ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)
Alexander Yu. Prosekov, Editor-in-Chief, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences
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Journal «Food Processing: Techniques and Technology»

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Founded in 1998, Food Processing: Techniques and Technology (the Journal) is an open access, double-blind peer-reviewed quarterly journal that encompasses a wide range of food research areas in Russia and neighboring regions. Articles are published in Russian; metadata, table headers, and figure captions are given in English.

The Journal’s mission is to present, integrate and disseminate the most important results of fundamental and applied research in the food industry of Russia and the CIS countries. We aim to create scientific content that would reflect the current state of food science in the post-Soviet space.

Volume 52, Issue 4 (2022)

Trehalose and Isomaltulose in the Technology of Sweetened Condensed Milk
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Sucrose is an important component in many foods. However, it can be dangerous for consumers’ health, if overconsumed. For instance, it may cause tooth decay. As a rule, sucrose provides sweetness and a certain dry matter content. Alternative sweeteners and bulking agents can also perform these two functions. Unfortunately, they almost always fail to serve as an osmotically active agent in canned products. The research objective was to study the properties of trehalose and isomaltulose as sugar substitutes in sweetened condensed milk.
The study covered fifteen years of domestic and foreign research reported in the open databases of the Russian Scientific Citation Index, Scopus, and Web of Science. The list of search descriptors included twelve words and word combinations, e.g., sweetened condensed milk, water activity, sucrose, trehalose, isomaltulose, etc.
The review focused primarily on the important properties of sucrose in the sweetened condensed milk and the physico-chemical features of the milk system. The analysis provided a system of criteria to evaluate the optimality of alternative substances for sweet concentrated milk production. These criteria were applied to trehalose and isomaltulose.
The article introduces a list of criteria that can be used to evaluate sweeteners and sugar substitutes as regulators of certain technological properties in the production of sweetened concentrated milk products with intermediate moisture content. According to these criteria, trehalose and isomaltulose can serve as alternative sweeteners in condensed milk. However, the review revealed some gaps in experimental data on a number of properties of considered carbohydrates in sweetened concentrated milk products, which imposes further research.
Effect of Yeast Biosorbents on Wine Quality
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Foreign food industries know a variety of products derived from wine yeast cells. These products are used to improve the sensory properties of wine. This article describes the effect of a new yeast biosorbent on the sensory and physicochemical properties of white and red wine, e.g., their sorption capacity for heavy metals.
The research featured red and white wines treated with the novel biosorbent. Glutarom (France) served as control. The study relied on various physicochemical, organoleptic, biochemical, and microbiological methods.
The biosorbent affected neither the volume fraction of ethyl alcohol nor the mass concentration of sugars and titrated acids. However, the biosorbent reduced the mass concentration of volatile acids in terms of acetic acid: it decreased by 20% in the white wines and by 50% in the red wine samples. The mass concentration of the reduced extract decreased by 0.2–0.7 g/dm3 as the amount of sorbent increased. In the white wine samples, the protein concentration decreased by 1.5–1.8 times, while the concentration of polysaccharides decreased by 110–115 mg/dm3. The content of phenolic compounds decreased by 13–37%, depending on the amount of the sorbent, due to their condensed forms. The biosorbent reduced the value of the redox potential. The yeast sorbents effectively adsorbed metal cations, including those of heavy metals. A set of experiments also revealed the difference in sorption time for different metal cations. The effectiveness of the biosorbent was dose-dependent. The wines treated with the biosorbent had better sensory assessment results, especially the red wine samples. They had a soft, round, and harmonious flavor and a bright aroma with pronounced varietal tones.
The novel biosorbent proved to have a good sorption capacity for phenolic compounds, as well as cations of toxic metals. It improved the sensory profile of the red and white wines. This biosorbent can substitute their imported analogs in the Russian wine industry.
Developing a Herbal Drink from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.): Effect of Process Parameters on the Quality of the Product
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Green asparagus is widely consumed fresh due to its high nutritional value and a low calorie content. However, its short shelf-life due to a high water content causes high postharvest losses. In this study, we aimed to develop an innovative asparagus herbal drink to ease postharvest losses and diversify asparagus-derived products.
We investigated the effects of process parameters on the quality of the herbal drink from green asparagus. In particular, we determined the optimal length and grinding size for asparagus and selected suitable blanching and drying methods. Analytical responses included the contents of total soluble solids, polyphenol, carbohydrates, and vitamin C, as well as the visual appearance of asparagus samples.
The length of 5 mm was found suitable for subsequent steps as it facilitated an increase in solute in the asparagus infusion. Microwave blanching and convective drying were selected to achieve high contents of total soluble solids, polyphenol, carbohydrates, and vitamin C in the asparagus infusion. Dried asparagus ground into 1.5–2.0 mm particles was packaged into tea bags. The asparagus infusion subjected to sensory evaluation had a yellowish color, a characteristic asparagus flavor, and a relatively sweet taste. Total soluble solids in the infusion amounted to 26%.
Our results showed a possibility of developing an asparagus herbal drink which could be a potent product in the commercial market. Therefore, further large-scale studies of the asparagus herbal drink should be carried out to enhance its feasibility in the food industry.
Pea and Chickpea Protein Concentrates: Quality Indicators
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Protein deficiency in human and animal diet demands novel protein components, e.g., various leguminous concentrates. This article compares the quality indicators of food and feed protein concentrates obtained by biotechnological and biosynthetic methods from pea and chickpea flour.
The research featured pea and chickpea protein concentrates; enzyme preparations Shearzym 500 L, Viscoferm L, Fungamyl 800 L, and Alcalase 2.4 L (Denmark); Saccharomyces and Geotrichum micromycetes yeasts. The protein concentrates were obtained from pea and chickpea flour using a new technology developed by the authors. The properties of the protein concentrates were studied by chemical, physicochemical, biochemical, and microbiological research methods.
The research resulted in new protein concentrates for human diet and microbial-vegetable feed concentrates. The protein content was 83.22 ± 0.35% on dry basis in the chickpea protein concentrate and 71.78 ± 0.35% on dry basis in the pea concentrate. The indicator of biological value, adjusted for protein digestibility, was 96% for the pea protein concentrate and 76% for the chickpea protein concentrate. The resulting protein concentrates differed in the content of essential amino acids, copper, cobalt, manganese, and nickel, as well as in phenolic acids and their derivatives. The chickpea concentrate had a greater foaming capacity and lower foam stability, which correlated with a greater content of phenolic acids, their derivatives, parallel β-structures, and antiparallel protein 310-helices. Both the concentrates had the same results in assimilating whey carbohydrates by the consortium of Saccharomyces and G. micromycete. Both types of the dry feed biomass contained 61.68–64.10% protein on dry basis, while the biomasses with culture liquid contained 47.15–51.09% protein on dry basis. The biologically complete feed concentrates differed in the mass fraction of fat, soluble and insoluble fibers, minerals, and fatty acids. The amounts of phenolic acids and their derivatives (mg/g of protein) in the raw materials and the concentrates correlated with the optical density of their aqueous solutions at D590 nm and the color of the preparations (R = 0.895).
The new pea and chickpea flour protein concentrates can be recommended as human food components, while the microbial-vegetable concentrates from pea and chickpea serum can improve the quality of raw materials of animal origin in animal feed.
Quality Analysis of Semi-Finished Product from Pinus sibirica Kernels
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Cedar-pine nut kernels are tasty and nutritious, which makes them a popular raw material. This research featured the effect of mechano-acoustic treatment on the quality of a novel semi-finished product from Pinus sibirica kernels.
The production technology included the following stages. A mix of kernels and water underwent mechano-acoustic treatment (100–500 W/kg) at 63–67°C for 20 min. After that, the mix was packaged, cooled, and stored in plastic jars at 2–6 and –18–22°C. The study relied on conventional and standard research methods.
The resulting light-cream homogeneous mass had a characteristic aroma and taste of cedar-pine nuts. Its nutrient composition was close to the original raw material: protein – 7.4%, fat – 22.6%, sugar – 1.4%, fiber – 1.4%, ash – 1.03%. However, the quantity of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms decreased by three orders of magnitude and that of yeast decreased by six times. In addition, the semi-finished product contained no non-spore-forming Escherichia coli. A set of sensory, physico-chemical, and microbiological tests revealed the shelf life of 14 days at 2–6°C and 24 months at –18–22°C.
The mechano-acoustic homogenizer made it possible to obtain a high-quality semi-finished product from Pinus sibirica nut kernels with a simple production technology, long shelf life, and great commercial potential.
Spices, Herbs, and Essential-Oil Plants: Yield and Fatty Acid Composition of Seeds
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Spices, herbs, and essential-oil plants provide a lot of marketable products, e.g., green mash, seeds, essential oils, etc. These raw materials find application in food industry, pharmacy, perfumery, traditional and folk medicine, landscape gardening, etc. The research objective was to test some new varieties of spices, aromatic herbs, and essential oil crops for their yield and fatty acid composition.
The study featured new varieties of medicinal hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.), garlic chives (Allium odorum L.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), blue fenugreek (Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser.), and big-root geranium (Geranium macrorrhizum L.). The yield of green mass and seeds was studied on the experimental field of the Belarusian State Agricultural Academy according to standard methods. A set of standard laboratory procedures made it possible to define the content of crude fat, while the fatty acid composition of seed lipids was studied by gas chromatography in extracts of methyl esters of fatty acids.
The green mass yield was 150–280 c/ha, whereas the seed yield was 0.5–4.0 c/ha; the crude fat content was 1.15–3.37 and 1.62–9.81%, respectively. The fatty acid composition of seed lipids included caprylic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids. The highest content of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids represented by linoleic and α-linolenic acids was observed in oregano (86.74–87.27%), hyssop (76.41–85.96%), tulsi (85.67%), basil (72.52–80.72%), rue (78.04%), and blue fenugreek (72.96%).
The specified yield and fatty acid composition provided a complete assessment of spices, herbs, and essential-oil plants with the prospect of their use as part of new functional products.
Defining the Composition of Fat Phase in Foods
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Trans-fatty acids enter the human body with hydrogenated fats. The oil and fat industry must inform consumers about the fatty acid composition of food products, including the content of saturated fatty acids and trans-isomers. This study used the method of instrumental analysis to determine the fatty-acid profile and the content of trans-fatty acids in margarine.
The research involved ten commercial samples of margarine. The fatty acid composition was studied by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The calibration graphs were based on standard mixes of methyl esters of individual fatty acids.
Some oils appeared to contain ≥ 17% of palmitic acid. The total content of saturated fatty acids was 20.04–38.84%; the content of monounsaturated acids ranged from 27.92 to 36.81%, while that of polyunsaturated acids was between 14.51 and 28.99%. The margarine samples contained no butter (dairy) fat. All the samples contained 0.01–23.06% of trans-fatty acids. If the share of trans-fats exceeded 2%, it meant that the technical regulations had been violated, and hydrogenated oils had been introduced into the formulations.
The highly specific mass spectrometric approach made it possible to detect trace trans-fatty acids, thus eliminating the chance of unreliable or false positive results. These methods proved to be an effective means of regulatory compliance and counterfeit prevention.
Acidification in Distillation Technology
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The quality of distillates depends on the biochemical composition of the raw material, the operating parameters of the wort production and fermentation, and the methods and modes of distillation. The active acidity of the medium (pH) can affect wort fermentation and distillation processes. The research objective was to study the effect of the active acidity of bakery waste wort on fermentation and distillation processes.
The study featured fermented wort samples from wheat bread, a mix of wheat and rye-wheat bread, and distillate fractions obtained by a single fractionated distillation of fermented wort. The distillation occurred in laboratory conditions in a direct distillation unit (Kothe Destillationstechnik, Germany) with a 10 dm3 cube. The effect of the acidification degree of saccharified wort on the fermentation efficiency was determined by the strength of the fermented wort. The composition of volatile components in the distillates was defined by gas chromatography in a Thermo Trace GC Ultra chromatograph (Thermo, USA).
When the pH of saccharified wort fell from 5.5 to 4.5–3.5, the synthesis of higher alcohols and ethers of higher fatty acids decreased during fermentation, while the acetone mass concentration increased. The acidification of fermented wort to pH = 3.5–3.0 at the distillation stage had a positive effect on the distillates from recyclable baking waste. This technique increased the yield of the middle fraction (distillate) by reducing the loss of absolute alcohol with the head and tail fractions. The concentration of acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate in the middle fraction decreased by 1.5 times while the content of enanthic ether components increased by more than 75%. As a result, the sensory profile increased by 0.4–0.5 points. The distillates from the mix of wheat and rye-wheat bread were superior to distillates from wheat bread. The statistical analysis provided the following criteria for a qualitative assessment of the distillates from recyclable baking waste: the mass concentration of acetaldehyde and the ratio of alcohols C5 to the sum of alcohols C3 and C4.
Pre-fermentation oxidation of saccharified wort proved impractical for bakery waste recycling, whereas acidification of fermented wort before distillation increased the distillate yield and improved its sensory profile.
Sustainable Raw Material Base as a Factor of Competitiveness of Cheese-Making Enterprises
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Russian cheese producers strive to increase their production. A sustainable best-experience raw material base can solve this problem. The authors analyzed the raw material supply in the leading cheese-producing countries in order to develop a system of new targets for Russian cheesemakers.
The study featured the performance indicators of the world's leading cheese producers in terms of raw material supply. It relied on scientific, regulatory, and legislative documents. The study also included databases (2017–2022) published by the Federal State Statistics Service, the dairy economic consulting firm CLAL, and the Atlas Big site of international and regional data statistics. The data were processed by statistical methods, e.g., generalization, systematization, distribution, etc., and econometrics, e.g., correlation, regression analysis, etc. The authors calculated the statistical characteristics of raw material supply indicators, assessed the interfactorial relationships, and obtained regression equations to describe these relationships in quantitative terms.
The calculations involved the volumes of total and per capita cheese production in various regions of the world. The group of leaders included twenty countries with an average production per capita of 26.5 kg. The key indicators of raw material supply included milk production per capita, livestock, structure, and milk cattle productivity. The research revealed some raw material problems in the domestic cheese industry. For instance, domestic milk production per capita (206.3 kg) is below the average for the leading countries (489.4 kg). This issue is associated with the low milk cattle productivity, which is 4492 kg in the Russian Federation and 7061 kg in the leading cheese-producing countries. The regression equations used determination coefficients of ≥ 0.8 to calculate the main parameters of the domestic cheese-making base that would meet dairy food security criteria. A milk production of 388 kg per capita proved to be the minimal amount that would guarantee food security in the domestic cheese sector. However, the existing number of cows (7.9 million) means that the milk productivity cannot fall below 7146 kg. The required value can be obtained by improving diets and selection.
The analytical methods developed in this research provided highly reliable results. These results can solve the problems of providing Russian cheesemakers with a sustainable raw material base, as well as set new targets for agro-industrial dairy enterprises.
A Theoretical Study of Structural, Electronic, and Vibration Properties of Acetylcholine Chloride and Bromide
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The ever-growing capabilities of computing systems and algorithms make the first-principle methods extremely important in such research fields as biologically active compounds and complex biological systems. They also facilitate the target search and prediction of new forms. The purpose of the study was to define the structural parameters and basic electronic and vibration characteristics of crystal acetylcholine halides (ACh-Hal).
The study featured acetylcholine chloride and bromide (ACh-Hal). The theoretical analysis was based on the density functional theory (DFT) with gradient Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional (PBE) and a semi-empirical scheme for dispersion-accounting density functional (DFT+D3).
The calculations made it possible to define the optimized parameters of the crystal lattice: a = 9.765 Å, b = 15.217 Å, c = 6.274 Å for orthorhombic acetylcholine chloride (ACh-Cl); a = 10.883 Å, b = 13.304 Å, c = 7.077 Å, 109.21° for monoclinic bromide (ACh-Br). The calculations also revealed atomic coordinates, bond lengths, valence, and torsion angles. As for the electronic structure, ACh-Hal proved to be dielectrics with a band gap of 4.734 and 4.405 eV. The effective charges of carbon atoms were highly anisotropic. The calculated vibration spectra confirmed the experimental data in the entire interval, while the dependence on the mass of the anion was especially prominent in the region of lattice vibrations.
The first-principle DFT+D3 scheme made it possible to obtain reliable data on the basic properties of complex organic and biologically active systems.
Effect of Ionising Irradiation on Wheat Flour
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Radiation processing suppresses the development of microorganisms and pests in food products. This method is safe and does not affect nutritional value; however, it may change the properties of starch and proteins. The research objective was to define the effect of ionization on the baking properties and safety indicators of wheat flour.
The study featured wheat flour subjected to gamma irradiation at 0–47.52 kGy, as well as dough and bread made from this flour. The flour samples were tested for the radioactivity of radionuclides; a set of experiments revealed their microbiological indicators and falling-number values. The dough samples were studied on an Alveograph and a Mixolab analyzer to define their structural and mechanical properties. The quality of bread was evaluated by its specific volume, shape stability, and sensory profile.
The flour proved safe in terms of residual gamma radiation after 24 and 72 h. At the maximal dose of gamma radiation, the total viable count of mesophyll aerobic and optional-anaerobic microorganisms decreased by fifteen times, whereas the amount of mold decreased by five times. The total strain energy, elastic properties, and elasticity index of the dough declined by more than 50%. The dough had a lower stability during kneading. Its gelatinization onset started earlier by 2.3–3.3°C. The falling number decreased by more than four times, probably, due to the changes in the state of wheat starch. The bread samples had a smaller specific volume and a lower dimensional stability. They also demonstrated signs of darkening, stickiness, and crumb crushing at the maximal irradiation dose (47.52 kGy).
The microbiological safety indicators of wheat flour increased at the maximal irradiation dose. However, the baking properties of flour decreased. The sensory and physicochemical parameters of bread quality started to deteriorate at ≥ 23 kGy. Therefore, ionization cannot be recommended as a disinfection method for baking wheat flour production.
Rheological Properties of Mayonnaise with Non-Traditional Ingredients
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Rheological measurements are used in the food industry to determine physical characteristics of raw materials, as well as semi-finished and finished products. We aimed to study the effects of ingredients and homogenization parameters on the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with pumpkin and rice oils, as well as various honeys.
Mayonnaise samples were prepared with non-traditional ingredients, namely cold-pressed pumpkin seed oil, refined rice oil, and four varieties of honey (acacia, linden, forest, and spring). The samples were made in the traditional way on an Ultra Turrax T25 IKA homogenizer (3500–24 000 rpm). The rheological properties of honey and mayonnaise were determined on a Brookfield rotational viscometer.
Forest honey had the highest viscosity, while linden honey had the lowest viscosity, compared to the other honeys. The sample of mayonnaise with forest honey had the highest effective viscosity (3.427 Pa·s) and consistency (101.26 Pa·sn). The use of whey powder provided mayonnaise with the most optimal rheological parameters. Of all carbohydrates, inulin HD had the best effect on the consistency of mayonnaise, with effective viscosity of 2.801 ± 0.001 Pa·s and a flow index of 0.2630 ± 0.0020. Disaccharides provided mayonnaise with higher viscosity and consistency than monosaccharides. Mayonnaise with fresh egg yolk had higher viscosity (2.656 ± 0.002 Pa·s) and consistency (65.640 ± 0.004 Pa·s) than the samples with other egg products. The rheological characteristics of mayonnaise were also determined by the homogenization time and rotor speed. Increasing the time from 2 to 4 min at 10 000 rpm raised the emulsion’s viscosity and consistency from 6.253 to 8.736 Pa·s and from 77.42 to 134.24 Pa·sn, respectively, as well as reduced the flow index from 0.2628 to 0.1995. The rotor speed of 10 000–12 000 rpm was optimal for mayonnaise with pumpkin and rice oils and honey.
The studied samples of mayonnaise with pumpkin and rice oils, as well as honey, belong to non-Newtonian systems and pseudoplastic fluids. The empirical flow curves can be adequately described by the Herschel-Bulkley model. Our results can significantly increase the efficiency of mayonnaise production, improve its quality, and reduce production costs.
Microbial Treatment and Oxidative Stress in Agricultural Plants
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Anthropogenic factors expose agricultural plants to abiotic and biotic stresses, one of which is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress changes cell metabolism, as well as inhibits plant growth and development. Microbial treatment is an environmentally safe method of oxidative stress prevention. The research objective was to study the antioxidant activity of microflora native to coal dumps in order to combat the oxidative stress in crops.
The study featured microorganisms isolated from technogenically disturbed soils. Pure bacterial cultures were isolated by deep inoculation on beef-extract agar. A set of experiments made it possible to define the cultural, morphological, and biochemical properties of cell walls. The antioxidant activity and the amount of indole-3-acetic acid were determined on a spectrophotometer using the ABTS reagent and the Salkowski reagent, respectively. The isolated microorganisms were identified on a Vitek 2 Compact device. The biocompatibility of strains was tested by dripping, while the increase in biomass was measured using a spectrophotometer.
The study revealed ten microbial strains with antioxidant activity ranging from 67.21 ± 3.08 to 91.05 ± 4.17%. The amount of indole-3-acetic acid varied from 8.91 ± 0.32 to 15.24 ± 0.69 mg/mL. The list of microorganisms included Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas putida, and Bacillus megaterium. The consortium of P. putida and E. aerogenes demonstrated the best results in antioxidant activity, indole-3-acetic acid, and biomass. Its ratio was 2:1 (94.53 ± 4.28%; 15.23 ± 0.56 mg/mL), while the optical density was 0.51 ± 0.02. Extra 2% glycine increased the antioxidant activity by 2.34%, compared to the control. Extra 0.5% L-tryptophan increased the amount of indole-3-acetic acid by 3.12 mg/mL and the antioxidant activity by 2.88%.
The research proved the antioxidant activity of strains isolated from microflora native to coal dumps. The consortium of P. putida and E. aerogenes (2:1) demonstrated the best results. Further research will define its ability to reduce oxidative stress in plants.
Quality Indicators of Agaricus bisporus after Ultraviolet Treatment
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Ultraviolet treatment increases the shelf life of plant products. It inhibits the changes in the quality indicators of raw materials that are responsible for storage capacity. The research objective was to establish qualitative indicators for champignons (Agaricus bisporus) after ultraviolet treatment.
Fresh champignons were placed in plastic trays and sealed in plastic bags. The samples were treated with ultraviolet radiation in ranges A, B, and C. After that, they were stored in a refrigerator at 4 ± 2°C for 16 days, i.e., until the end of storage period. The quality indicators underwent a paired two-sample test, which defined the equality/inequality of variances in replicates and equality/inequality of means at a given error probability (α).
The obtained indicators characterized the degradation of mushroom plant tissue after ultraviolet treatment during storage: texture, moisture content, weight loss, soluble solids, pH, lightness, and color. The authors developed a new approach to determine significant changes in the quality indicators and estimated probability values. For each range, they established the most effective dose at α = 0.05 and 0.1. All the indicators proved significant for range A samples at 327.8–800.0 J/m2 and α = 0.05; all indicators were significant except weight loss in the range from 219.5 to 800.0 J/m2 at α = 0.1. For range B samples, pH, color, and lightness were significant at 104.6–200.0 J/m2 and α = 0.05; all but mass loss and texture were significant at 172.2–200.0 J/m2 and α = 0.1. For range C samples, pH, color, and lightness were significant at 412.4–439.5 J/m2 and 755.9–800.0 J/m2 at α = 0.05; all indicators were significant at 363.3–486.2 J/m2 and 728.2–800.0 J/m2 at α = 0.1.
The new analytical method made it possible to determine the ranges of external effect intensity, in which the changes in the indicator were significant or insignificant.
Functional Food Market Analysis: Russian and International Aspects
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The modern food market is undergoing a period of rapid development following the changes in marketing technologies and consumer behavior patterns. Nowadays, people pay more attention to the quality and composition of food products, as well as their functional properties. The present article reviews the international and Russian market of functional foods in order to define the consumer demand for new specialized products.
The methods included data comparison, grouping, and systematization. The analysis involved Russian and foreign papers published in 2018–2022 and registered in Scopus, eLibrary, Cyberleninka, and the Library of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. It also covered the National Demography Project, the Healthy Nutrition Project, and the Strategy for Improving the Quality of Food Products through 2030.
Consumers’ growing interest in improving their health and immune system proved to be the key factor in the functional food market. The COVID-19 pandemic intensified such trends as the priority of healthy, high-protein, and low-sugar foods. Japan and the USA are the current leaders on this market. Russia supports healthy food policy at the state level.
The functional food market is likely to become the most promising and competitive sector of global food economy. Consumer demand for these products is steadily growing: the volume of demand for functional food products will reach 17 trillion rubles by 2027. However, Russian food science needs more research in this area to catalyze import substitution. The Omsk Agrarian University has numerous projects that are meant to increase the competitiveness of the domestic functional food industry.
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Volatile Organic Impurities in Whiskey
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Alcoholic beverages are complex multicomponent objects. Their quality and safety control is a serious analytical task that requires new, more accurate instrumental methods, e.g., chromatography-mass spectrometry.
The research involved domestic and foreign whiskey, other alcoholic beverages, and 40% water-alcohol model solutions. The analytical studies were carried out on a Maestro 7820A gas chromatograph GC with an Agilent Technologies 5975 Series MCD mass selective detector, a G4513A autosampler, and a high polarity FFAP capillary column.
The research revealed the optimal parameters of chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection. The relative measurement error remained below 25% in the range of 1.0–10 mg/dm3 and 18% in the range of 10–500 mg/dm3. These modes were used to study the composition of the volatile organic impurities. The largest proportion of the total volatile impurities was 34.84–58.08% isoamylol, 17.31–26.76% acetic acid, and 12.50–21.28% isobutanol. Other chemical compounds were not so abundant: 0.34–0.86% isoamyl acetate, 0.13–0.39% 1-butanol, 0.03–0.06% 1-pentanol, 0.40–11.20% ethyl lactate, 0.16–2.74% ethyl caprylate, 1.40–6.44% furfural, 0.18–14.60% ethyl caprate, 0.74–2.97% ethyl laurate, and 1.75–2.39% 2-phenylethanol. The maximal total content of volatile organic impurities was 2040.30 mg/dm3: it was registered in apple samogon. The minimal total content of volatile organic impurities was 392.16 mg/dm3 in the unaged rum distillate sample.
The new method proved highly accurate in determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of twelve volatile consumable components in whiskey. The procedure took 17 min; it can be applied to mass concentrations of volatile impurities in such alcoholic beverages as grape-brandy, rum, tequila, brandy, samogon, rum, and various distillates.
Evaluation of Methods for Obtaining Rendered Animal Fats
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The increase of functional food production makes the search for new non-traditional raw materials and the selection of methods for their processing relevant. Methods for obtaining biologically active substances of a lipid nature from valuable raw materials extracted from hunting animals (bear, badger, marmot and beaver) are of particular interest. The purpose of this review is to analyze the existing methods of obtaining rendered fat from raw fat and evaluate them.
The objects of analysis were the data of scientific articles, patents and studies on the extraction of the lipid fraction from raw materials of animal origin from 2017 to 2021. In the work, various methods for extracting fats were considered. Their systematization, analyze, and description were carried out, indicating the advantages and disadvantages.
The considered methods for extracting lipid components can be used in the process of rendering fat from non-traditional raw materials of animal origin. When using the dry rendering method, the heating of adipose tissue is carried out by the conductive method, which leads to oxidative processes and a decrease in the quality of the finished product. The wet rendering method is carried out by interacting raw fat with a heating agent – water or live steam, which, by varying the temperature and duration of exposure, allows to preserve the properties and quality of the product.
Wet rendering methods are the most effective. These methods allow to obtain a high-quality finished product, as well as to produce the maximum yield of valuable lipid components of raw materials. To accelerate the technological process with the wet method of exposure, it is possible to use a biocatalytic method. The results of the research can be used in the development of schemes for obtaining biologically active substances of a lipid nature from valuable expensive raw materials extracted from hunting animals.
Evaluating the Vegetation Development of Coal-Mine Dumps
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Reforestation of overburden coal dumps requires new, complex reclamation methods. Competent and well-planned reclamation projects ensure a positive current-state evaluation of disturbed areas. The research objective was to describe the new vegetation that appears on natural areas after industrial disturbance.
The study involved pioneer plant communities that developed on a coal dump slope on the Taldinskiy coal field, Kuzbass, in the summer of 2021.The research involved a wide range of engineering and geological surveys, as well as a set of methods of geobotanical, taxonomic, biomorphological, and ecological analyses. The data were obtained by remote sensing.
The route reconnaissance of coal dumps with uncontrolled vegetation revealed the following results. The total plant cover on undisturbed areas had a mosaic pattern and ranged from 70 to 75%. The forest plat communities consisted of 101 plant species and 33 families. The maximal species diversity belonged to the following families: Asteraceae – 13 species, Fabaceae – 11 species, Poaceae – 8 species, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Rosaceae – 5 species, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Equisetaceae, Pinaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Salicaceae, and Scrophulariaceae – 2–4 species.
The Taldinskiy coal field dump was evaluated as a technogenically disturbed site with a low biomorphological and species diversity. It had a larger share of weeds, and its ratio of plant communities differed from the background phytocenosis. The type of vegetation corresponded to the first stage of plant development on technogenic areas and was defined as the stage of sparse pioneer vegetation
Confectionery Standards in the Eurasian Economic Union
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A barrier-free trade in the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) market is impossible without a unified approach to standardization. The research objective was to analyze and develop proposals that would make it possible to unify the standards of the Eurasian Economic Commission (EAEC) on the content of sulfur dioxide and sulfites in confectionery products.
The study featured technical regulations and standards for confectionery products, methods for determining sulfur dioxide, and EAEU resources on the results of control oversight activities. The methods included comparison, analogy, analysis, synthesis, peer review, integrated standardization, and system analysis.
The analysis involved the official websites of the authorized bodies of the EAEU states on control and supervisory measures for compliance with technical regulations. It revealed the main reasons behind the limited confectionery turnover associated with excessive sulfur dioxide and sulfites. The standards showed discrepancies with Technical Regulations of Customs Union TR CU 022/2011 and TR CU 029/2012. The content standards for sulfur dioxide and sulfites in finished products were different. The analysis detected no unified approach to indicators, measurement units, and detection methods. The authors also assessed the advantages and disadvantages of the existing domestic State Standards for methods of sulfur dioxide and sulfite detection in confectionery products. The state standards have to be adapted to the international standards and EU Directives, in particular, by certifying the Monier-Williams method.
The results can help to unify national and international regulations in order to remove technical barriers in the EAEU market and increase the export volume. They also can help confectionery producers to improve the quality and safety of confectionery products.
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The analysis of nutrition of schoolchildren and students of the Kemerovo region is presented in the article. On the results of the conducted analysis, the actual individual nutrition is estimated according to the content of the basic nutri-ents, and biologically active substances. The influence of nutrition on the health of the younger generation has been shown. To provide the schoolchildren’s bodies with necessary nutrients the way of correcting their diets by introducing biologically active additives has been offered.
Quality and Safety of Game Meat from the Biocenosis of the Beloosipovo Mercury Deposit
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Introduction. Mercury contamination is one of the most common environmental problems. The research objective was to study the qualitative composition and physicochemical properties of raw game meat obtained from the area near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit in order to define any possible contamination with xenobiotics.
Study objects and methods. The research featured rib eye muscle tissue and soft flesh of elks shot on the hunting farms of the Kemerovo Region aka Kuzbass.
Results and discussion. A complex set of experiments revealed the chemical composition of elk muscle tissue and flesh, as well as the mineral composition of elk muscle tissue. The samples were obtained from different parts of carcasses. The amino acid and fatty acid composition of elk muscle tissue made it possible to describe the biological value, mineral composition, and vitamin profile of elk meat. The physicochemical analysis included toughness, cooking losses, and moisture-retaining capacity, i.e. the properties that ensure juiciness. The research also featured the accumulation of xenobiotics in elk meat samples obtained from the biosinosis near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit.
Conclusion. The slaughter yield of elk meat was 51–53%, which exceeds the average yield of farm cattle meat by 4–6%. The moisture content was 73–78%, while the content of protein was between 20–24% and depended on the anatomical location of the muscle sample; the fat content reached 0.75–1.75%. The mercury accumulation at different storage temperature conditions ranged from 0.004 ± 0.001 to 0.009 ± 0.001 mg/kg, while the maximum allowable concentration of mercury is 0.03 mg/kg.
The purpose of the present work is the investigation and the development of the production technology of the low-calorie fat imitator on the basis of casein for the improvement of organoleptic properties of dairy products. Before the development of the technology it is necessary to choose an optimum way of milk protein coagulation. The object of the research was skim milk subjected to coagulation. The analysis of the obtained results has shown that the most rational way of coagulation for the formation of particles of the required sizes and forms is rennet coagulation. To form the particles of the required sizes and forms it is offered to start and to stop rennet coagulation at the moment when particles have already increased in size, but haven't yet formed a clot. On the basis of the presented data the production technology of protein microparticls that can be used as fat imitators in dairy products has been developed.
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Problems concerning the efficiency of production processes and manufacturing high quality goods are important for productions based on the activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The paper identifies major reasons for the need to regulate yeast culture metabolism, considers existing practice and proposed methods of changing its metabolic activity. The purpose of the research is to create the classification of the supplements / preparations of different origin to improve yeast vital activity by adjusting its culture medium composition with the use of complex hierarchical faceted method. The classification is based on the division of the set of "supplements / preparations to enhance yeasts vitality" into subsets related to the intended use of the preparation, stage of its application, chemical and structural organization, and ultimate goals. Preparations are divided into groups for various purposes: to fill in the medium with missing compounds and / or additional enrichment with biostimulating components; to extract undesirable components from the medium for the yeast development; preparations-stressors; antibacterial agents, creating favorable conditions for the development of basic yeast culture; contributing to the degradation of raw material biopolymers and intermediates. Medium composition adjustment is possible at the stage of preparation the yeast for fermentation, directly at the main step of the technological process, during pure culture growing and seed yeast storage, at earlier stages of manufacture by processing raw materials or intermediates. According to chemical nature supplements / preparations can be organic, inorganic, mixed (complex) ones and those obtained by chemical or microbial synthesis or be of natural origin. This classification enables a more targeted approach to choosing preparations that provide the change of metabolic activity of the yeast culture by adjusting the composition of the culture medium.
Fermented Cream for Curd Fortified with Probiotic Cultures: Biotechnological Aspects
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Introduction. Contemporary food industry strives to increase the production volume of high-quality and biologically complete protein products. The Foodnet market also raised the demand for functional foods in Russia. The research objective was to develop a new functional curd product fortified with probiotic microflora.
Study objects and methods. The study featured cow’s milk, skimmed milk, cream, whey protein concentrate Milkiland-WPC 80, pollen, glutamine, starter cultures DVS Danisco Probat 576 and Howaru Bifido ARO-1, buckwheat flour, and oat flour. The experiment included physicochemical, sensory, biochemical, and microbiological methods.
Results and discussion. The milk-protein base of the curd product was produced in a GEA Westfalia KDB 30 curd separator. The research involved 15 and 20% cream with two different starter cultures. In case of 15% cream, Probat 576 Howaru Bifido appeared to be 1.66 times more active than ARO-1 Howaru Bifido, in case of 20% cream the result was even higher – 1.73 times. Probat 576 also demonstrated a better active acidity, i.e. 5.5 after three hours, which was two hours faster than ARO-1. Mathematical modeling revealed the positive effect of buckwheat and oat flour on the cream fermentation process. Oat flour (5%) was the optimal prebiotic, while buckwheat flour added its color to the final product, thus spoiling its market quality.
Conclusion. The new biotechnology for a curd product fortified with probiotic cultures can expand the range of functional products for sports diet.
Effects of Oils and Fats on the Quality Characteristics, Nutritional Value, and Storage Capacity of Cookies
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Introduction. The quality profile and nutritional values of cookies depend on the raw material. The research objective was to study the effect of oils and fats on the quality characteristics and storage capacity of cookies.
Study objects and methods. The study involved such types of oils and fats as margarine, confectionery fat, milk fat substitute, palm oil, sunflower oil, and high oleic sunflower oil. It was based on standard methods of sensory, physicochemical, structural, and rheological analyses.
Results and discussion. The experimental formulations relied on contemporary dilatory recommendations, consumer acceptability, and traditionality of sensory indicators. The mass fraction of fat was limited to ≤ 18%; added sugars – to ≤ 22%; salt – to ≤ 0.3%. For each type of oil and fat, as set of experiments was performed to define the optimal technological emulsion and dough parameters. Other aspects involved the patterns of moisture transfer, indicators of oxidative spoilage, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, physicochemical and microbiological indicators, storage capacity, etc. The samples with vegetable oils instead of fat had a lower content of saturated fatty acids, which fell from 8–9 to 2–3 g/100 g. However, the risk of oxidative spoilage increased significantly. On storage day 104, the content of linoleic acid in the samples with sunflower oil decreased from 62.0 to 60.4%, while the samples with high oleic sunflower oil maintained the same level of linoleic acid. The samples with confectionery fat and palm oil demonstrated the lowest rate of oxidative processes, while those with margarine and milk fat substitute had the best sensory profile after storage.
Conclusion. The cookies with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil appeared to have a shelf life of two months, while for those with milk fat substitute, margarine, palm oil, and confectionery fat it was six months. Further research should focus on various emulsifiers and antioxidants capable of forming bonds with proteins and starch fractions of flour, which could increase the resistance of liquid vegetable oils to oxidation.
Callus cultures of Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense as a source of geroprotectors
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Introduction. Geroprotectors are biologically active substances that inhibit the aging process. Many plant species are natural geroprotectors. For instance, Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense are callus cultures with strong geroprotective properties. Study objects and methods. The present research featured T. vulgaris and T. pratense grown in vitro on various nutrient media. Their extracts were obtained by aqueous-alcoholic extraction using the following parameters: water-ethanol solvent Se = 30, 50, and 70 %; temperature Te = 30, 50, and 70°C; time τe = 2, 4, and 6 h. The quantitative and qualitative analysis was based on high-performance liquid mass spectrometry, gas mass spectrometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The optimal extraction parameters for T. vulgaris were τe = 4 h, Te = 50°C, Se = 70 %, for T. pratense – τe = 6 h, Te = 70°C, Se = 70 %. The chromatography detected flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, simple phenols, higher fatty acids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. T. vulgaris appeared to have the highest content of thymol (23.580 ± 1.170 mg/mL); its thymol, apigenin, gallic, chlorogenic, and caffeic components demonstrated geroprotective properties. The extract of T. pratense possessed the highest rutin content (10.05 ± 0.35 mg/mL), and it owed its geroprotective characteristics to rutin, chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids. Conclusion. The callus cultures of T. vulgaris and T. pratense proved to be promising sources of geroprotective biologically active substances.
Reclamation of Post-Technological Landscapes: International Experience
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Introduction. Anthropogenic activities cause large-scale environmental problems. The growing volumes of toxic emissions contribute to soil, water, and air pollution, thus posing a serious threat to all living systems and the global ecosystem. New reclamation methods are a relevant research topic as they help to restore and preserve ecosystems.
Study objects and methods. The research covered sixteen years of scientific publications from PubMed of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (USA), Elsevier (Scopus, ScienceDirect), Web of Science, and the national electronic library service
Results and discussion. The authors reviewed various scientific publications to define the main technogenic objects that have a toxic effect on biota. Soil is more vulnerable to destructive effects, and mining wastes are responsible for the largest share of technogenically disturbed objects. Pollutants include many compounds, such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, acids, etc. Reclamation technologies reduce the man-induced impact on the environment, e.g. pollutants can be completely or partially destroyed, processed into non-toxic products, completely removed, stabilized into less toxic forms, etc. This review provides information on the main methods of reclamation of disturbed soils and substantiates the prospect of developing integrated reclamation technologies.
Conclusion. The present review featured the main pollutants of anthropogenic origin and the traditional soil reclamation methods. The most prospective new technologies of soil reclamation appeared to be a combination of such biological methods as phytoremediation, bioaugmentation, and biostimulation.
Prospects of Using Soil Microbiome of Mine Tips for Remediation of Anthropogenically Disturbed Ecosystems
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Introduction. Coal industry increases soil pollution with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, resoiling is an urgent problem that requires an immediate solution. The present research objective was to substantiate the use of microorganisms from mine tips in order to decrease soil pollution with heavy metals and oil compounds.
Study objects and methods. The review featured five years of publications in Scopus, Web of Science, and Elibrary, which were subjected to analysis, systematization, and generalization.
Results and discussion. Coal industry changes landscapes, flora, fauna, and soil microbiome. Bioremediation uses various microorganisms as means of resoiling. Some microorganisms isolated from coal mining waste are resistant to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and are able to utilize them. For instance, such bacteria as Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are capable of degrading oil pollutants. Microorganisms of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species were found to be resistant to copper, iron, lead, and manganese. Bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Pseudoarthrobacter, and Sinomonas are now to be resistant to nickel, arsenic, and chromium. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase the activity of soil enzymes, improve soil fertility, and decompose various organic compounds.
Conclusion. Sequencing methods make it possible to determine the species composition of soils in mine tips in order to search for new strains capable of restoring former mining areas.
Spicy Plant Raw Materials in Choux Dough
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Introduction. Semi-finished choux dough has neither vitamins nor minerals. However, its nutritional value can be increased by adding vegetable raw materials. The research objective was to evaluate the possibilities of using spicy vegetable raw materials in the formulation of semi-finished choux dough.
Study objects and methods. The study featured fresh parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum), celery (Apium) leaves and stems, and IR-dried powder of celery stalks. Standard research methods were used to determine the sensory, physico-chemical, and nutritional properties of the resulting choux samples.
Results and discussion. Classical semi-finished choux dough with craquelin served as control sample. Fresh spicy vegetable raw materials degraded the sensory characteristics of the product. However, powdered celery stalks did not interfere with the taste of the choux dough. They were added in the amount of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% by weight of wheat flour. The celery powder gave the dough a sour-spicy flavor, as well as increased the content of vitamins B (up to 10%) and beta-carotene (up to 70%) in the finished product.
Conclusion. The sample with 5% of IR-dried celery powder proved optimal for choux dough. It increased the content of vitamin B2 and beta-carotene, thus improving the nutritional value of the semi-finished product. In future, the powder can be tested as part of bakery filling in combination with ingredients that mask the typical celery taste.