ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Volume 51, Issue 2, 2021

4178
Abstract
Introduction. Fluorescence is one of the most promising methods of food quality tests. Fluorescein disodium salt is used as a means of diagnostics in medicine and food production. In particular, fluorophore can determine the ripening stage of boneless turkey meat during brining by defining the penetration depth of the brine. Study objects and methods. The present research featured samples of brined turkey breast and thigh meat. The experiment was based on standard research methods, e.g. macro- and microscopy, statistical method, etc. It also included an original fluorescence method for determining the penetration depth of sodium chloride brine into turkey muscles. Results and discussion. The experimental brine consisted of food salt, white sugar, water, and fluorescein disodium salt, while brine without fluorophore served as control. Regardless of sodium chloride concentration, the changes in the ripening depth of the turkey breast samples were 8 times lower after 5 min, 3 times – after 12 h, and 4 times after 24 h. Complete ripening occurred after 36 h, which was confirmed by visual and fluorophore measurements. The thigh meat samples showed a smaller area of sodium chloride penetration: 8 times lower – after 5 min, 2 times – after 12 and 24 h. Complete salting was also registered after 36 h of brining. Conclusion. The fluorescence method proved quite effective in determining the ripening of boneless turkey parts meat.
4402
Abstract
Introduction. Canning requires thermophysical calculations for thermal or cold processing. These calculations are based on thermophysical characteristics of raw materials. The research objective was to analyze the thermophysical characteristics of tropical fruits. Study objects and methods. The study featured kiwi, papaya, avocado, and figs. Their thermal conductivity was analyzed with the help of stationary fiber plate method. The cryoscopic temperature was determined from the flat area of the thermogram obtained during freezing. The heat capacity and the amount of frozen moisture were determined by calculation based on the available data on the chemical composition of the fruits. The density was defined by using the hydrostatic weighing method, the sugar content – by the refractometric method, the moisture content – by drying to constant mass. Results and discussion. The research revealed the physicochemical parameters of kiwi, avocado, papaya, and figs. Papaya demonstrated the highest moisture content – 86.32 ± 0.02%, while kiwi appeared to have the highest density – 1,065 ± 1 kg/m3. Figs had the highest sugar content – 16.0 ± 0.1%. The thermal conductivity coefficient of fresh and frozen tropical fruits was determined experimentally and increased after freezing. Frozen avocado showed only a slight increase in thermal conductivity coefficient because of its low moisture content while frozen figs demonstrated a significant increase in the thermal conductivity coefficient – by 3.3 times. This product possessed the highest thermal conductivity: 0.63 ± 0.02 W/(m·K) for the fresh samples and 2.06 ± 0.02 W/(m·K) for the frozen samples. The thermal conductivity coefficient of kiwi and papaya increased by 2 and 4.2 times, respectively. The experiment also examined the effect of protective plastic wrap and ripeness on the thermal conductivity coefficient. The film proved to have a negative effect on the reliability of thermophysical analysis. The cryoscopic temperature was determined empirically. Such thermophysical properties as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and frozen moisture were based on the available chemical composition. Conclusion. The research revealed the physicochemical parameters of kiwi, avocado, papaya, and figs. It included a set of experiments on the thermal conductivity coefficient of fresh and frozen tropical fruits. The obtained values can be used to develop the optimal parameters of thermal processing, refrigeration, and thermal treatment of new products. They can also be useful for fortifying dairy and bakery products with exotic fruits.
5922
Abstract
Introduction. Healthy nutrition is one of the global problems that humanity is facing today, of which food safety and food allergies are the most relevant issues. A lot of chemicals used as food raw materials possess allergenic properties. Food producers are only beginning to realize the scale of this problem. As a result, hypoallergenic products and methods of food allergy prevention are at an early stage of development. Study objects and methods. The paper is a review of twenty years of research on food allergy. Results and discussion. The article describes the main sources of food allergens and allergenic proteins of plant and animal origin. It also gives various classifications of food allergens in terms of their stability and ability to maintain antigenic properties after processing, as well as provides methods for allergenicity reduction and hypoallergenic food production. Conclusion. Thermal and enzymatic processing are currently the most popular methods of reducing allergenicity of food raw materials. New approaches are based on enzymatic activity of microorganisms, the chemical modification of allergenic proteins, and the removal of allergenic proteins by binding them into complexes. The combination of enzymatic processing with high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity ultrasound is the most promising direction in the production of hypoallergenic raw materials. Other promising methods are based on the enzymatic activity of microorganisms, chemical modification of allergenic proteins, and complexation with polyphenols, anthocyanins, etc. The future lies with genetic modification, which, however, still remains too complex, time-consuming, and understudied. Most novel methods need clinical trials to confirm the possibility of their use for commercial hypoallergenic food production.
3998
Abstract
Introduction. Soy is one of the most promising plant raw materials as it is rich in proteins and amino acids. However, its content of anti-nutritive compounds is too high to be used in food and beverage industry without precure. The research objective was to obtain soy-based malt with a high enzymatic activity, low content of anti-nutritional substances, and increased nutritional value. Study objects and methods. The study featured Far-Eastern soybean varieties and malt. It involved standard methods of quality control of raw materials, semi-finished products, and finished products of beer and alcohol industry, as well as the capillary electrophoresis, spectrophotometry, and potentiometry. Results and discussion. Germination of soybeans of all varieties contributed to the accumulation of hydrolytic enzymes and amino acids in the grain. The use of a complex of organic acids from the Krebs cycle at a concentration of 10–9 mol/dm3 at the soaking stage increased amylolytic, proteolytic, and lipoxygenase hydrolytic processes by 11, 22, and 12%, respectively. The level of urease, which correlates with the content of anti-nutritional substances, decreased by two times from the original level and was 0.4–0.5 units of pH. Germination stage fell down to 2.5–3 days, while the content of amino acids increased by 33–35% in comparison with unprocessed malt during soaking. Conclusion. The use of organic acids in soy malting improved the quality and technological indicators, increased the level of amino acids, and decreased the level of anti-nutritional substances, making soy malt suitable for beverage industry.
4182
Abstract
Introduction. Multistrain probiotics often include biocompatible strains, which leads to suppression of microbial viability and, as a result, decreases their efficacy. Therefore, new probiotics should be based on well-matched strains with no antagonism. Study objects and methods. The research featured strains of lactic and propionic acid bacteria from the VNIIPBT collection. The method of direct co-cultivation on dense medium (drop technique) was used to assess the biocompatibility of lactic acid bacteria. Antagonism was detected visually based on signs of suppression after 24 and 48 h after the onset of incubation. Antagonism of the consortia was assessed by the Romanovich method. Results and discussion. The screening resulted in seven promising strains with the specific growth rate of 0.32–0.84 h–1 and the maximum population density ≤ 2.2 billion CFU/cm3. A set of experiments on the strain adaptation mechanisms revealed combinations of strains with the lowest antagonism and competition for the substrate. The research resulted in a four-component consortium of Lactobacillus plantarum 314/8, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052/6, Enterococcus faecium B-2240D, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii 103/27. The optimal ratio was the one where the cultures were present in equal proportions. The study also described the biosynthetic properties of the consortium and the ratio of the strains in its composition. The consortium demonstrated a balanced growth, good strain compatibility, and absence of antagonism. The cultivation mode was tested anaerobically on milk whey at 37°C for 24 h (strain ratio = 1:1:1:1). Conclusion. The new consortium proved suitable for industrial production of feed probiotics.
5923
Abstract
Introduction. Meat processing enterprises are facing the problem of utilization of secondary products with a limited scope of application and a wide range of useful properties. One of the promising ways of slaughter-house by-product utilization is the production of biomaterials that can replace various tissues of a living organism. This review presents an analysis of the global biomaterials market, its volume, and possible ways of using secondary meat resources in various sectors of economy. Study objects and methods. The article represents some results of a desk research based on open sources, i.e. publications and Internet data portals. Results and discussion. One of the most important tasks of modern regenerative medicine is to develop fast and effective methods for the restoration of damaged or lost organs and tissue fragments. Its solution directly depends on new advanced biomaterials. Modern biocompatible materials are in great demand in such areas of medicine as orthopedics, ophthalmology, dentistry, general and cardiovascular surgery, restorative medicine, drug delivery, etc. Cosmetology is a rapidly evolving segment of medicine and depends on such biomaterials as hyaluronic acid and collagen. Russian biomedicine occupies 0.7% of the world market. However, the Russian segment is likely to grow and expand its range of biomaterials. Conclusion. The currently unused resources of meat industry can be an excellent source of valuable raw materials for the advanced biomedical structures used in tissue engineering. A wide variety of structures and properties of secondary resources can produce a wide range of biomaterials. The possibility of manufacturing matrices from internally sourced raw materials within one enterprise is particularly promising.
4030
Abstract
Introduction. Hydraulic calculations of flow parts play an important role in the improvement of modern technological lines. Such calculations do not include the characteristics of pumping units. Single-screw pumps (SSP) pump high-viscosity liquids in modern food production. The research objective was to develop a new engineering method for assessing the effect of the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids on the load characteristics of SSP in food production. Study objects and methods. The research featured SSP with a hopper and an auger, designed for pumping high-viscosity liquids. The initial data were taken from officially published test results of Atlas W SSP and the study of the rheological properties of confectionery jelly masses. The research involved authentic methods for calculating the load characteristics of SSP based on the effect of the viscosity of pumped liquid. According to the first approximation, the change in the dimensionless load characteristics was similar in different SSP with an increase in the viscosity of the pumped liquid. The dependence of the viscosity on the rotation speed was determined by the Bingham formula. Results and discussion. The test results of the Atlas W SSP confirmed the need to take into account the minimum rotation speed at which liquid pumping begins in the calculations. The specified frequency was directly proportional to the differential pressure for this series. The study revealed approximate load characteristics of the SSP during jelly pumping. While pumping viscous foods, SSP demonstrated poorer performance and bigger power consumption than during pumping water. The supply decreased and the power increased as the temperature went down and the pectin content in confectionery jelly masses rose. Conclusion. The dependences of the flow rate and power consumed on the rotation speed published by the manufacturers of SSP were obtained during tests on water. The present research resulted in a new method to assess the load characteristics of the SSP when pumping high-viscosity liquids in food production. The obtained regression dependences need further refinement and experimental verification. The method can be used to design new technological pipelines.
4473
Abstract
Introduction. Antioxidant system is one of the main cellular mechanisms of adaptation. It is able to neutralize the destructive effect of free radicals, both external and internal. Functional products, especially of meat origin, can provide necessary antioxidant properties. Some types of plant raw materials possess a high content of polyphenol complexes with antioxidant properties. Therefore, introduction of phytonutrients into the composition of meat products can help to expand the range of foods with an antioxidant effect. Daurian rosehip is rich in biologically active substances and can increase their safety during processing. The research objective was to study the possibility of immobilization of Daurian rosehip antioxidants by protein-lipid inclusion. Study objects and methods. The research featured fruits of Daurian rosehip, its aqueous alcoholic extract, and protein-lipid complex. Results and discussion. The article presents experimental data on the chemical composition of Daurian rosehip. The optimal method with the best antioxidant results was a microwave phytoextraction by an aqueous alcoholic solution at a power of 800 W for 6–7 min. The antioxidants were immobilized by including the protein-lipid complex into the gel. The experiment demonstrated excellent functional and technological characteristics of the resulting system. Conclusion. The research revealed the optimal modes of microwave extraction of biologically active substances of Daurian rosehip. The rosehip extract was included into the protein-lipid complex and immobilized antioxidants, thus increasing their efficiency.
4943
Abstract
Introduction. In order to solve the growing demand for Muscat sparkling wines, some of the Muscat grapes used for the production of liqueur wines should be used as a raw material for sparkling wines. The technology of preparing young sparkling wines has a shorter production cycle. Science-based selection of the yeast race makes it possible to obtain young sparkling wines with a clear and bright Muscat aroma. Study objects and method. The research featured young sparkling wines from White Muscat grapes, produced using different yeasts races. The research involved both standard and modified methods of enochemical analysis. Results and discussion. The LALVIN QA-23 and Odesskiy Cherniy-SD-13 yeast races demonstrated a more active fermentation of Muscat white wort. The Sevastopolskaya 23 sample had in a slower fermentation, which promoted a greater accumulation of bound forms of carbon dioxide (16%). It contained the smallest amount of residual sugars (2 g/dm3) and thriable acids (6 g/dm3) and the largest amount of polyphenols (103 mg/dm3) and amine nitrogen (91 mg/dm3). Two samples accumulated a sufficient amount of free terpenes: 1.16 mg/dm3 for LALVIN QA-23 and 1.13 mg/dm3 for Sevastopolskaya 23. The degustation scores were quite high: LALVIN QA-23 received 9.03 points and Odesskiy Cherniy-SD-13 – 9.02 points, while Sevastopolskaya 23 scored 9.00 points. The LALVIN QA-23 sample proved to have the most pronounced varietal aroma, whereas the Odesskiy Cherniy-SD-13 sample possessed a more complex aromatic complex. Conclusion. The LALVIN QA-23 and Sevastopolskaya 23 yeast races were found suitable for bottle champagnization of young Muscat sparkling wines. They accumulated a sufficient amount of terpene alcohols. The samples had a clear Muscat aroma, harmonious taste, and good typical properties. The new method makes it possible to produce high quality sparkling wines in the harvest year.
4406
Abstract
Introduction. Various formulations of sprouted grain breads, including those with amaranth flour, were developed to combat food-related diseases. Healthy food industry requires thorough assessment procedures and hygienic practices. The research objective was to assess the functional properties and safety indicators of amaranth bread made from sprouted wheat grain. Study objects and methods. One day old grain bread was tested for antioxidant activity using amperometric method. Its glycemic index was determined according to the ratio of the area under the glycemic curve per bread sample to the area under the glycemic curve for pure glucose, expressed as a percentage. Crumb proteins digestibility was measured in vivo using ciliates Paramecium caudatum. Phytin content was measured by the colorimetric method, while safety indicators were compared to the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union No. 021/2011. Bound moisture content was determined with a refractometer after three days of storage according to the change in sucrose concentration. The number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (NMAFAnM) was described based on State Standard 10444.15-94. Results and discussion. The amaranth flour slightly affected the antioxidant activity of the grain bread. It decreased the glycemic index by 8.3% and increased the microbiological purity by 1.4 times, raised the crumb proteins digestibility by 3.0%, reduced the phytin content by 7.0%, and slowed down the staleness process by 12 h. In terms of safety indicators, the obtained sample of amaranth grain bread met the TR CU 021/2011 requirements “On food safety”. The decrease in the glycemic index values could be explained by the lower activity of amylolytic enzymes in amaranth flour compared to sprouted wheat. The low digestibility of carbohydrates resulted from their effect on starch. The increase in digestibility and the decrease in phytin content were caused by the lower amount of dietary fiber. The high content of bound moisture explains the longer shelf life. Amaranth flour had lower microbiological contamination compared to wheat, which decreased the NMAFAnM. Conclusion. Amaranth flour had a positive effect on the functional properties of grain bread safety indicators, which makes it possible to include it into sprouted wheat grain products.
5654
Abstract
Introduction. New legume-based protein preparations are an excellent alternative to polymers of animal origin and can eliminate the protein deficiency in the diet of humans and animals. In this respect, the raw material base of common leguminous crops has to be thoroughly analyzed in order to develop new technological schemes for novel protein formulations. Study objects and methods. The present research compared modern trends in the production, properties, and safety of food and feed protein preparations based on peas and chickpeas. It involved such standard methods as data systematization and analysis of literary sources. Results and discussion. The leguminous agriculture in Russia is stable enough to produce food and feed protein preparations from peas and chickpeas with the maximum preservation of biological value, composition, and properties. Peas and chickpeas have a high biological value and are rich in polypeptides, fiber, minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, etc., which are lost during processing. By-products of protein production can be processed using biosynthetic transformation with various types of fungal and/or bacterial enzymes, as well as physical and/or physicochemical methods, to obtain feed or food products with an appropriate yield. A synthesis with enzymes or microorganisms can result in functional foods and feeds fortified with minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidants.
4408
Abstract
Introduction. Smart food packaging that alerts consumers to spoilt food by changing color is based on affordable and biodegradable raw materials. The research objective was to develop films from anionic polysaccharides and anthocyanin pigment that can be used as a freshness indicator of minced fish. Study objects and methods. The study featured frozen black currant berries (Ríbes nígrum), polysaccharide-based anthocyanin films, and minced fish. Extracts of anthocyanin pigment and films based on agar, kappa-carrageenan, chitosan, starch, and anthocyanin pigments were analyzed by IR spectroscopy. Results and its discussion. Anionic polysaccharides, i.e. agar and kappa-carrageenan, demonstrated good film-forming properties. Films based on 1.5% agar and 2% kappa-carrageenan showed elasticity, resilience, plasticity, and sufficient resistance to mechanical deformation. Neutral polysaccharide starch and cationic polysaccharide chitosan appeared to have no such qualities. An IR spectral analysis revealed chemical interactions between polysaccharide and anthocyanin molecules. It indicated the electrostatic nature of the polyelectrolyte complexes of the anthocyanin pigment with anionic polysaccharides. A film based on 1.5% agar fortified with anthocyanin pigment was used as a test-system for analyzing the quality of fish. The minced fish samples were wrapped in the anthocyanin film and left for 2–7 min to register the color change of the film. When the anthocyanin film came in contact with fresh fish, the color of the film did not change even after prolonged contact. When the film came into contact with spoilt fish, the color of the film began to change after 2 min of contact. When the contact time reached 7 min, the film turned blue. Conclusion. The type of polysaccharide and the interaction between polysaccharides and anthocyanin pigment had a significant effect on film formation. Anionic polysaccharides demonstrated the best results. Electrostatic interactions between anionic polysaccharides and anthocyanin pigments produced stable polyelectrolyte complexes. The new smart films were able to determine the quality of minced fish.
4130
Abstract
Introduction. Dehydration of heat-sensitive and easily oxidized food products require particular temperatures. Exposure to ultrasonic vibrations is an alternative dehydration method that presupposes moderate thermal treatment. The research objective was to identify the optimal range of sound pressure and to design a small-volume dryer. Study objects and methods. The study featured two novel ultrasonic potato dryers at t = 60 ± 1°C and a drying agent flow rate of 0.50 ± 0.03 m/s. Results and discussion. The analysis of the drying curves revealed a period of constant flow rate at a low ultrasonic exposure and its absence at a high level of exposure of ≥ 160 dB, which indicated the start of the ultrasonic dispersion process of liquid from the potato surface. The dispersion occurred due to cavitation spraying of liquid without phase transition, which significantly reduced energy consumption. As the sound pressure increased in the range from 150 to 165 dB, the drying speed increased up to 26% by 5 dB. The optimal range of the sound pressure was 160–165 dB, which optimally combined energy consumption and drying time. The research resulted in two 6 kg horizontal and vertical drum dryers that provided even ultrasonic exposure during drying. Conclusion. The convective ultrasonic potato drum dryers reduced the drying time by 44–47%
4525
Abstract
Introduction. Natural dye beta-carotene E160a (pro-vitamin A) is part of many functional foods. Therefore, the total intake of beta-carotene must not exceed the tolerable upper intake level, i.e. 10 mg/day. E160a is also used in formulations of complex food additives. These products contain antioxidants, emulsifiers, preservatives, carriers, stabilizers, and thickeners, which makes it make difficult to isolate and determine the amount of beta-carotene. Complex food additives vary in composition, which, together with incomplete extraction and degradation of beta-carotene, results in inaccuracy of its determination. The present research reviewed various techniques of beta-carotene extraction from liquid and dry complex food additives. Study objects and methods. The study featured commercial samples of complex food additives containing beta-carotene. It was isolated from the samples by liquid extraction methods using organic solvents and their binary mixtures. The extraction was performed in a stirring device at 120 rpm and in a Bandelin Sonorex ultrasonic bath at 128 W and 35 kHz. The extraction continued until the samples were completely discolored. The list of solvents included chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane, acetone, ethanol, and their mixes. The experiment was based on high performance thin layer chromatography with Sorbfil sheet plates. The optical density was determined by spectrophotometry using a SHIMADZU UV-1800 device. Results and discussion. The extraction of beta-carotene from liquid samples with mechanical stirring at 120 rpm led to the formation of stable opaque emulsions, which made it difficult to determine the amount of beta-carotene. The emulsions were destroyed by ultrasound exposure for 30 min. The degree of extraction of beta-carotene from liquid emulsion systems (≥ 95%) was achieved by ultrasonic extraction with chloroform or a binary extractant based on mixes of acetone with chloroform, hexane, or petroleum ether in volumetric ratios of 1:1. When extracted from dry samples using chloroform or binary extractants, beta-carotene was not isolated or was not completely isolated. As a result, pre-dispersion of dry samples in water with stirring at 120 rpm was proposed. Ultrasonic treatment did not contribute to the dispersion of dry samples due to insufficient cavitation action. Ethanol, which is a solubilizer, increased the extractability of beta-carotene up to 98 %. The optimal results were achieved by adding a binary extractant (ethanol:chloroform in a 1:2 ratio) to an aqueous solution of the dry sample (1:3). The optimal elution systems were hexane:benzene (9.7:0.3), butanol:methyl ethyl ketone:ammonia 10 % (9:6:6), and petroleum ether:benzene:acetone:acetic acid (23.3:5.8:0.6:0.3). Conclusion. The article offers new methods of beta-carotene isolation from liquid and dry complex food additives of various composition and elution systems for carotene identification. The methods caused no degradation of beta-carotene during extraction and can be used to prepare samples of complex food additives for beta-carotene identification and quantitative analysis.
4565
Abstract
Introduction. Cellulose-containing parts of herbs are an excellent source of alternative energy and can be used to produce biological ethanol. The present research aims at improving this fundamental and promising area of biotechnology. It introduces a new consortium of microorganisms that can saccharify while fermenting the substrate. Study objects and methods. The research featured technical cellulose obtained from Miscanthus sinensis using hydrotropic delignification and oxidation with pertrifluoroacetic acid. The ethanol content in the culture liquid was determined using an Agilent 7890B gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. The biocompatibility of the strains was studied by growing a direct co-culture in a dense nutrient medium. Results and discussion. The research objective was to create a new microbial consortium for the single-step production of bioethanol from Miscanthus sinensis cellulose. A set of biocompatibility experiments and cultivation conditions made it possible to select the optimal producers. The two developed microbial consortia required optimal compositions of culture media, which were determined by varying the ratio of components and measuring the yield of ethanol in the resulting culture liquid. Conclusion. The best consortium for Miscanthus sinensis cellulose consisted of Pichia stipites Y7124, Candida shehatae NCL3501, Kluyveromyces marxianus Y-4290, and Zymomonas mobilis 113 at a ratio of 1:1:1:1. The optimal parameters of bioethanol production included: temperature = 35 ± 1°C, pH = 5.2, time = 16 ± 1 h. The most efficient culture medium had the following composition (g/l): glucose – 5.0; peptone – 5.0; yeast extract – 0.4; K2HPO4 – 1.5; (NH)2 HPO4 – 1.5; MgSO4 – 0.5.
3566
Abstract
Introduction. One of the promising methods in the production of dairy and other food in concentrated, condensed and dry forms is a consistent combination of dehydration methods. The subject of this research relevant now is approaches to the calculation of such processes. The work objective is to analyze the dehydration staging effect on the energy consumption in this process. Study objects and methods. Liquid, concentrated and powdered dairy products: whole and skim milk, milk whey, whole milk substitutes, as well as their dehydration parameters at certain stages. The determination of moisture and solids mass fraction in products was carried out with a standard method. Results and discussion. The feasibility of using a multi-stage dehydration method for the production of various types of powder milk products has been justified. The characteristic boundaries of solids mass fraction at different stages of the process were determined. The material-balance equation made it possible to define the formula for the total specific energy consumption relative to the unit of the final dry product at an arbitrary number of dehydration stages. The paper contains examples of a comparative efficiency assessment of the dehydration process carried out at different stages from the point of view of energy costs of its implementation. Conclusion. The research featured various issues related to the use of dehydration methods in the production of milk powder products. An equation has been drawn up to estimate the specific energy consumption of the multi-stage dehydration process relative to a unit of the final dry product. The use of a multi-stage process allows to effectively reduce the specific energy consumption, as well as to generate new high quality products.
4222
Abstract
Introduction. Mare’s milk is a valuable food product with medicinal properties. In combination with cow’s milk, it is used to create new functional foods. Efficient identification of mare’s milk, cow’s milk, and their mixes prevent falsification. Study objects and methods. The protein composition of mare’s and cow’s milk whey and their mixes was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an Agilent 1200 chromatograph with an Agilent G1315C diode array detector. Separation was performed using a column Machinery Nagel C 18 4.6×250, 5 μm. Results and discussion. The standard HPLC method was optimized to analyse whey proteins in the milk samples. The separation of whey proteins included the following optimal parameters: chromatography time = 60 min, linear gradient of acetonitrile concentration = 0–50%, and sample volume for injection = 20 μl. Alpha-lactoalbumin proved to be the protein of mare’s milk and cow’s milk. The retention time of mare’s α-lactoalbumin was 45.16 min, and that of cow’s milk – 40.09 min. The differences in the retention time of α-lactoalbumin were associated with the presence of 33 amino acid substitutions in the primary structure of both milks. The areas of α-lactoalbumin peaks were used to calculate the amount of cow’s milk added to mare’s milk and the related percentage. Conclusion. A HPLC analysis of whey proteins made it possible to determine up to 50 mL of added cow’s milk in 1 liter of mare’s milk.
3970
Abstract
Introduction. Cheese production is a promising niche with high profitability and excellent growth prospects. The city of Moscow and the Moscow region are the largest producers of cheeses and cheese products in Russia. Cheese production is developing there as part of the import substitution policy. The article describes some promising development directions of the local cheese industry. Study objects and methods. The paper analyzes and generalizes recent research publications, as well as regulatory and legislative documents, from legislative, statistical, and diagnostic positions. Results and discussion. The Moscow Region ranks second in the Central Federal District in terms of gross milk production; its indicator was 700 000 tons by the end of 2020. In 2016–2020, the list of leading cheese-producing areas included the regions of Altai, Moscow, Bryansk, Belgorod, and Voronezh. In Moscow and the Moscow region, the largest share in the structure of cheese production belongs to semi-hard cheeses followed by whizzed and soft cheese, with the annual consumption of cheese of 7 kg. Conclusion. The article features the current state of cheese market in the city of Moscow and the Moscow region, its development prospects, structure, production dynamics, consumption rate, etc. The paper also contains a forecast of the regional cheese production based on new production technologies and assortment policy.
7514
Abstract
Introduction. Geroprotectors are biologically active substances that inhibit the aging process. Many plant species are natural geroprotectors. For instance, Thymus vulgaris and Trifolium pratense are callus cultures with strong geroprotective properties. Study objects and methods. The present research featured T. vulgaris and T. pratense grown in vitro on various nutrient media. Their extracts were obtained by aqueous-alcoholic extraction using the following parameters: water-ethanol solvent Se = 30, 50, and 70 %; temperature Te = 30, 50, and 70°C; time τe = 2, 4, and 6 h. The quantitative and qualitative analysis was based on high-performance liquid mass spectrometry, gas mass spectrometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The optimal extraction parameters for T. vulgaris were τe = 4 h, Te = 50°C, Se = 70 %, for T. pratense – τe = 6 h, Te = 70°C, Se = 70 %. The chromatography detected flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, simple phenols, higher fatty acids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. T. vulgaris appeared to have the highest content of thymol (23.580 ± 1.170 mg/mL); its thymol, apigenin, gallic, chlorogenic, and caffeic components demonstrated geroprotective properties. The extract of T. pratense possessed the highest rutin content (10.05 ± 0.35 mg/mL), and it owed its geroprotective characteristics to rutin, chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids. Conclusion. The callus cultures of T. vulgaris and T. pratense proved to be promising sources of geroprotective biologically active substances.