dairy Products
Abstract
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Controlling the level of amphenicol antibiotics in animal products is an important task for the contemporary food industry. Amphenicols are widely used in agriculture. Residual antibiotic substances enter the human body with food of animal origin, e.g. milk, and may lead to resistance to antimicrobial drugs. The research objective was to analyze scientific publications on various methods for identifying residual amphenicol antibiotics in milk and dairy products.
The review covered six years of Russian and foreign publications from the PubMed databases of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (USA), Scopus and ScienceDirect databases of the Elsevier, the Web of Science platform, and the domestic electronic library eLibrary.Ru.
Screening and quantification proved to be the main methods for their determination. Chromatographic methods, i.e. various types of high performance liquid chromatography, appeared to be especially effective. These methods often experience problems with sample preparation because milk tends to clog the capillary. Thus, food science needs further studies in the field of milk purification and isolation of amphenicols.
The article describes the main methods for identifying amphenicol antibiotics in milk and dairy products and defines the prospect of further research.
Effect of Dry Maturation Time and the Curing Composition on Proteins in High Quality Beef
Abstract
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Meat quality largely depends on the maturation conditions and natural biochemical processes that affect its taste, aroma, tenderness, and technological properties. Dry maturation and technological processing attract a lot of scientific attention. The research objective was to study the effect of dry maturation time on the physicochemical parameters of high-quality beef, as well as the effect of a new curing mix on the properties of raw materials.
The research featured dorsal-lumbar cuts of high-quality beef on maturation days 21 and 40. Matured meat was tested for the main components, the solubility of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins, the hydrophobicity of myofibrillar proteins, protein oxidation products, and the activity of catalase and peroxidase. The chemical composition was evaluated depending on the dry maturation time using the arbitration method. The solubility of proteins was determined by the calorimetric method with a biuret reagent. The hydrophobicity of myofibrillar proteins was determined by bromophenol blue reaction, and the activity of catalase and peroxidase was determined by standard methods. Proteins were extracted with potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.2), while myofibrillar proteins were extracted with Tris-HCl and KCl buffers at pH 7.5 and 7.0.
The meat samples were deboned and salted using sodium chloride and a combined mix of 70% magnesium chloride and 30% sodium chloride. The solubility of myofibrillar proteins on day 21 increased by 23.95% but decreased by 14.1% by day 40. The solubility of sarcoplasmic proteins decreased continuously (22.10 and 31.12%, respectively). The obtained data matched the hydrophobicity of proteins. Dry maturation initiated protein oxidation, as demonstrated by carbonyl and sulfhydryl groups of myofibrillar proteins on maturation day 40 (27.85 nmol/L and 27.3 µmol/g of protein, respectively). Sodium chloride and its mix increased the extractability of proteins by 5.2 and 6.9% on day 21 and by 6.8 and 10.6% on day 40 but triggered protein oxidation.
Muscle proteins of high-quality beef proved functional after 21 days of dry maturation. The new mix with reduced sodium content can be recommended for high-quality dry-aged beef production.
Fractionation of Bulk Food Products
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Powders are part of many food products, which makes grinding an important food industry process. The research objective was to develop a new process of separating a polydisperse powder that differs in particle density from the liquid it is dissolved in.
The study featured polydisperse sugar powder crushed in a ball mill and dissolved in sugar wafer suspension. The article introduces a physical and mathematical model of the process and a method for quantitative modeling of the process of separating particles from powder by centrifuging the suspension.
The research was based on the classical concept of the diameter of a particle moving in a predetermined manner in the inter-barrel space of the separator drum. The authors developed a new concept of the current critical particle diameter, which they calculated from the dispersion composition of the powder synthetic indicators, the control parameter of the suspension separation process, and the performance of the separating machine, e.g. coefficients of clarification and loss factor. The study resulted in a new calculation method with fewer fractionation stages.
The authors calculated the separation of targeted particles from a granulometric composition by centrifuging the powder. The calculation method fits any fine and medium-dispersed particle size and can facilitate any quantitative analysis of fractionation processes in a disc separator.
Consumer Qualities and Potential Relevance of Dairy Alternatives from Domestic Beans and Peas
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The contemporary market of dairy alternatives offers non-alcohol beverages of plant origin, fermented beverages, tofu, etc. Non-alcohol beverages from germinated beans and peas of Russian varieties are new for Russian consumers. This research featured their prospective market demand, key performance criteria, and market capacity.
The research featured functional products based on vegetable dispersion from germinated peas and beans of Russian cultivars, e.g. beverages, ice cream, tofu, bakery products, etc. The experiment involved standard qualitative and quantitative methods of marketing research and physicochemical studies.
The market analysis of consumer preferences for dairy alternatives established that 29.1% of the population and 70.9% of non-regular customers consistently consume dairy alternatives. The most common segment of population (91.4%) included women aged 20–50. As for the demand, the research provided a ranked list of consumer requirements; each product was tested for compliance with consumer requirements. The Russian bean and pea cultivars were differentiated according to target use. The developed products proved cheaper than their market analogues. In addition, they meet the safety requirements and have fewer calories and more proteins.
The new dairy alternatives appeared to have good competitive quality indicators and are likely to have a high market demand.
New Nitrogen-Containing Raw Materials in Distillate Technology
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Grain bran is used mostly in animal farming and food industry. However, grain bran can also serve as an alternative source of nitrogenous substances in distillate technology. The present research objective was to study the complex of water-soluble nitrogenous compounds in grain bran and to identify the effect of the bran type and its granulometric characteristics on their composition and concentration.
The research featured 30 industrial grain samples of wheat, rye, and triticale, as well as the corresponding bran samples. The total protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method, the size modulus – by sieving. In the bran aqueous phase, the protein content was measured using the Lowry method, the amine nitrogen content – by the copper method, and the free amino acid content – by the high-performance liquid chromatography.
In bran, the content of total protein increased by 16–28%, the proportion of water-soluble forms of nitrogenous compounds increased by 6–29%, and the free amino acids increased by 1.4–2.3 times, if compared with the grain samples. The proportion of soluble proteins in the rye bran was 15–30% higher than in other types. The types of bran had a different content of individual amino acids. A high correlation was observed between the modulus of the bran size, the mass concentration of soluble proteins, and the free amino acids. The proportion of soluble proteins reached 44.1% as the size modulus decreased. The samples of rye bran demonstrated the maximal growth of this indicator. Bran, regardless of the type of raw material and particle size distribution, had a higher concentration of free amino acids in comparison with the original grain. The experiment revealed the following linear dependence: the proportion of free amino acids in bran increased by 46–54% as the size modulus decreased by 0.72–0.85. The article introduces linear dependence equations for each type of bran, as well as the percentage of free amino acids for the change in the size modulus per unit.
Aqueous extracts of small-size rye grain bran proved to have good prospects for distillate technology. According to the evaluation of the nitrogen-containing complex of various grain bran types, small-size rye bran had more advantages in terms of soluble protein forms and free amino acids. Further research will feature the fermentation activity of yeast in distillate production to develop specific sensory properties.
Autumn and Winter Diet of Phasianus colchicus in the Central Ciscaucasia
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Pheasants are game birds that feed on many insect pest species. The study of the pheasant food spectrum, especially in the autumn and winter period, is relevant and can be used to assess the food supply of birds in natural habitats and form the diet when they are bred in captivity. The authorities of the Stavropol Region try to preserve pheasant diversity and rationalize its use. In this respect, pheasants’ autumn-winter diet in natural environment is an important research subject that can help poultry farmers.
The research featured the common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) inhabiting various biotopes of the Stavropol Territory. The visual food spectrum analysis was based on the stomachs of birds killed by hunters in October–January 2011–2021.
The morning and evening visual observation included eight observation points located on linear routes and stationary sites of the Stavropol Territory. The analysis featured 94 stomachs obtained from the Stepnoye area and 28 stomachs from other areas of the Stavropol Region. Matured seeds and grains represented more than 50% of the stomach content and included wheat, corn, narrow-leaved oleaster, etc. Some samples contained a large number of ants with a minimal content of other foods.
In the Central Ciscaucasia, pheasants inhabit communal gardens, river valleys, agricultural fields, and forest belts. Nowadays, they can be found in urban areas, where they prefer quasi-natural habitats, e.g. green backyards overgrown with such thorny bushes as oleaster, sea buckthorn, blackberry, blackthorn, wild rose, etc. Pheasants are omnivorous; their autumn and winter diet includes cultivated and wild fruits and seeds, as well as insect larvae.
Rating System for Quality Control of Functional Instant Drinks
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Excessive information about a functional product and its qualitative characteristics increases the competitiveness of the product and requires constant monitoring. The present research objective was to develop a rating system of qualitative characteristics for functional instant drinks. The system relied on the method of multidimensional statistical analysis and involved the main descriptors of consumer criteria and sensory properties of the product.
The study featured functional instant fruit and berry drinks, e.g. raspberry, cranberry, cranberry, black currant, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, apricot, peach, apple, etc. The methods included a focus group approach, a sensory analysis, a new ordinal scale, and a modified method of multivariate statistical evaluation (PCA).
The authors introduced a unified score scale for sensory evaluation of functional instant drinks, which reflected both standard quality indicators and consumer selection criteria. A modified method of multivariate statistical evaluation (PCA) was used to identify the characteristics that consumers see as the most important. The resulting rating system of the main descriptors reflects the information about consumer preferences and reveals significant sensory characteristics and indicators of quality of functional instant drinks. Clustering revealed two groups of consumers, young people aged 18–29 and those aged 30–59, with their own defining quality indicators.
The article contains some useful labeling recommendations for producers of functional instant beverages. The recommendations can increase the competitiveness of the product and meet consumer demand for information. The new scale can be used for various types of functional fruit and berry drinks.
Effect of Electrochemically Activated Water on the Quality Indicators of Dough and Wheat Flour Products
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Electrochemically activated water has a high physicochemical and biological activity. It interacts with food ingredients and affects the baking process in a different way than untreated water. The research objective was to study the effect of the anodic and cathodic fractions of electrochemically activated water on the quality indicators of wheat flour, dough, and bread.
The study featured electrochemically activated water fractions, wheat flour, yeast, dough, and wheat bread. It employed standard physicochemical and organoleptic methods of analysis to study the redox potential and pH of electrochemically activated water during relaxation.
The indicators returned to the initial level, but they changed significantly after 72 h. The experiment included the quantity and quality of gluten, extensibility and hydration, water-retaining capacity of flour, yeast fermentation, titratable acidity, dough fermentation rate, and the quality of finished products. The anolyte did not change the quality of gluten but decreased its amount by 2.0–3.7%, probably due to a weaker protein hydration. As for the effect of catholyte on the quality of gluten, the bonds between proteins became stronger in weak as the measurement of gluten deformation index decreased by 11.3%; they relaxed in stronger as the measurement of gluten deformation index increased by 20%. Catholyte increased the water-retaining capacity of weak flour by 11.7% and that of resistant gluten – by 5.3%. It also activated yeast cells. The samples of bread cooked on catholyte had a greater specific volume by 3.7–5.4% and porosity – by 2.3–4.6%, compared to the samples cooked on anolyte. The research also included a comparative analysis of the shape of the hearth bread samples. It confirmed that the catholyte strengthened the dough when the flour was weak and relaxed it when resistant gluten was used.
The research revealed some patterns regarding the effect of electrochemically activated water fractions on the amount and properties of gluten, water-retaining capacity of flour, yeast activity, and bread quality indicators. The results can be used to correct the properties of dough from low-quality flour, as well as for reagent-free control of the properties and behavior of food and biological raw materials.
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) Beer with Antioxidant Properties
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Fruits and berries increase the antioxidant activity of beer. Elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) contain biologically active compounds with high antioxidant capacity. The research objective was to develop a new kind of beer with elderberries introduced at different stages of the technological process, as well as to study the antioxidant activity of this functional drink.
The pH was determined with a pH meter, the carbohydrate content and color – with a spectrophotometer, the optical density – with a spectrophotometer, the total polyphenol content – by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, the antioxidant activity – by the DPPH radical scavenging method, and the absorption – with a UV-visible spectrophotometer at λ = 517 nm.
Elderberries added in the amount of 62.5 and 125 g/dm3 increased the degree of fermentation. According to the European Brewing Convention, the optimal beer color is 22.29 units. To achieve this standard, elderberries had to be added 15 min after the start of boiling the wort. When elderberries were added to the cooled wort, its color decreased by 6.97 units. The concentration of elderberries appeared to have a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity of the finished product: more elderberries meant more polyphenols. The pH did not change during the brewing process and remained within the standard limit of 4.25–4.81. When the concentration of elderberries was 1.25 g/dm3, the antioxidant activity increased by 13.4 times, at 125 g/dm3 – by 22 times. The beer reached its maximal antioxidant activity when elderberries were added to uncooled wort after boiling; it decreased by 16.1% when elderberries were added after cooling the wort.
The content of polyphenols in elderberry beer depended on the concentration of elderberries, while the color and antioxidant capacity – on the amount of elderberries and the stage of the technological process. Unfiltered and unpasteurized elderberries maximized the antioxidant activity and nutritional value of the finished product. The new beer sort will allow microbreweries to expand their product range and attract new consumers.
Digital Marketing Communications in the Sports Nutrition Market
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Healthy diet and lifestyle are especially important during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, more and more people of all age groups are getting involved into various sports and healthy diets. These factors have boosted the development of the sports nutrition industry. The current situation requires detailed studies of consumer preferences and digital marketing communications. The present research objective was to identify the role of digital marketing communications in sports nutrition.
The study featured the consumer preferences in the market of sports nutrition and included an on-line survey of 500 residents of the Kuzbass Region engaged in various sports. The obtained results underwent statistical, economic, and graphic analyses.
Men aged 18–29 appeared to be the main consumers of sports nutrition in Kuzbass. Most of them (90%) relied on the competent advice from the seller or coach and purchased sports foods in specialized shops or online. The target audience of sports nutrition consumers is expanding, which requires new promotion means. Digital marketing tools proved extremely effective as they bring information to the target audience in a tailored manner via social nets or influential bloggers.
The article contains some recommendations for producers and sellers of sports foods based on the requirements of the main target consumers and their preferences regarding the place of purchase, content, communication channels, etc. The priority is shifting from traditional marketing communication channels to digital ones, i.e. contextual, targeted, and viral advertising, social media promotion, consultations with a shop assistant or a fitness club coach, direct online marketing, sponsorship of various sports events, joint online promotions with fitness club, etc.
Pulsed Electric Field Processing as an Effective Tomato Peeling Method
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Electrophysical technologies are a global trend of sustainable agriculture and food industry. Peeling is an energy-intensive procedure of fruit and vegetable processing. The research featured the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on tomato peeling effectiveness. The assessment included such factors as specific effort, energy costs, and product losses in comparison with thermal and electrophysical methods.
Tomatoes of Aurora variety underwent a PEF treatment at 1 kV/cm. The expended specific energy was 1, 5, and 10 kJ/kg. The tomatoes were visually evaluated with optical microscopy before and after processing. The peeling effectiveness and mass loss were measured with a texture analyzer and digital scales.
The PEF treatment decreased the specific force of mechanical peel removal by 10% (P < 0.05). The mass loss decreased by 4% (P < 0.05) at 1 kJ/kg. The PEF method resulted in cell electroporation, which activated the internal mass transfer of moisture from the endocarp region between the mesocarp and the integumentary tissue. The hydrostatic pressure produced a layer of liquid, which facilitated the peeling.
In comparison with thermal treatment (blanching), ohmic heating, and ultrasonic processing, the PEF technology had the lowest production losses and energy costs. The research proves the prospects of the PEF treatment in commercial tomato processing.
Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Protein Concentrates from Camelina sativa Oil Cake
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Brassicaceae plants can serve as a soy alternative to protein concentrates and isolates. Enzymatic extraction is a promising alternative to degreasing oilseeds as it requires no organic solvents and produces high-quality protein products. The research featured the effect of the enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulolytic and proteolytic enzymes on Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz oil cake. The objective was to reduce the residual oil content and increase the protein yield.
Protein concentrates were isolated from seed cake obtained by cold pressing. The method involved sequential hydrolysis with enzyme preparations BrewZyme BGX and Meito renin, followed by alkaline extraction and precipitation at an isoelectric point. The amount of protein in the concentrates was determined by the Kjeldahl method, and the amino acid composition – by capillary electrophoresis.
The experiment revealed the optimal concentrations and time, at which the enzymatic hydrolysis effectively removed the residual oil and increased the protein yield. When BrewZyme BGX was applied at a concentration of 8 mg/L for 120 min, it reduced the residual oil content by 5.53%. A further treatment with the proteolytic enzyme Microbial Meito Rennet for 60–120 min increased the protein yield by 10.56–11.33% compared with the fat-free sample. The biological value of protein concentrates obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis was 2% higher than for traditional approaches.
The enzymatic extraction made it possible to avoid the de-greasing stage and raise the protein yield up to 68.86% of the total protein content without reducing the biological value of the finished product.
THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON THE HEALTH OF SCHOOLCHILDREN AND STUDENTS OF THE KEMEROVO REGION
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The analysis of nutrition of schoolchildren and students of the Kemerovo region is presented in the article. On the results of the conducted analysis, the actual individual nutrition is estimated according to the content of the basic nutri-ents, and biologically active substances. The influence of nutrition on the health of the younger generation has been shown. To provide the schoolchildren’s bodies with necessary nutrients the way of correcting their diets by introducing biologically active additives has been offered.
Quality and Safety of Game Meat from the Biocenosis of the Beloosipovo Mercury Deposit
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Introduction. Mercury contamination is one of the most common environmental problems. The research objective was to study the qualitative composition and physicochemical properties of raw game meat obtained from the area near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit in order to define any possible contamination w ith xenobiotics. Study objects and methods. The research featured rib eye muscle tissue and soft flesh of elks shot on the hunting farms of the Kemerovo Region aka Kuzbass. Results and discussion. A complex set of experiments revealed the chemical composition of elk muscle tissue and flesh, as well as the mineral composition of elk muscle tissue. The samples were obtained from different parts of carcasses. The amino acid and fatty acid composition of elk muscle tissue made it possible to describe the biological value, mineral composition, and vitamin profile of elk meat. The physicochemical analysis included toughness, cooking losses, and moisture-retaining capacity, i.e. the properties that ensure juiciness. The research also featured the accumulation of xenobiotics in elk meat samples obtained from the biosinosis near the Beloosipovo merc ury deposit. Conclusion. The slaughter yield of elk meat was 51–53%, which exceeds the average yield of farm cattle meat by 4–6%. The moisture content was 73–78%, while the content of protein was between 20–24% and depended on the anatomical location of the muscle sample; the fat content reached 0.75–1.75%. The mercury accumulation at different storage temperature conditions ranged from 0.004 ± 0.001 to 0.009 ± 0.001 mg/kg, while the max imum allowable concentration of mercury is 0.03 mg/kg.
INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS WAYS OF MILK COAGULATION FOR THE PURPOSE OF MILK PROTEIN MICROPARTICLES FORMATION
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The purpose of the present work is the investigation and the development of the production technology of the low-calorie fat imitator on the basis of casein for the improvement of organoleptic properties of dairy products. Before the development of the technology it is necessary to choose an optimum way of milk protein coagulation. The object of the research was skim milk subjected to coagulation. The analysis of the obtained results has shown that the most rational way of coagulation for the formation of particles of the required sizes and forms is rennet coagulation. To form the particles of the required sizes and forms it is offered to start and to stop rennet coagulation at the moment when particles have already increased in size, but haven't yet formed a clot. On the basis of the presented data the production technology of protein microparticls that can be used as fat imitators in dairy products has been developed.
Fermented Cream for Curd Fortified with Probiotic Cultures: Biotechnological Aspects
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Introduction. Contemporary food industry strives to increase the production volume of high-quality and biologically complete protein products. The Foodnet market also raised the demand for functional foods in Russia. The research objective was to develop a new functional curd product fortified with probiotic microflora. Study objects and methods. The study featured cow’s milk, skimmed milk, cream, whey protein concentrate Milkiland-WPC 80, pollen, glutamine, starter cultures DVS Danisco Probat 576 and Howaru Bifido ARO-1, buckwheat flour, and oat flour. The experiment included physicochemical, sensory, biochemical, and microbiological methods. Results and discussion. The milk-protein base of the curd product was produced in a GEA Westfalia KDB 30 curd separator. The research involved 15 and 20% cream with two different starter cultures. In case of 15% cream, Probat 576 Howaru Bifido appeared to be 1.66 times more active than ARO-1 Howaru Bifido, in case of 20% cream the result was even higher – 1.73 times. Probat 576 also demonstrated a better active acidity, i.e. 5.5 after three hours, which was two hours faster than ARO-1. Mathematical modeling revealed the positive effect of buckwheat and oat flour on the cream fermentation process. Oat flour (5%) was the optimal prebiotic, while buckwheat flour added its color to the final product, thus spoiling its market quality. Conclusion. The new biotechnology for a curd product fortified with probiotic cultures can expand the range of functional products for sports diet.
CLASSIFICATION OF PREPARATIOPNS TO PROMOTE YEAST VITAL ACTIVITY
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Problems concerning the efficiency of production processes and manufacturing high quality goods are important for productions based on the activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The paper identifies major reasons for the need to regulate yeast culture metabolism, considers existing practice and proposed methods of changing its metabolic activity. The purpose of the research is to create the classification of the supplements / preparations of different origin to improve yeast vital activity by adjusting its culture medium composition with the use of complex hierarchical faceted method. The classification is based on the division of the set of "supplements / preparations to enhance yeasts vitality" into subsets related to the intended use of the preparation, stage of its application, chemical and structural organization, and ultimate goals. Preparations are divided into groups for various purposes: to fill in the medium with missing compounds and / or additional enrichment with biostimulating components; to extract undesirable components from the medium for the yeast development; preparations-stressors; antibacterial agents, creating favorable conditions for the development of basic yeast culture; contributing to the degradation of raw material biopolymers and intermediates. Medium composition adjustment is possible at the stage of preparation the yeast for fermentation, directly at the main step of the technological process, during pure culture growing and seed yeast storage, at earlier stages of manufacture by processing raw materials or intermediates. According to chemical nature supplements / preparations can be organic, inorganic, mixed (complex) ones and those obtained by chemical or microbial synthesis or be of natural origin. This classification enables a more targeted approach to choosing preparations that provide the change of metabolic activity of the yeast culture by adjusting the composition of the culture medium.
Effects of Oils and Fats on the Quality Characteristics, Nutritional Value, and Storage Capacity of Cookies
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Introduction. The quality profile and nutritional values of cookies depend on the raw material. The research objective was to study the effect of oils and fats on the quality characteristics and storage capacity of cookies. Study objects and methods. The study involved such types of oils and fats as margarine, confectionery fat, milk fat substitute, palm oil, sunflower oil, and high oleic sunflower oil. It was based on standard methods of sensory, physicochemical, structural, and rheological analyses. Results and discussion. The experimental formulations relied on contemporary dilatory recommendations, consumer acceptability, and traditionality of sensory indicators. The mass fraction of fat was limited to ≤ 18%; added sugars – to ≤ 22%; salt – to ≤ 0.3%. For each type of oil and fat, as set of experiments was performed to define the optimal technological emulsion and dough parameters. Other aspects involved the patterns of moisture transfer, indicators of oxidative spoilage, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, physicochemical and microbiological indicators, storage capacity, etc. The samples with vegetable oils instead of fat had a lower content of saturated fatty acids, which fell from 8–9 to 2–3 g/100 g. However, the risk of oxidative spoilage increased significantly. On storage day 104, the content of linoleic acid in the samples with sunflower oil decreased from 62.0 to 60.4%, while the samples with high oleic sunflower oil maintained the same level of linoleic acid. The samples with confectionery fat and palm oil demonstrated the lowest rate of oxidative processes, while those with margarine and milk fat substitute had the best sensory profile after storage. Conclusion. The cookies with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil appeared to have a shelf life of two months, while for those with milk fat substitute, margarine, palm oil, and confectionery fat it was six months. Further research should focus on various emulsifiers and antioxidants capable of forming bonds with proteins and starch fractions of flour, which could increase the resistance of liquid vegetable oils to oxidation.
Callus cultures of Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense as a source of geroprotectors
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Introduction. Geroprotectors are biologically active substances that inhibit the aging process. Many plant species are natural geroprotectors. For instance, Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense are callus cultures with strong geroprotective properties. Study objects and methods. The present research featured T. vulgaris and T. pratense grown in vitro on various nutrient media. Their extracts were obtained by aqueous-alcoholic extraction using the following parameters: water-ethanol solvent Se = 30, 50, and 70 %; temperature Te = 30, 50, and 70°C; time τe = 2, 4, and 6 h. The quantitative and qualitative analysis was based on high-performance liquid mass spectrometry, gas mass spectrometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The optimal extraction parameters for T. vulgaris were τe = 4 h, Te = 50°C, Se = 70 %, for T. pratense – τe = 6 h, Te = 70°C, Se = 70 %. The chromatography detected flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, simple phenols, higher fatty acids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. T. vulgaris appeared to have the highest content of thymol (23.580 ± 1.170 mg/mL); its thymol, apigenin, gallic, chlorogenic, and caffeic components demonstrated geroprotective properties. The extract of T. pratense possessed the highest rutin content (10.05 ± 0.35 mg/mL), and it owed its geroprotective characteristics to rutin, chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids. Conclusion. The callus cultures of T. vulgaris and T. pratense proved to be promising sources of geroprotective biologically active substances.
Spicy Plant Raw Materials in Choux Dough
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Introduction. Semi-finished choux dough has neither vitamins nor minerals. However, its nutritional value can be increased by adding vegetable raw materials. The research objective was to evaluate the possibilities of using spicy vegetable raw materials in the formulation of semi-finished choux dough. Study objects and methods. The study featured fresh parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum), celery (Apium) leaves and stems, and IR-dried powder of celery stalks. Standard research methods were used to determine the sensory, physico-chemical, and nutritional properties of the resulting choux samples. Results and discussion. Classical semi-finished choux dough with craquelin served as control sample. Fresh spicy vegetable raw materials degraded the sensory characteristics of the product. However, powdered celery stalks did not interfere with the taste of the choux dough. They were added in the amount of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% by weight of wheat flour. The celery powder gave the dough a sour-spicy flavor, as well as increased the content of vitamins B (up to 10%) and beta-carotene (up to 70%) in the finished product. Conclusion. The sample with 5% of IR-dried celery powder proved optimal for choux dough. It increased the content of vitamin B2 and beta-carotene, thus improving the nutritional value of the semi-finished product. In future, the powder can be tested as part of bakery filling in combination with ingredients that mask the typical celery taste.
Quality and Optimal Shelf Life of Late Season Green Cabbage
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Introduction. Green cabbage has a short shelf life. As a result, it becomes scarce by March and April, often due to miscalculated sell-by-date. The research objective was to establish qualitative indicators and optimal shelf life of late season green cabbage. Study objects and methods. The study featured eleven late season varieties of green cabbage grown in alluvial meadow soil using N150P150K180 as fertilizer. The samples (25 cabbage heads) were put in layers into wooden containers with a capacity of 200–250 kg each and stored at 0...+1°C and a relative humidity of 90–95% for 7 months. By the end of storage, the samples were tested for the yield of marketable products, weight loss, diseases, etc. Results and discussion. The highest yield belonged to Gertsoginya F1 (80.4%), Kilaton F1 (78.6%), and Beaumont Agro F1 (77.7%). The optimal shelf life did not exceed 5–6 months. The yield of commercial products depended on the solid matter content (r = 0.81) and, to a lesser degree, on the average content of ascorbic acid (r = 0.52), monosaccharides (r = 0.55), and nitrates (r = 0.55). The weight loss had a negative mean relationship with the content of solids (r = –0.55), ascorbic acid (r = –0.49), and nitrates (r = –0.59). Conclusion. The optimal shelf life for most varieties and hybrids of green cabbage proved to be 4–5 months, whereas for Beau Monde Agro F1, Gertsoginya F1, Idilliya F1, and Kilaton F1, it was 5–6 months. Further research might reveal hybrids with longer shelf life.
Russian and Foreign Cultivars of Honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis Turcz.): cultivation studies in vitro
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Introduction. The demand for honeysuckle berries and planting material is growing. Clonal micropropagation is the most effective method for industrial plantations. The research objective was to study the effect of cytokinins and auxins on Russian and Canadian honeysuckle microshoots and roots. Study objects and methods. The study featured regenerated honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis Turcz.) of three Russian cultivars (Bakcharsky Velikan, Doch Velikana, Yugana) and two Canadian cultivars (Boreal Beauty, Boreal Beast). The experiment focused on the effect of sterilizing agents and sterilization time on the viability of honeysuckle explants at the stage of culture introduction in vitro. The effect of the growth regulator Cytodef in the QL nutrient medium on organogenesis was studied at the stage of micropropagation proper, the effect of auxin IBA on plant root formation – at the stage of rooting in vitro. Results and discussion. The greatest viability of honeysuckle explants (80–94%) was registered in the samples affected by Lizoformin 3000 (5%) and silver nitrate (0.2%) as sterilizing agents with a sterilization time of 10 min at the stage of in vitro culture introduction. The biggest quantity (8.8 pcs.) and total length (40.1 cm) of microshoots were observed when the content of cytokinin Cytodef in the culture medium QL was 0.3 mg/L at the stage micropropagation proper. The Boreal Beast cultivar had the largest total length of shoots (29.0 cm). The biggest quantity (5.5 pcs.) and total length (30.8 cm) of roots resulted from 0.5 mg/L of auxin IBA at the stage of rooting in vitro. Coconut substrate produced the highest survival rate (92–99%) at the stage of adaptation to non-sterile conditions in vivo, with the greatest number of leaves (8.1–10.2 pcs.) observed in Canadian cultivars. Conclusion. Cytodef and IBA proved to be effective growth-regulating substances for microplants of Russian and Canadian honeysuckle cultivars in vitro, which makes them promising for berry plantations.