Volume 32, Issue 1, 2014
SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE QUANTITY OF DIHYDROQUERCETIN USED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF «GRAPE» KVASS TECHNOLOGY
The article deals with the results of researches on the definition of dihydroquercetin used in soft drinks to impart antioxidant properties and increase their shelf life. The analysis of the results of sensory evaluation using the measures of similarities in soft drinks with desired «standard» rates allowed us to estimate the quality of the soft drink. Organoleptic and physico-chemical quality of the drink has been studied. The storage time of the kvass obtained with the addition of the amur grape ( vitis amurensis) and dihydroquercetin was established on the basis of the experimental studies.
Merchandising and technological properties of the Taimyr wild reindeer by-products were investigated. The research results allowed us to determine the output of each kind of by-product relative to both live weight and the carcass weight. Biochemical compositions, nutritive and biological value of by-products are given.
METHOD OF SECONDARY COLLAGEN - CONTAINING RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING USING CLAVISPORA LUSITANIAE Y3723 YEAST
The article deals with a research on the influence of the substrate on the growth of Clavispora lusitaniae Y3723 . The optimum culture medium and culture conditions are found. Specific collagenase activity is measured during culture growing and its variability depending on the addition of various salts into the culture fluid has been investigated. Summed up are the results of optimization of conditions necessary for fermentative hydrolysis of secondary collagen-containing raw materials.
SUBSTANTIATION OF FORMULA COMPONENTS OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL CURING COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS FOR WHOLE-MUSCLE MEAT PRODUCTS
One of the priorities for stabilization and improvement of functional and technological properties of meat raw material is the use of multifunctional additives. Therefore, the goal of the research was the experimental study of the concept of using multifunctional curing colloidal systems (MFCCS) with optimization of their composition in the technology of cured meat products. Proposed is the methodological solution of the problem of technological realization of meat raw material of different classification groups. The obtained data show the specificity and the relationship between the main functional and technological properties of NOR and DFD chilled beef and MFCCS components. The MFCCS composition is justified according to the compatibility analysis, the specificity of functional and technological properties and the results of the influence on the organoleptic, functional and technological, structural, mechanical and biochemical parameters of model meat systems.
The expediency of introduction of dairy components into compounding of plant- and-creamy spreads is theoretically proved and experimentally confirmed. Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of dry milk raw materials used in the production technology of spread are investigated. On the basis of the conducted studies on rheological and organoleptic characteristics of spreads, it is established that introduction of dry whey, buttermilk, dry whole and nonfat milk highly influences spread texture, making it lighter, and taste of finished product.
The paper is devoted to preserving the quality of dry fermented milk (sour cream) product antioxidant stabilized and fractionally packed. The data on changes in nutritional value and quality of the product during storage are presented. Based on the results, the expiry dates for dry sour cream product at different storage temperatures are set.
The technology of poly-grain bright and dark wort production using differend kinds of raw materials has been developed. The sources of raw materials are bright barley, wheat and rye malts mixed with unmalted grains such as rice, oat, corn and buckwheat flours. The wort is used as a base for functional soft drinks production.
The article deals with the study of proteins and lactose isolation from whey using the method of separating freezing out. Experiments on the separating freezing out of whey are done at temperatures from -2°C to -6°C. The change of whey density in the course of freezing out is investigated. The diagrams of quantity dependence of the ice formed, and also the amount of the protein deposit formed in the course of crystallization is constructed. The fractional structure of the protein deposit has been studied. The physical and chemical structure of the ice formed in the course of crystallization has been investigated. Rational parameters of cryoconcentration for isolation of valuable whey components have been determined.
The choice of buckwheat malt as the functional basis for developing a composition of baking improver was substantiated. It was shown that adding baking improver on the basis of buckwheat malt in the production of bread produced from wheat flour with resistant gluten improves the organoleptic and physico-chemical quality coefficients of finished products.
The analysis of rheological and thermodynamic characteristics of bio-yogurt with fruit and vegetable components are given. Efficient dynamic viscosity, shear stress and activation energy are studied. It is established that the change of dynamic viscosity of bio-yogurt forms the hysteresis curve when the increase and the decrease of the shear rate take place. According to the authors, the area occupied by the hysteresis curve characterizes the degree of the bio-yogurt structure stability to the mechanical impact. The area formed by the hysteresis curve has been calculated for a quantitative assessment of the stability degree. Evaluation of the bio-yogurt energy state is carried out by means of the product activation energy determination. The value of the activation energy can be used as a relative characteristic of dairy products keeping ability: the higher the value, the higher the keeping ability. Mathematical models of activation energy of viscous flow of milk and dairy products are created.
The effect of premix 986 (manufactured by DSM Nutritional Products), containing vitamins E, B 1, B 2, B 6, PP, B 3, B C, B 12, H on the organoleptic, physico-chemical, microbiological quality, nutritional value and functional properties of selenium enriched bakery products is studied. It was found that selenium containing grain product fortification improves the appearance and taste of freshly made goods: the items are lighter, have small thin-walled porosity and elastic crumb, more pronounced lactic acid “shade”. Some physical and chemical properties are improved as well: porosity increased by 1, 5 %, share of volume - by 5, 9 %. Consumption of average daily servings of enriched bakery products will meet not less than 45,0 % of the daily physiological needs of an adult man in selenium and at least 20,0-40,0 % - in the main vitamins, which casts the developed bakery products as a fortified food supply. The effectiveness of the use of selenium containing and vitamin fortified cereal products as prophylactic agents to reduce the intensity of free radical processes in the human body are clinically proved.
The results of researches on functional and technological properties of meat raw materials depending on the level of sodium chloride replacement by salt substitutes and their kind are given in the article. Calcium chloride, potassium chloride combinations have been studied as salt substitutes. The level of salt substitutes replacement was 20-50 % and 100 %. The amount of added curing mixture was 3 % to the mass of raw materials. Dependences of pH, water binding ability and the solubility of muscular tissue proteins have been established. The curing mixture has a stabilizing effect on the functional properties. In the curing mixture 30 % of sodium chloride are replaced with the «potassium chloride+calcium chloride» composition that corresponds to the reduction of sodium by 30 %.
New technological decisions on the creation of whipped desserts (mousse) on the basis of whey were developed. The new technological approach included the replacement of gelatin with the dietary Citri-Fi fibers and the replacement of sugar with fructose. It was done in order to reduce the caloric content of the desserts. It is shown that using of dietary fibers and fructose in whipped desserts will lead to the manufacture of a food product with improved foaming properties, enriched with a complex of vitamins and minerals and having super high sensory characteristics. Moreover, the designed whipped desserts enhance immune system, have beneficial effects on biological processes in the body, thus helping to combat certain diseases and improving the body condition on the whole.
The article deals with heterogeneous crystallization in the production of sweetened condensed milk. The research results on heterogeneous lactose crystals and simulation seed material are shown. Technological schemes of sweetened condensed milk and milk-containing product using the integrated process of heterogeneous crystallization are presented.
The article briefly characterizes the properties of chitosan and its chemical formulae. The analysis of the literature on the chitosan properties modification as well as the use of chitosan in home and foreign food industry is given. The results of experimental studies on the ability of chitosan to regulate component composition of plant-based beverages for providing predictable product stability are presented. The effect of chitosan on the removal of polyphenolic, pectin and protein substances from fruit and grain based semi-prepared beverages are shown. The data for the study of precipitation obtained by natural sedimentation of beverage suspensions, as well as by processing berry juices with a stabilizer are presented.
Analysis of theoretical and experimental research by domestic and foreign scholars in the field of preparation of biopolymer unmalted grain for hydrolytic processes by thermal methods is given. The results of scientific experiments representing physical, biochemical and structural changes occurring in the unmalted grain under such processing are summarized. The trend of thermal method development affecting technological potential of unmalted raw materials and hence the formation of beer quality is identified on the basis of information source analysis.
Relatively low efficiency of ultrafiltration separation of liquid poly-disperse systems predetermined theoretical and experimental researches to develop and ground the process intensification techniques. The results of experimental studies of the dependence of permeability and selectivity of polymeric membranes on the operating pressure and the circulation rate of Jerusalem artichoke tubers juice and whey mixture in the baromembrane apparatus operating channel.
The influence of freezing regimes and low-temperature storage of different blackcurrant varieties on their quality factors is investigated. The influence of low-temperature processing on sugar and vitamin C preservation, titratable acidity, free moisture content in blackcurrant berries, as well as the objective taste factor of the berries has been determined. Studies have revealed low-temperature regimes of processing and storage, allowing the best manner of keeping blackcurrant quality factors studied.
The method of establishing the rational temperature and time modes of fermented milk product cooling is presented, providing the introduction of processing limits caused by the necessity of finished goods quality preservation. The process based on the mathematical model of non-fixed heat exchange of acid clot cooling in the thermostatic yogurt production is considered.
Disclosed is a classical processing line of extracts from frozen fruit raw material. Its operator model is drawn up and the subsystem is isolated. Upgrading is suggested on the basis of the operator model analysis. It results in entirety gain of the current system and consists in a new method applying of running a number of operations. It is substantiated the applying of the vibration tray device to put into practice the proposed solution. The product information and its operating principle are presented. Beneficial impacts of its applying for extracts process from frozen fruit raw material by batch and continuous methods are determined.
Developed is an experimental device for quantitative determination of mass conductivity parameters in pork under the influence of electro-osmosis current and the appropriate methodology for conducting experimental researches. Studied are the processes of mass conductivity in samples made from pork longissimus muscle under the influence of electro-osmosis current. The influence of the potential difference of electro-osmosis current, exposure time and physical parameters of pork on the quantitative parameters of mass conductivity have been established. Analytical dependencies for quantitative determination of mass conductivity parameters in pork under the influence of electro-osmosis current have been proposed. The method for quantitative determination of mass conductivity coefficient in the meat under the influence of electro-osmosis current has been proposed.
The work included the microelement-content analysis of the sea-buckthorn berries from the former fruit tree nursery of Kemerovo and the remediated soils of the «Baydaevsky» and the «Mokhovsky» opencast coal mines (Kuzbass, Belovsky district). Microelements, studied for content, included Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr and a number of others. The determination was carried out by a method of atomic emission spectrometry with spectrum excitation in the alternating-current arc. The experiment was conducted on the PGS-2 spectrometer (Carl Zeiss Jena, Germany). The results yielded a significant lead surplus. From 3- to 8-fold lead exceedance against 2 the Sanitary Regulations and Norms was detected. The sea-buckthorn berries also proved to have high concentration of iron, manganese, and for some samples, of chrome, barium and cobalt. The conclusion implies the necessity of ecological monitoring of the vegetation products from the industrial and urban sites in consideration.
EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC BIFIDOBACTERIUM AND LACTOBACILLUS CULTURES ON INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA COMPOSITION IN HEALTHY ADULTS
A limited placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effect of per os intake of four dairy starter cultures composed of probiotic lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacterium on the intestinal microbiota of healthy volunteers. The four starter cultures included: (a) Lactobacillus casei B-1144, (b) L. acidophilus 593.40.3, (c) L. plantarum B-1615, and (d) a mixture of Bifidobacterium dentium 49B, B. animalis 52B and B. longum 53B. The comparison of intestinal microbiota in groups of volunteers receiving probiotic cultures against that in the group of volunteers receiving placebo revealed a number of quantitative changes. These included higher levels of obligate anaerobic bacteria belonging to the genus of Bacteroides , Atopobium, and Clostridium coccoides groups. In addition some of the starter cultures induced higher levels of lactobacilli and non-pathogenic E. coli . No statistically significant changes were observed in the group of volunteers receiving placebo.
According to the results of the analysis of the existing RD requirements to oilcakes of commercial oil-bearing crops and quality assessment of oilcakes of nonconventional oil-bearing crops produced by small enterprises of narrow specialization, technical requirements to food oilcakes of nontraditional oil-bearing raw materials are justified. Among them are walnut oilcake, pumpkin seed oilcake, sesame oilcake, linseed oilcake, milk thistle oilcake. On the basis of experimental research the list of regulated organoleptic and physical-chemical quality factors has been determined. Admissible levels of microbiological and hygienic requirements for oilcakes safety are established.
UNCERTAINTY IN ESTABLISHING CORRESPONDENCE OF PRESERVATIVE CONTENT IN WINES TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF STANDARD REGULATIONS
The researches on the content of sulfur dioxide and sorbic acid as preservatives in grape wines presented in modern trading network have been done. The analysis of the current normative documentation adopted to confirm the wines quality and safety revealed the discrepancies in quantitative values, and in the quantity units of approved standards.
STUDY OF MICROBIOLOGICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FROZEN SEMI-FINISHED FISH PRODUCTS DURING STORAGE
Researches on microbiological safety of experimental samples have been conducted. Organoleptic characteristics of experimental samples powdered with grounded celery root, parsley root, kidney bean and bread-crumbed samples (chosen as control ones) have been investigated. Optimum conditions for refrigerated storage during which semi-finished fish products remain safe, retain their quality and functional characteristics have been established.
Adsorption of gallic acid with activated carbons have been investigated. Activated carbons differ in porous structure and chemical state of the surface. Regularities of adsorption process have been determined. The authors propose the mechanism of gallic acid adsorption. The use of activated carbons based on semi-coke to improve the quality of beer is proposed.
The article provides information on the structure, properties and main areas of application of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The main physical-chemical properties of particles of carboxymethyl cellulose in aqueous solutions are studied. The size of particle (the particle radius, the thickness of diffusion layer, molecular mass), the values of solutions viscosity, as well as the molecular mass of the polymer have been calculated.
MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIAN ECONOMY: SELECTION OF PRIORITY ROUTES IN THE CONTEXT OF SYSTEMATIC APPROACH
The problems of modernization of Russian economy against the background of systematic approach are considered. The choice of priority routes of modernization is substantiated on the basis of system concepts: action focalizing, integrity, accentuation of the «crucial element», phasing of the system development (transformation). The description is presented of the systematic conditions, contributing to dynamism, vividness and effectiveness of modernization changes in Russian economy.