Volume 49, Issue 2, 2019
Technological Solution for Preserving Nutritional Value and Increasing the Digestibility of Meat Dishes
Cooking perishable foods is an important and complicated process. Technological equipment plays a huge role in the cooking process, as well as the professional skills of the cook. To exclude the influence of the cook from this process, it is necessary to develop new heating equipment that would provide automatic culinary (heat) food processing without the participation of personnel, as well as intensify the process and reduce heat and energy consumption. This task is especially relevant when cooking in closed (restricted) spaces is concerned. The present research featured perspective directions of heat treatment. The authors compared the effect of microwave, ultrasonic, and infrared fields on the product and the technological process. The analysis proved that the grill mode provided the best option for heat treatment of portioned and small-sized semi-finished products from non-graded meat. Heat treatment of semi-finished products occurs without their contact with any heat transfer surface or coolant. The processing principle is based on the fact that free water contained in semi-finished products intensively absorbs IR radiation with a wave length of λ=1.0–1.2 μm, thus heating the inner layers of the food product. The radiation energy converted into heat energy is transferred to the inner layers of the product and reaches its core. Forced convection during the heat treatment in the ‘grill’ mode intensifies the speed of heating and cooking. Unlike conductive heating, the surface of the product remains open, which lets the layers cool down. This makes it possible to deliver an intense heat flux to the product. The author developed a KG-1 galley grill that can process portionedmeat (80–120 g) and small-sized semi-finished products (30–40 g) in the grill mode. The internal walls are coated with a special stuff that reflects IR-radiation, while the external walls are covered with a heat-resistant andhighly efficient quartz aerogel, which is a flexible thermal insulation material. A set of prefabricated quartz heaters are located at a distance of 4.5–5 cm from the food product, which intensifies the cooking process. The proposed structural changes decreased the temperature of the outer walls from 220°C to 60°C; lowered electricity consumption by 24–26%; shortened the cooking time by 20–25%; reduced the discharge of smoke and steam into the sewage system; improved filtering and ventilation; reduced heat losses by 1.3–1.5; increased efficiency by 16–20%; expanded the functionality and assortment of high quality meat dishes.
The article discusses the physical, chemical and functional properties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) and the possibility of its use in meat products. Tiger nuts grow on the territory of the Republic of Egypt. This traditional plant goes back to ancient times. As a rule, its tubers are soaked and then eaten as a snack. Tiger nuts are currently used in beverages, bakery, and dairy products. According to the data obtained, tiger nuts contain 15.77% of dietary fibers, 22.64% of lipids, namely 79.41% of unsaturated and 20.59% of saturated fatty acids. The experiment proved that tiger nuts contain a substantial amount of minerals: potassium – 710 mg/100g, calcium and magnesium – 90 mg/100g. The plant also contains vitamins C, E, and B, while its antioxidant activity reaches 10.4 mg/g. The research featured the sensory properties of meat samples with various concentrations of tiger nuts as a partial replacement. The study revealed that the tiger nut is a cream-colored and odorless fine powder, with a weak sweet taste of almonds. During the experiment, 2.5%–10% of tiger nut powder was introduced into first grade beef samples with a 2.5% interval. When used as a meat substitute, 5% of tiger nut was found to have a positive effect on such indicators as taste, smell, color, and aroma. Hence, tiger nuts can be used as a functional ingredient in meat products to increase the content of dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. In addition, tiger nuts have a good antioxidant property, which increases the shelf life of meat products, and is a cheap partial substitute for raw meat.
The paper features nutritionally enhanced bakery products. N.I. Vavilov Saratov State Agricultural University conducts a series of research on the development of accelerated technologies for nutritionally enhanced bakery products. One of the main objectives of food industry is to develop healthy bakery products. Small power bakeries located in places of high demand are getting very popular. Mini-bakeries specialize in complementing products, e.g. malt rye bread and sweet rolls, as well as dietary, functional, and preventive bakery products. In Russia, apple juice is cheap and available, since apples are extremely widespread. Nevertheless, apple juice is rich in minerals, vitamins, enzymes, and organic acids. The authors developed an accelerated technology for bakery products fortified with apple juice. The technology can be used by small enterprises that would like to expand their product range with the help of domestic fortifiers. The experiment involved samples of cold technology bread, in which water was partially substituted with apple juice. The samples were tested on sensory, physical, and chemical properties. The article describes the effect of apple juice on the structural and mechanical characteristics of the samples, i.e. viscosity, shear velocity, crumb, shelf life, rheological properties, general and plastic deformation, etc. The research revealed that apple juice affects the discoloration of the bakery product, i.e. degree of whiteness, chromaticity, and other color characteristics. Consumer properties were tested by panelists. The experiment defined the nutrition value and chemical composition of the product and established the optimal dosage of apple juice in the formulation, which could maintain the best consumer properties and satisfy the daily requirement for nutrients. Thus, bakery products fortified with apple juice can contribute to the development of baking industry.
The consumption of sour cream in Russia is growing every year. According to the data obtained from the Federal State Statistics Service and the Federal Customs Service, the production volume of sour cream in Russia in-creased by 5.55% in 2014–2018. However, the production of sour cream remains lower than its consumption. The solu-tion may be in production of sour cream products, which will make it possible to satisfy the demand, while non-dairy components will make the products functional. The authors propose to use fiber as a functional ingredient. The present research featured sour cream, a sour cream product with a 20% fat content, and such components of plant origin as fiber of Vitaminaya Polyana brand, rye fiber, wheat fiber, wheat fiber with licorice, and carrot puree. The authors selected the most optimal formula and composition for sour cream products. Standard research methods were used to study the sensory, physical, chemical, and microbiological indicators of the dairy products. The experiment revealed that 2.5% of fiber in the composition of sour cream product improved its consumer properties while preserving the original taste and smell of the product. Carrot puree was used as a color correcting and flavoring component. Its dosage was determined empirically. The sample of sour cream product with a carrot puree fraction of 5.0% received the highest overall rating. Fortified sourcream was obtained according to the technological scheme of production of sour cream with the addition of non-dairy components at the standardizing stage. The samples of sour cream product with fiber were found to promptly restore its structure and were characterized by an increased viscosity index compared with the control sample. The research resulted in a sour cream product with wheat fiber, licorice, and carrot puree. Samples of sour cream products and sour cream were stored for 20 days at a temperature of 6 ± 2 °C. The study established the optimal shelf life as 14 days.
Modern lifestyle is characterized by hypodynamy, hypokinesia, overnutrition, and high-calorie products consumption. Hence, food industry has to design low-caloric products. The present paper introduces a new production technology for low-fat butter with dietary fibers. The research featured Bio-fi Pro WR 400 beetroot fiber, namely its sensory, functional, and technological properties, as well as chemical composition. The research objective was to define its further use in low fat butter production. The fiber demonstrated neutral taste, colour, and smell. The sample contained up to 70% of dietary fibers, including 21% of cellulose and 20% of pectin. The research also studied the soaking process of cellulose in distilled water and skim milk at various temperatures. Fat-free milk proved to be the optimal environment, while the optimal temperature for the soaking process was 45 ± 1°C. Temperature experiments proved the samples of dietary fibers to be thermostable. A study of various pasteurization modes and their effect on the sensory properties of cream revealed the following optimal conditions: 95 ± 2°C for 10 minutes. The conditions allowed the samples of high-fat cream to acquire the necessary specific pasteurization taste. In addition, the study featured the effect of dietary fibers on the rheological and sensory properties of low fat butter, as well as its nutrition and energy value. The optimal share of the dietary fiber was determined as 2.5% of the finished product weight. The fat content in the low fat content butter was 1.17 times lower than in the control sample (Krestyanskoe butter brand). Thus, the obtained product demonstrated a low calorific value if compared to traditional butter.
Production Technology for Oat Protein with Advanced Physicochemical, Functional, and Technological Properties
The current intensive industrialization has changed the food preferences of consumers. As a result, there is a growing demand for high-grade high-nutritional meat and dairy products, which, in its turn, triggered an increase in the demand for grain crops and led to higher animal feed prices. All these affected the price and quality of the finished product, since farms are trying to stay profitable. As a consequence, the high cost of animal proteins make producers look for other sources of protein with similar qualities. Common oat (Avena sativa L.) remains the most cultivated species. Oats are a source of high-quality protein with an optimal amino acid balance. The paper features a oat protein technology (Avena sativa). The research defined the parameters of the protein extraction process. For acid and alkaline methods, the following optimum parameters were revealed: temperature – 40 ± 2°C, hydraulic module – 1:10, time – 90 minutes, active acidity of the acid extraction – 2.0 units, active acidity of alkaline extraction – 9.0 units. The authors managed to obtain protein substances with the molecular weight > 50 kDa. The optimal parameters of ultrafiltration of the protein extract were as follows: pore diameter = 100 kDa at pH 8.0 and 0.5 MPa. The ultrafiltration conducted under these conditions showed that the content of high molecular fractions (globulins and albumins) increased from 39.12% to 55.15% for the extract obtained by alkaline method, whereas the content of low molecular weight fractions (prolamins and glutelins) decreased from 60.88% to 44.85%. Ultrafiltration of protein extracts obtained by alkaline and acidic methods made it possible to concentrate protein fractions with a molecular weight ≥ 50 kDa. When a 10% aqueous solution of succinic acid was used as a precipitator, the protein precipitation degree equaled 89.3%. The paper introduces a new oat protein purification method. The optimal multiplicity of purification by RP-HPLC was 4 purification cycles. For the alkaline extract, the total content of high molecular weight fractions (50.0–120.0 kDa) was 72.7% and the total content of low molecular weight fractions (15.0–49.0 kDa) was 27.3%. For the acid extract, the total content of high molecular weight fractions was 72.9%, while the content of low molecular weight fractions was 27.1%. Oat proteins obtained by alkaline and acid extraction demonstrated a high foaming ability (148–177%) at pH = 6.0–9.0, as well as a good fat and water retention capacity. The oat proteins were found to have a high content of protein and essential amino acids similar to animal proteins. A comparative analysis showed that oat protein can act as an alternative substitute for animal proteins.
The integrated use of secondary raw milk is one of the most effective ways to optimize the processing of raw materials in the production of dairy products. The unique composition and properties of curd whey makes it a valuable industrial raw material that can be processed into a variety of foods and feed products. Nowadays, whey protein concentrates (WPC) are extremely popular with consumers. One of the promising areas of industrial processing of acid whey is the extraction of proteins by means of separate freezing (cryoconcentration). This process takes place at low temperatures (from 0 to minus 15°C), which makes it possible to preserve the composition and properties of the raw material, prevents denaturation of whey protein fractions, and preserves its valuable thermolabile components. The authors conducted laboratory tests of curd whey and WPC produced by several dairy companies. The research allowed the authors to determine the composition, sensory, physico-chemical, and microbiological properties of the samples. The research objective was to evaluate the sensory properties of the initial cheese whey and WPC obtained by cryoconcentration, to establish their chemical composition, as well as physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The research also featured the effect of the whey acidity on the WPC output and the development of technological schemes of WPC production by separate freezing. All the samples of curd whey proved to meet the current standards and can be used for WPC production. The sample of laboratory-obtained WPC sample had 20.19% of dry substances and 12.80% of protein, which corresponds to the standard albumin with its 20.0% of dry substances. The titratable acidity of WPC did not exceed the permissible level of 95°T. The experimental results proved that the cryoconcentration technology produced concentrate that met the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation. The obtained data revealed an increase in titratable acidity from 47°T to 50°T during the storage of curd whey for 7 days. The increase in acidity increased the yield of WPC after 7 days of serum storage by 57.6%. The new WPC production scheme consisted of several stages: (1) the whey was obtained; (2) casein dust and dairy fat were excluded; (3) pasteurization; (4) two-stage cryoconcentration; (5) thermal coagulation of whey concentrate; (6) separation of WPC. The technology of cryoconcentrationcurd whey suggests designing industrial installations in-line type to obtain CSB.
Effect of Technological Characteristics of Various Types of Raw Materials on the Taste and Aroma of Sour Ales
Sour ales, traditionally produced in Belgium, Britain, and Germany, have gained wide popularity in America, Europe, and Russia. The paper provides generalized and systematized scientific data related to the technological and biotechnological characteristics of raw materials used in sour ales. The study featured malt, grain products (wheat, corn, rice, barley, rye, and oats), hop, Lactobacillus lactic-acid bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewer’s yeast, and Brettanomyces yeast. Sour ales are usually prepared from a combination of different malts, such as Pilsner, Vienna, and Munich. Pilsner is used for malt type, while Munich is mostly employed as a basisfor dark varieties of sour ales. The review presents some of the flavor characteristics of malt types, as well as their recommended content. Unmalted grain products have a significant impact on the technological process and the organoleptic characteristics of acid ales. Unmalted wheat is used for Belgian sour ales, such as Lambic, Fruit Lambic, and Gueuze, in the amount of 30–40%, while 50 % are used in the German variety of Berliner Weiss. In general, the degree of wort pitching for sour ales should not exceed 8-15 IBU, since hop acids kill lactic-acid bacteria. Common hop varieties with a low or medium content of α-acids were found optimal for sour ale production. For example, for Flanders Red Ale, producers most often use one of the best traditional European varieties, namely Saazer (Zatetsky).The following types of homo- and heterofermentative lactic-acid bacteria are recommended for ale production technology: Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum. The aromatic characteristics of the wort fermented with lactic acid bacteria are described in the following terms: bread, yeast, honey, oil, cider, etc. Lactic acid bacteria are used in sour ales production, as well as Brettanomyces yeasts. Currently, brewing widely employstwo types of yeast: Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Brettanomyces anomalus. They give the drink a specific taste and aroma, due to hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and esters (ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, phenylacetate, etc.). The paper contains some practical recommendations on the use of specific types of raw materials to produce sour ales with a given sensory profile.
The present research features the effect of technological parameters of zeolite filtration on the content of vitamins, minerals, and physico-chemical and sensory properties of milk. The zeolite was obtained from the Tarbagatai deposit (East of Kazakhstan). The authors developed a flow chart for a comprehensive experimental study of the tech-nological process. According to the developed technological scheme, the milk went through a filter containing 100–200 g of zeolite, under pressure at a pump speed of 300–400 rpm. When the frequency of the pump rpm was increased to 400 rpm, it resulted in a significant change in the content of minerals and vitamins A and E in the milk. However, the filtration triggered a decrease in the content of iron, zinc, and phosphorus ions, while the content of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium increased. The content of vitamin A after the filtration decreased from 24 to 23.9–23.8 mg per 100 lilers of milk, while the content of vitamin E decreased from 0.097 to 0.095–0.092 mg per 100 liters of milk. Thus, the filtration process affected the physicochemical parameters of the milk: the frequency of the pump speed reached 400 rpm, and the content of zeolite in the filters increased up to 150 g and 200 g, while the titrated acidity fell down to 15°T. The sensory properties of the milk did not change during the filtration process. The optimal parameters for zeolite filtration of milk were established as follows: pump speed = 300 rpm; pump volumetric capacity = 10 l/min or 600 l/h; zeolite content = 200 g (80% of the filter volume).
For patients with gluten intolerance, diet therapy remains the main method of treatment. Global epidemiological studies have dispelled the myth of celiac disease as a disease primarily of young children. Gluten intolerance can develop at any age. However, European scientists state that the amount of diseased children under 12 has increased dramatically. Gluten-free diets are found lacking in many important components. Children that fail to consume necessary nutrients or have problems with their absorption tend to be physically retarded. An increase in the amount of sugar and hydrogenated fats was observed in the diet of patients with celiac disease, which increases the risk of obesity and hyperinsulinemia. This problem can be solved by expanding the range of specialized gluten-free grain mixtures with amaranth. According to world studies, amaranth is a gluten-free grain as its proteins have demonstrated a complete absence of toxicity in patients with celiac disease.The present paper features the content of the main nutrients, minerals, and biologically active substances in amaranth grain, including squalene as the most important regulator of lipid and steroid metabolism. Its content in amaranth oil is about 7–8%. Amaranth is characterized by a high content of high- grade protein (an average of 17.5%), polyunsaturated fatty acids, and biologically active and mineral substances. The digestibility of amaranth grain protein exceeds 73%. The fatty acid composition showed 38–48% of linoleic acid, 25–35% of oleic acid, 19–21% of palmitic acid, and 4–5% of stearic acids, which is about 95% of all fatty acids. Thus, amaranth can compensate for the lack of these substances in diet. Regular consumption of amaranth can reduce the frequency and severity of various deficiencies. In addition, the paper contains information on the structure and some technological properties of amaranth grain. The authors determine the possible prospects of further research in the development of gluten-free amaranth and vegetable mixtures for children. A wider range of gluten-free amaranth products will improve diets for children with celiac disease, increase the treatment compliance, and improve the quality of life of the child and family.
Low-value by-products can be processed using biotechnological methods, which seems to be the optimal solution for the problem of rational use of secondary raw materials. The authors introduce a method of biotransformation using whey and enzyme preparation of proteolytic action with subsequent massaging. The method neutralizes the specific smell, reduces the time of heat treatment, increases hydrophilicity, and reduces the mechanical strength of mutton rumen tissue. The experiment proved that the enzymatic effect on the connective tissue of the mutton rumen contributes to the destruction of disulfide and hydrogen bonds of the triple helix of the collagen macromolecule. It significantly reduces the mechanical strength and hydrothermal stability of collagen, which, in its turn, reduces the heat treatment time while increasing the functional and technological properties. The research revealed an increase in collagen digestibility. After 4 hours of fermentation, it was 4.5%, after 6 hours – 5.9%, and after 8 hours – 5.9%. Hence, the optimal period of fermentation was determined as 6 hours, since between 6 and 8 hours the main physical and chemical parameters improved insignificantly. The experiment in the cutting pressure of the raw lamb rumen tissue demonstrated softening of the structure as a result of the effect of the acidic medium on the collagen structure. An excess positive charge formed due to the suppression of dissociation of carboxyl groups of side chains. The loosening of the collagen structure occurred due to the expansion of fibrils in the polar areas, which can be attributed to the repulsion between similarly charged groups. As a result, the brine penetrated into the expanded area and caused swelling. The use of whey and fermentation contributed to an additional increase in moisture-binding and moisture-holding capacity. It loosened the structure of proteins and, thus, increased the degree of penetration and the immobilized moisture in the rumen. As a result, its mass increased by 10–20%, and the heat loss reduced. The composition of the brine contributed to the swelling, increased the diameter of the collagen fibers, and enlarged the surface of interaction in during massaging. Moisture was allowed to enter freely, which increased the water binding capacity by 22.2 ± 0.31%. The increase in the water binding capacity could be explained by the modification of collagen and its destructive changes. The changes occurred due to the additional interaction of whey molecules with the protein and the formation of new intermolecular bonds. Fermentation, combined with the massaging of the tripe, contributed to the development of lactic microflora and hydrolytic decomposition of protein components, thereby reducing the heat treatment process. Such changes are associated not only with the processes of protein hydrolysis under enzyme preparation, but also with the complex activity of lactic acid bacteria, as well as endo- and exoenzymes that hydrolyze proteins. The changes can also be attributed to the fact that low-molecular protein substances can assimilate and contribute to bacterial growth. In addition, lactic acid reduces the pH of the medium, thus activating the enzymatic properties. The proposed method of biotransformation of collagen-containing raw materials makes it possible to create environmentally friendly and low-waste technologies.
Enzymatic reetherification of fats has numerous technological and economic advantages, which makes its large-scale implementation highly efficient. Unlike chemical modification, enzymatic reetherification demonstrates a greater specificity, typical of the catalytic action of lipase, and a higher controllability. Lipases with positional specificity cause redistribution of fatty acids to occur only in extreme provisions of triglycerides. In addition, this method is 1.5 times lower than hydrogenation of fats. The authors used the facilities of an innovative laboratory provided by JSC Eurasian Foods Corporation to conduct practical research on reetherification of fatty mixes. The main objective was to study the effect of the fats obtained by fermental reetherification on the quality indicators of butterfat substitutes. The research featured the input products to be used in the formula of reetherified fat and prepared fat mixes for butterfat substitutes. The paper describes the process of enzymatic reetherification of mixes of oils and fats, prepared reesterified fats, and buttermilk substitutes obtained from reetherified fats. The process involved a sequence of reactors filled with Lipozyme TL IM, a granulated substance of a microbic 1.3-specific lipase. The lipase was obtained from Thermomyces Lanuginosus, which had been immobilized with silica gel. The obtained products conformed to the butterfat standards in that they contained 16–2% of polynonsaturated fatty acids, no transisomers of fatty acids, ≤ 38% of palmitiny acid, and ≤ 5% of solid triglycerides at 35 of °C. The melting temperature was under body heat. The resulting characteristics of butterfat substitutes make them high-quality dairy products.
New varieties of leguminous plants expand the range and improve the quality of healthy food products. The new legumes meet the requirements of modern food production. In addition, they demonstrate low inhibitory properties and possess a high phytochemical potential. Domestic non-GM peas and beans have a high nutritional and biological value; they are cheap, highly profitable, and can be produced in large volumes. Thus, they have a high potential for expanding the raw material base of the food industry. The Republic of Bashkortostan is the leader in pea production: the State Register of Breeding Achievements contains over 10 varieties cultivated by Bashkir scientists. Researchers of the Omsk State Agrarian University have created high-yielding varieties of beans with improved consumer qualities that are adapted to Siberian environment. However, the qualitative indicators of the new varieties remain understudied. The present research expands the raw material base for the production of healthy and functional foods with the new legumes adapted to the conditions of West Siberia and the Urals. The study features the characteristics of legumes of Siberian and Ural ecotype, which helps to expand the information database on the phytochemical potential of the new varieties. The beans were provided by the Omsk State Agrarian University, the peas – by the Bashkir Research Institute of Agriculture (harvest of 2018). The main objectives of the study were to determine the indicators that form the nutritional and biological value of the raw materials: protein content, dietary fiber, the presence and quantity of macro and microelements, enzymes, and trypsin inhibitor, also during germination.
High and unstable prices on such cocoa products as cocoa butter have triggered a search for substitutes. Thus, it is necessary to develop identification methods for chocolate authenticity, since chocolate is one of the most popular confectionery products. The present research employed the methods of thermal and thermomechanical analysis to study samples of chocolate produced in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Community (the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, and the Republic of Belarus) and chocolate bars with cocoa butter substitutes. An analysis of the sucrose – cocoa butter (CB) system revealed that samples with CB = 10–30%, 60%, and 90% demonstrated a single polymorphic modification of glycerides CB α-form with a melting point of 21–23°C. The samples with CB = 0%, 50%, 70%, and 80% showed a more heat-resistant modification (β’-modification) with a maximum melting point of 27.0–27.5°C. In addition, the melting peaks of glycerides were found not constant, which may indicate a eutectic effect in the sucrose – CB system. The samples of chocolate produced in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan passed the tempering stage and demonstrated the most heat-resistant β-modification of CB. However, the samples differed in the melting temperature: T max = 33.9°C for the Russian chocolate and T = 34.8°C for the samples from Kazakhstan (the Rakhat brand). The samples from Belarus did not pass the tempering and were found to contain a thermodynamically unstable CB α-phase (the Kommunarka factory). The samples produced by the Spartak factory (Gomel, the republic of Belarus) contained an additional CB β’-phase. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves for chocolate bars with CB substitutes differed from the DSC curves for cocoa butter and chocolate samples. The fact can be used for identification. The DSC method can be used to identify the individual characteristics of the producer of chocolate and its analogues since the parameters of the melting curve of the fat phase and the shape of the curve are individual. The thermomagnetic analysis (TMA) method complemented the identification by determining the mass fraction of the liquid phase. Joint application of DSC and TMA methods allowed the authors to evaluate the quality of chocolate, its formulation, as well as to reveal the presence of cocoa products substitutes in the samples as compared to the reference sample.
The present paper features processes of serum biotransformation. The serum was obtained from triticale extract and pea flour after protein concentrates of increased biological value had been extracted. The research objective was to obtain microbial and vegetable feed concentrates by using a composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae121 yeast and the yeast-like fungus Geotrichumcandidum 977. The mass fraction of protein in the two-component composites was 75–80% of the dry matter. The score of the first and the second limiting amino acids (lysine and threonine) equaled 103–113%, and that of the third acid (sulfur- containing) was 71–72%. The chemical composition of the composites corresponded to the ‘Concentrates’ group; the values of their functional and technological properties were typical of concentrates from other types of grain crops. The study revealed some cultures that are able to actively develop in serum, which is a secondary product of processing the extract after protein isolation. A symbiotic ferment was prepared from the fungus Geotrichumcandidum 977 and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 121, which ensures the growth of biomass in a carbohydrate- and nitrogen-containing medium. Proteins were isolated under the action of amylase, glucoamylase, cellulose, and xylanase. The amount of high-molecular compounds (dextrins) and trioses (raffinose) released from the interaction with protein and non-starch polysaccharides decreased 2–4 times in the solution. The amount of glucose, disaccharides, xylose, and galactose increased 2–10 times, compared with the original extracts. The serum remaining after the removal of the main mass of the protein was enriched with low molecular weight mono- and oligosaccharides, which positively affected the growth of microorganisms. The mass fraction of proteins in the microbial-vegetable composite obtained from the extract with the triticale proteins and pea flour ratio of 1:5 was 15% higher than at the ratio of 1:3. Microbial and vegetable concentrates with a mass fraction of protein of 55.8–75.1% of dry matter can be used in fodder production as a protein-carbohydrate additive. Protein composites made of protein triticale and peas with a complementary amino acid composition can improve the biological value and performance of food products.
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Instant Coffee and Coffee Capsules: Comparative Analysis
Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world due to its unique sensory properties, i.e. aroma and taste. Coffee consumption increases from year to year, which makes its functional property a relevant issue. The present research featured the antioxidant component in freeze-dried coffee and coffee capsules obtained from a commercial network. The main objective was to identify the most advantageous types of coffee to serve as a raw material for extract production. Coffee is known to prevent diseases caused by the oxidative action of free radicals. The paper presents a review of multiple scientific sources on the beneficial properties of coffee. It also features some results of the study in the chemical composition of coffee, i.e. dry matter content, phenols, flavonoids, etc. The anti-radical activity was described with the help of the DPPH method, while the FRAP method was employed to study the antioxidant properties of several coffee samples. The samples of instant coffee and coffee capsules were obtained from a distribution network (Samara, Russia) and included such brands as Coffea Premium, Coffesso, Nescafe Dolche Gusto, Jacobs Milicano, Bushido, Egoiste, and Fresco. Coffea Premium and Coffesso showed the best results in all the tests and can be additional sources of antioxidant substances. These two varieties of coffee capsules are produced for capsule coffee machines and are roasted ground coffee beans. Coffea Premium demonstrated the best results in phenolic substances, flavonoids, and anti-radical activity with 1338 mg of gallic acid and 854 mg of catechin per 100g of the original substance and 0.84 mg per cm3. Nescafe Dolche Gusto coffee capsules and such varieties of instant coffee as Jacobs Millicano, and Fresco showed similar but average results according to all the phenolic analyzes. Bushido and Egoiste were found lacking in phenols, flavonoids, and dry substances. These samples demonstrated low values of antiradiation and regenerating ability, which indicates a worse quality than that of coffee capsules. This may be due to some processing peculiarities: instant coffee undergoes thermal treatment when coffee granules are formed, while solvents are used to obtain coffee extract. Thus, the research revealed that Coffea Premium and Coffesso are the best sources of antioxidants.
Formulation and Quality Assessment of Diabetic Jelly Marmalade 'Karkade' Fortified with Succinic Acid
Complex diet therapy for type II diabetes involves confectionery products based on fructose, sugar substitutes, and/or intensive sweeteners. The formulation of diabetic jelly marmalade ‘Karkade’ does not contain sugar or molasses. Sweetness was provided by the combination of sorbitol (E420) and glycosyl stevioside ‘Crystal’. Their sweetness to sucrose ratio was 0.6 and 150, respectively. Polydextrose was used as a filler. Polydextrose is a low-calorie prebiotic (1 kcal/g) and a water-soluble dietary fiber with a neutral taste. Water infusion of dry bracts of hibiscus (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.), or Karkade, gave the marmalade its color and physiologically active substances. Fortification was provided by succinic acid, which was chosen as an acidity regulator since it increases cell insulin resistance and reduces the risk of diabetic complications. For maximum extraction of anthocyanins, the raw material was infused for 30 minutes at a ratio of 1:10 at 80°C. Citric acid (1.2 g/100 g) was added into the infusion to stabilize the anthocyanins. The research involved standard methods. The method of pH-differential spectrophotometry was used to determine the level of anthocyanins, while the method of gas-liquid chromatography was employed to determine organic acids in the marmalade. The optimal ratio of agar, stevioside, and hibiscus infusion (%) was defined as 16.0:0.4:15.0. No preservative was used. The marmalade contained 380 g/kg of sorbitol and 2 g/kg of succinic acid. The sensory properties of the marmalade corresponded with the State Standard. The marmalade had a slightly astringent sweet and sour taste, a burgundy color, and a jelly-like consistency with no syneresis. The average value of physical and chemical parameters at the time of manufacture was as follows: moisture – 18.7%, total acidity – 12.4 degrees, plastic strength – 22.0 kPa. The average content of micronutrients (mg/100 g) was as follows: anthocyanins – 38.8, potassium – 33.1, calcium – 11.3, magnesium – 5.1, manganese – 0.48, iron – 0.35, zinc – 0.0015, and succinic acid – 214.0. No loss of succinic acid was registered during processing and 3 months of storage. The content of succinic acid in 50 g marmalade was amounted to about 100g, or 50% of the acceptable daily intake. Thus, marmalade 'Karkade' with succinic acid can be considered a functional fortified product for diabetic diet.
The transformation of the Russian economy has led to a significant reduction in the production of bread and bakery products. The recent years have seen a groing competition between retail chains, mini-bakeries, and bakeries. The present research features the problems of the production of bread and bakery products by large industrial enterprises and offers a number of possible solutions. The authors used statistical methods of data analysis. The study employed statistical data on the production volumes of bakery and flour confectionery products according to the Russian National Classifier of Types of Economic Activity as obtained from the Federal State Statistics Service. The study revealed the relationship between the deterioration of the economic situation in the country and the increase in the production of bread and bakery products, which confirms the social importance of bread. The reduction in the volume of bread and bakery products is connected with the annual decrease in the production of non-durable storage products by 1.3–2%. In 1990–2017, the volume of production decreased from 18.2 to 6.5 million tons. Low economic indicators remain a major problem of the baking industry. In 2017, the baking industry of the Kemerovo region showed the following levels: the use of average annual capacity – 35%, profitability – 2.5%, equipment wear – 50–80%. The production of long-term storage and low humidity products increases annually. In 2010-2017, the volume of production increased by 28.78%, and in 2017 it amounted to 552,000 tons. In 2010–2017, there was an increase in the production of flour confectionery products of long-term storage by 45%; the annual increase was 4–6%. In 2010–2017, production of flour confectionery products increased from 1.43 to 1.92 million tons. The research proved that it is advisable to divide the production of bakery and flour confectionery products into socially significant and commercial products. The authors believe that socially important products should include bakery products of short-term storage, as well as healthy foods with vegetable additives. As for commercial products, bakery products of long-term storage and low humidity should include products with a complex unique recipe, e.g. gluten-free bakery and confectionery products. To solve this problem, Kemerovo State University is currently developing scientifically based recipes and technologies for bakery products fortified with iodine, selenium, and various natural additives, e.g. sea buckthorn, cranberry, viburnum, etc.