ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Volume 34, Issue 3, 2014

2935
Abstract
Modern food processing implies using of various additives to improve the processing parameters of foods as well as sensory and texture characteristics. Based on the information on the texture and composition of a commercial sample of yogurt, we have developed new technological solutions in the formulas of yogurts replacing gelatin with dietary fibers and have assessed the suitability of new types of yogurts. We have investigated the physicochemical properties of the developed yogurts using the analysis of viscosity versus shear rate, syneresis and density measurements as well as the light microscopy. The obtained results showed that the developed dairy products have textural, physicochemical and sensory properties similar to those of a commercial product. The results revealed that the commercial yogurt and three developed samples with dietary fibers, i.e. with the xanthan / locust bean gum / modified starch, α- carrageenan / xanthan / sodium polyphosphate / modified starch, and carboxymethylcellulose / xanthan / modified starches did not exhibit syneresis after centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 min at 4 ° C. Moreover, all developed yogurts remained homogeneous during their storage due to the fat globules uniformly dispersed in the three-dimensional matrix as shown in the microscopic analysis. The use of emulsifier can prevent clumping of fat globules contributing to texture stabilization of fermented milk products. These studies being closely related with the science of nutrition can contribute to the development of foods with high functionality and sensory characteristics.
3113
Abstract
Results of researches on changes in moisture content, acidity and acid number of fat of barley flour produced with various methods (from the grain subjected to the hydrothermal treatment (HTT) with moistening at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, tempering and drying, and from the grain which wasn't subjected to the HTT) during its storage are given. The flour was stored in fabric bags and in plastic zip-locked packages. The latter are made from a film with low levels of oxygen and vapor permeability; they have a closing mechanism that provides practically sealed connection that protects products from environmental influence. Because storage conditions have a significant influence on foods safety to model the quality changes caused in a period shorter than the actual storage period, the conditions of «accelerated aging» of barley flour were created. For this purpose the tested samples were stored at 40 ± 1 ºC and a relative air humidity of 65 % in a dark place. It was established that barley flour produced from the grain subjected to the HTT with moistening, tempering and drying has better storage stability than flour from the grain which wasn't subjected to the HTT; wherein the method of grain moistening under vacuum gave better results of flour preservation than the method of the HTT with moistening at atmospheric pressure. Product packaging in plastic zip-locked packets enabled to slow down the growth of acidity and acid number of fat of all kinds of barley flour by more than 1.5 times that positively affected the period of its safe storage. The research has shown that the application of HTT in barley flour production increases the finished product storage stability. Product packaging in plastic packets provides better preservation of barley flour.
3129
Abstract
The article shows the results of a comprehensive quality assessment of the meat of Yakut breed foals. In Yakutia one of the basic and traditional source of meat raw material is young horses’ meat. In this research it was found that colt meat is a product of high biological and nutritional value, characterized by low calorie, high protein content. Uniqueness of the horse meat is in the balance of amino acid structure of proteins and therefore, it is referred to as dietetic food. The data characterizing the horse meat amino acid structure depending on the age are presented. The most balanced polyunsaturated fatty acid content is found in the meat of the Yakut breed foals of 8 months of age. Studies have shown that with age and body weight, meatiness increases, but the increase of bone tissue is observed, which leads to the reduction of meatiness index. According to the results of a study of the consumer properties of young horse cooked meat, a pronounced effect of age on the organoleptic characteristics, and more on taste and smell was determined; in broth - on color (transparency) and aroma. Based on the analysis and integration of complex investigations, the optimal slaughter age was set to get foal meat with the highest level of consumer properties.
2835
Abstract
The present article proposes a novel approach to the synthesis of flavors in a heterogeneous foam system containing a complex of prepared fruit homogenates and wheat bran enzyme extract. In order to support this approach, the authors studied changes in viscosity of the lipid fraction of homogenates and iodine value considered as a factor of potential enzyme activity. The results of experiments demonstrate that the average viscosity of homogenates in refrigerated samples is 1.9 times lower than that of the fresh samples. However, the refrigerated sample contains the highest iodine value. The articles discusses the role of enzymes from plant raw materials in oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of cell membranes, as well as preconditioning methods that create optimum conditions for flavor formation in fruits. Further, this study describes the role of singlet oxygen in reduction of lag period of oxidative deterioration of PUFAs as well as in intensification of flavor in foams. The study results show that the amount of carbonyl compounds was reduced by 1.5-1.7 times when fruit homogenates were oxidized with triplet oxygen compared to oxidation with singlet oxygen. The article provides the data on the accumulation of carbonyl compounds in the samples. These are compounds of fresh flavors and they are not present in the oxidized substrates. Finally, this study asserts that formation and recovery of flavors depend upon the direction and rate of enzymatic reactions as well as the presence of isomeric forms of PUFAs and the energy needed for the reactions. It has been established that the initiation of oxidation reaction can result in flavor restoration in heat-treated substrates of pumpkin and sweet pepper. The inactivation of enzymes in wheat bran extract supports the effect of the cucumber and pumpkin lipoxygenase on nut and cereal flavor formation in the system. The experiments show that foam systems make maximum volatilization of flavor compounds into the environment and their intensity perception possible.
3989
Abstract
The development of new formulas and technologies for confectionery plays an important role in formation of the range of functional foods. The use of oil cakes has certain prospects in achieving the objectives. The aim of the research was to investigate the possibility of using food cake from nonconventional oil plants for the development of new kinds of confectionery and assessment of the projected changes in their nutritional quality. Selection of the research materials (cedar, pumpkin and sesame cake) is based on the literature data on the nutritional quality of the original oily raw materials, and the results of our experimental studies on the composition of fatty acids, lipids and amino acid composition of proteins of the considered oil cakes. The research task was to optimize the ratio of flour and the studied oil cakes in terms of composition and the ratio of essential amino acids. To achieve the purpose the amino-acid scores, protein utility and comparable redundancy of the model two-component flour mixes (oil cake + wheat flour) were calculated. The program written using the Borlan Delphi programming language presents an algorithm of the procedure of search for oil cake and wheat flour correlations, and graphical visualization of the obtained data. The calculations are done in the program module that makes it possible to change the original data and get the best indices for two-flour mixes. The initial data are masses of essential amino acids, g/100 g of oil cake protein, wheat flour and standard scale FAO/ WHO. The analysis of results of flour mixes program optimization shows that cedar, pumpkin and sesame cakes can be used in the development of new confectionery. The result of the proposed conditions for obtaining a flour mix by combing an oil cake with wheat flour is the increase of nutritional quality of new confectionery.
3962
Abstract
In article existing technologies of whey beverages are analysed. Expediency of processing whey in the increased viscosity beverages is noted. An alternative plant ingredient for regulation of the beverage consistence, namely orange food fibers Citri-Fi, with the corresponding functional and technological properties is considered. For establishing the optimum modes of the introduction of food fibers in to whey samples the MathCad 15 mathematical modeling is used. Food fiber samples are investigated using an ultra-violet microscope. The value of dynamic viscosity of the hydrated whey-vegetable mixes is determined by the Geppler's viscometer. Researches of conditions for preparation and introduction of orange food fibers into whey for receiving the increased viscosity beverages are presented. Optimum parameters for increasing viscosity process for whey-vegetable mixes are determined. Visualization of the dry Citri-Fi transformations when swelling in whey is given, that allowed to observe repeated increase in the tubular fiber volume. The mechanism of moisture keeping process is confirmed by preservation of fibrous structure and significant increase in the volume of a food fiber fragment due to whey absorption. Rational parameters and the technological scheme of whey drinks with the increased viscosity are developed. Optimum modes of preparation and introduction of the whey-vegetable mix into the main volume of whey are as follows: quantity of Citri-Fi - 4... 5 %, hashing duration - 10... 15 min., swelling temperature - 30 ... 35 ° C. Rational amount of the whey-vegetable mix is 10... 12,5 % under the following modes of its introduction into the main volume of whey: temperature -50... 60 °C, hashing duration - 8... 10 min.
2866
Abstract
The theoretical possibility of vegetable raw material dehydration in the inert gas environment by means of convective drying is substantiated. More suitable varieties of carrot («The Nanatskay»), sugar beet («The Kubansky MC 81»), Jerusalem artichoke («The Dietichesky») have been determined for drying. The construction of compact drying unit giving opportunity to dry different kinds of raw material simultaneously is offered. The choice of technological ways to prepare raw material for drying by means of blanching and low frequency EMP treatment is provided. The novelty of research is the development of rational modes of moisture removing from raw material using argon gas as a drying agent. The following mode of drying is offered for dehydration of vegetable root slices: the temperature of the process is 35-65 °C, the duration of the process is 3,0-3,5 hours. The change of sugar content in the samples of vegetable roots is determined during a period of drying. The dependence of vitamin C loss in the samples on temperature and a period of heating is determined.
2872
Abstract
The establishments of food service industry in our country make active use of various types of equipment. The problem of keeping basic consumer properties of raw materials and finished products produced with the most modern equipment is insufficiently studied. The main experimental materials were vegetable and cereal raw materials. Standard and accepted methods of research were used. The purpose of the research was to study the influence of ways of preparing vegetable raw materials and cereals on various properties of finished products. Considered was the traditional way of preparing food and catering meals on the stove and a method that was supposed to use a steam convection oven. At the first stage the quality of edible parts of vegetable raw materials: potatoes, beets and carrots was determined The article provides a comparative characteristic of modes and processing parameters (temperature, time) of the studied materials. It is shown that preparation of raw materials in a steam convection oven required 1.6 - 3.0 less time compared with the conventional way of processing on the stove; that was caused by the equipment used, and higher temperature. Raw materials processed using a steam convection oven often has more pronounced organoleptic characteristics: color, surface condition, consistency, and saves more solids than traditionaly prepared products. The findings prove the benefits of using a steam convection oven when processing vegetable raw materials.
2663
Abstract
The influence of heat treatment on the mineral composition of buckwheat grain, core and shell is studied. It is shown that the temperature change the content of cations and anions in the grain, kernel and shell is changed. This is probably due to the fact that temperature processing breaks the chemical bonds between mineral elements, on the one hand, and proteins, carbohydrates, fats, enzymes - on the other. Minerals as a result, become easily soluble substances and become more accessible to assimilate. When comparing the dynamics of changes in the cations’ mass fraction it is revealed that the maximum change in the investigated cations takes place in the shells and their mass fraction increases 1.5 times. Analyzing the dynamics of changing the anions’ mass fraction one can come to conclusion that the concentration remains practically unchanged, except for the anions of phosphorus. Their changes may be due to denaturation of proteins and starch gelatinization, which leads to a sharp change of solubility, the maximum change of anions occurring in the membranes, their mass fraction decreased 4.8 times. Concentrations of major cations and anions in the corn of buckwheat, its kernel and shell are identified before and after heat treatment, gas-air mixture temperature being from 80 to 200 oC, the temperature of grain heating being 40-100 oC. It is shown that when the temperature of processing changes, the mass fraction of cations and anions, both in the grain and in the kernel and shell changes, too. The greatest deviation of the mass fraction of mineral substances corresponds to the processing temperature, starting from 140 oC and more, the temperature of the samples changing in the range from 70 to 100 oC. Possible mass fraction changes at these temperatures occur due to the breaking of the chemical bonds between mineral elements caused by thermal treatment.
2921
Abstract
The purpose of the research was to study the rheological behavior of different fondants in order to optimize technological modes of tempering and molding of goods with specified textural and mechanical properties. The materials studied were fondant half-finished goods manufactured - according to the standard recipes and those with phytonutrients added. The research was carried out using the viscometer of the XAAKE VT6R plus (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Germany) model and the texture analyzer of the Brookfield CT-3 (Brookfield engineering laboratories, inc., USA) model equipped with a wide range of sensors, devices and accessories to solve any problems related with texture analysis and measuring. According to the research results the effect of phytonutrients dosing and dispersion fondant viscosity at different temperatures and deformation rates enabled to work out recommendations for selecting modes of thermo-mechanical processing of fondants at the stage of tempering and molding. The model of fondant viscosity dependence on deformation rate and additive dispersion that can be used to predict the rheological behavior of half-finished goods in the technological process has been developed. The nature of changes in plastic strength of half-finished goods depending on the modes of holding and the influence of additives of plant origin on texturization has been established. The research shows that powdery additives contribute to significant reduction of fondant texturization period. Taking into consideration the peculiarities of physicochemical interactions between additives of plant origin with other recipe ingredients of fondant, the mechanism of their influence on rheological properties of half-finished goods as well as textural and mechanical characteristics of the finished goods has been explained. The results of complex rheological studies make it possible to implement the evidence-based approach to the control of technological processes of confectionery manufacture and ensure the achievement of specified technological and consumer characteristics.
3225
Abstract
Currently, the production of kvass is a dynamically developing sector of soft drinks. The analysis of modern scientific and technical developments in the technology of fermented kvass based on the data of scientific-technical and patent information from home sources is presented. The basic directions of development of modern kvass production and expanding assortment are indentified. The results of studies on fermented kvass trading offer in the retail network of the city of Kemerovo are represented. The analysis of label information of the beverage consumer packaging is presented. It is shown that the label information does not give a comprehensive picture of the implementation of modern techniques of improved technology. Only prescription peculiarities and ways of kvass processing to ensure the declared shelf life can be estimated by the consumer. It is proposed to modify on the whole assortment range of soft drinks in the direction of increasing the share of beverages on the basis of natural raw materials by adjusting the advertising policy on fermented kvass made of nonconventional vegetable raw materials. This will gradually redirect consumers to buy not only tasty drinks, but also useful ones.
2865
Abstract
Expediency of using palm-oil fractionation products in the production of spreads is theoretically proved and experimentally confirmed. Physical and chemical, structural and rheological characteristics of palm-oil, palm red oil and palm stearin used in the production of spread are investigated. Fatty bases for the vegetable and creamy spreads, consisting of butterfat, palm-oil, palm red oil and sunflower high-olein oil are developed. On the basis of the conducted researches of rheological and organoleptic characteristics of the fatty compositions received, it is established that introduction of palm-oil fractionation products highly influences the texture and fatty acid composition of spread, allowing to receive a product of the desired composition and properties.
3076
Abstract
This article is about using specialized foods for athletes and people who are actively engaged in physical training and sports. The objects of study are: raw materials, finished products, brands, manufacturers and consumers of sport supplement. The study used standard methods described in the regulatory documentation. The expediency was revealed of developing a specialized product based on the study of sport supplement items sold in Kemerovo, and of consumer preferences. A new protein-based formulated drink for athletes using plant materials (red currants, blackberries and saskatoon) growing in the Kemerovo region was developed. The functional orientation of the drink for bodybuilders was proved. The production technology used and adjustable process parameters are the factors of the formation of developed quality products. The soft processing mode enables one to preserve the entire complex of nutrients contained in the raw berry. Regulated quality parameters of this specialized product are established, such as, organoleptic, physical and chemical features and the nutritional value. The recommendations for the application are identified.
3252
Abstract
Currently, the storage period of frozen at -18 oC raw materials from the Pacific salmons to be used in the manufacture of canned foods is no longer than 2 months. Limitation of the raw material storage period is a great problem for fish canneries. Its solution will enable to increase the output of canned fish and to provide profitability. Comparative studies of quality and safety of frozen salmon raw materials stored at -18°C and -25°C were carried out. It was found that storage of frozen raw materials from pink salmon and chum salmon at -18°C was accompanied with intensive biochemical processes in their muscle tissue. They resulted in accumulation of histamine, products of hydrolysis and lipid oxidation, reduction of relative biological value indices. Storage of frozen salmons at -25°C led to decrease in the intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative processes in fish tissues and helped to retain the quality of raw materials. Canned foods were made from frozen fish stored under various temperature conditions, their safety and quality indices were studied. It is shown that the use of frozen fish in canning makes it possible to produce high quality canned foods after the storage of raw materials for 5 months at -25 °C. The elongated storage period for salmons was included into the State Standard 32156-2013 «Natural and natural with oil canned Pacific salmons».New technology and assortment of natural canned foods from frozen chum salmon and pink salmon with an extended shelf life have been developed.
2889
Abstract
To develop rational designs of units and optimum modes of drying it is necessary to know the kinetic regularities of the process and the conditions of its modeling. Using two approaches for modeling a statistical model and a model in generalized coordinates of the particulate material drying in a fluidized bed were obtained. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the application of the developed models are shown. The first model was developed using a semi-empirical zonal method of calculation and is valid for mathematical description of the kinetics of the studied object drying. The model is more accurate, while the number of significant figures in this equation is due to the required accuracy of approximation of experimental data. However, the result of the calculation when using this model in the maximum possible form is individualized. The mathematical model in generalized coordinates was developed for possible applying of research results on kinetics of drying to similar materials taking into account invariance of criteria and simplexes of similarity. It can be used in the design of rational fluidized bed dryers for transition from a laboratory scale to the industrial one with a sufficient degree of reliability. In this case, the final transfer to the data relating to an individual specific process takes place at the last stage of the investigation and is reduced to the substitution of the numerical values of the parameters in the dimensionless equation. A generalized equation is a more streamlined presentation of the results than empirical ones. The methods in which specific tasks are put in the numerical form have the dominant value because of the great complexity of the processes of heat transfer. The model generality remains a major problem due to the lack of basic data. Design, maintenance and optimization of industrial dryers require a comprehensive mathematical model synthesizing accuracy, generality and simplicity.
2478
Abstract
The work presents the results of investigations of the heat and mass transfer process in film condensation of water vapor from the vapor environment on a flat, horizontal surface of the working chamber in the jacketed apparatus. The introduction includes a theoretical solution and calculation formulae of the condensation process under these conditions, presented in contemporary literature. The absence of objective data on steam condensation on flat horizontal surfaces of heat exchange bottoms of cooking vessels, food boilers, storage equipment, pans with indirect heating is revealed. The expediency of conducting research is shown. The techniques of conducting research based on the stationary heat flow method are considered. The original experimental stand for research of heat and mass transfer process in steam condensation on a flat surface of the working chamber of the model food boiler is presented. In processing the experimental data on heat and mass transfer, we used the value proportional to the tear off diameter of falling condensation drops, as the only possible determinant of the characteristic size of the system, included in the Nusselt number and the criterion of Archimedes. The results of determining the values of the Nusselt numbers in mass transfer under these conditions are analyzed, a graphical interpretation of the results of the experiments is provided. It is shown that the character of changes of the experimental data presented in the chart, is in good agreement with the well-known works in this field of research. The criteria dependence of the investigated process, providing an objective heat engineering of jacketed apparatus under conditions of steam condensation from vapor-gas mixture on a flat, horizontal surface is recommended.
2541
Abstract
Water performs vital functions for the life of plants. It supports the metabolism, which is also the source of power for plants. We developed the theory of the proton barrier which fully explains previously not clear phenomena in absorbing K+, CA++, NH4+ and NO3-, other ions by the roots in adverse conditions, as well as improving the trans-membrane transfer of plant food elements when applying low electrochemical or electrical fields to the crop root zone. The aim of this work was to study the peculiarities of the proton barrier mechanism for water transportation through water channels with the normalization of water-salt metabolism of plants by external stimulation under stressful environmental conditions (drought, compaction of the topsoil, the shortage of food elements). The evidence of the impact of proton barrier to water transportation in the root cells was obtained by carrying out numerous experiments with different kinds of cultivated plants. The work of the proton pump is several times more activated under stress. There is no time for protons to diffuse in the external solution and they accumulate in the apoplast. The PB formed not only creates a serious obstacle for the ion-transport processes and water supply in the root cells, but is an additional valid stress factor aggravating the negative effect of the latter on plants. But a weak electric field can improve water channel functions especially under stressful conditions. The field directed along the rhizosphere will delay ions from water channel and ensure the flow of water into the root cells. The described mechanism of the proton barrier effect for water transportation through channels reveals the before now missing link to the system of water-salt metabolism of plants: direct, immediate impact of electric charges in the cell on electrically neutral water molecules' entering protoplast.
2628
Abstract
The estimation of energy (temperature) of water and ice (snow) interaction witch antifreeze components: ethylene- and diethyleneglycol, ethers of glycols, sodium and calcium chlorides, chlorine hydrate, and the possibility of «ideal» solution formation is shown. In this paper, it is assumed that the main structural components of the liquid water are cyclic penta (H 2O) 5 and hexamers (H 2O) 6, built with the participation of the long hydrogen bond and capable of producing the crown effect. Cycled water clusters - short-range order of water in terms of cavity size and the number of oxygen atoms correspond to crown ethers: 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6, sodium and calcium ions being absorbed into them. The analysis of the eutectic, diagrams of water antifreeze fusion based on the salts of inorganic and organic acids, alcohols, ethylene glycol, simple ethylene glycol ethers, chloride hydrogen and ammonia by comparison with an ideal solution of water concerning cryoscopic constant. It was established that the coefficient K in the equation of linear melting curve y = Kx + b for effective antifreezes in terms of temperature exceeds the cryoscopic constant of water, that indicates the destruction of long-range order of water. Penta and hexamers of water responsible for short-range order of water pass into the eutectic as monomers or oligomers with a degree of cross linking equal to 2-4. To create effective antifreeze it is important to avoid the destruction of cyclic water clusters. It is desirable, as in the case witch ethylene, to have the second component of water antifreeze in a cyclic form.
2636
Abstract
The new modified sorbent (CB-1-K) on the basis of the gaizes of the Astrakhan region representing a unique absorber, capable, without doing harm to human health, to delete sour gases, heavy metals, various organic and inorganic compounds from air and water, is received. The main physical and chemical, and adsorption structural characteristics the obtained sorbent are investigated, such as: sorbent porosity to acetone, total pore to volume water, moisture content, water suspension pH, bulk density, abrasion, as well as the specific surface, through the study of the isopropanol adsorption from the solutions of different concentrations. Adsorption of riboflavinum (vitamin B 2) on active coal, the gaizes of the Astrakhan region and the modified sorbent of CB-1-K is studied. Comparative studying of a component sorption on sorbents considered is carried out. Isotherms of static sorption of riboflavinum from water solutions are studied, change of an enthalpy (∆H), isobaric and isothermal potential (∆G) and entropy (∆S) of sorption are calculated. The kinetics of riboflavinum sorption from water solutions is considered.
2709
Abstract
The samples of butter have been examined in terms of safety indices. Such assortment range of butter as traditional sweet cream unsalted butter and «Krest’anskoye» (cottage) sweet cream unsalted butter has been chosen for examination. It has been determined that the samples of the examined types of butter do not contain any antibiotics, coliforms, S.aureus, pathogenic germs, including salmonella, L. monocytogenes; other safety indices studied (toxicants, residual quantity of pesticides, micotoxins, radionuclides, availability of QMA& OAMO, yeast and mold) have been discovered in the amount within the acceptable level. It is recommended to improve the quality control system of the raw material used for butter production as well as the expertise of butter in terms of safety at all stages of the life cycle.
2718
Abstract
To provide the need of a person in essential macro- and micronutrients by eating a common diet isn't possible and this is a natural result of social and economic progress of the modern society. One of the ways for correction of food and health is a regular consumption of biologically active additives to food (dietary supplement). The formula and the technology of production of biologically active additive “Energopan” has been developed. The product is a composition containing rhizomes and roots of Rhizoma et radices Rhodiolae roseae , dry pantohematogen (red deer blood dried up with a method of deep vacuum dehydration), glucose and ascorbic acid. The above mentioned components are used as local plant and animal raw materials. The technological scheme and adjustable parameters of production are given. Regulated quality indices including food quality have been defined. Established have been periods and modes of storage. The research results concerning the authenticity of the pantohematogen used are presented.
2559
Abstract
Influence of flat products of the light-alloyed steels on a quality indices and vegetable oil safety at different temperature conditions taking into account transportation period from 7 to 21 days is investigated. To realize the purpose of the research a number of tests was carried out. The conditions most approximated to real conditions of transportation, taking into account a surface of a product contact with steel, temperature conditions, light and oxygen access are recreated. Investigations of vegetable oils on oxidative deterioration index before a contact with steel, and after seven, fourteen and twenty one days at the conditions of transportation have been conducted. The influence of light-alloyed steels on oxidative deterioration index of vegetable oils has been proved. Recommendations concerning the conditions of vegetable oil transportation in car-tanks made of light-alloyed steels have been formulated on the basis of the results of the research conducted.
2754
Abstract
The analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the genome of fruit and berry raw materials is given. Molecular-biological methods of identifying generic affinity are used. The objects of study were cherry/ sweet cherry, banana, kiwi. The comparison of the nucleotide sequences of samples was carried out. Qualitative characteristics and chemical composition of the studied objects are presented. A comparative analysis of homologous genes sequences of plant raw materials such as cherry/sweet cherry, banana, kiwi was carried out. The sequences present in all genomes were selected. The analysis of cherry /sweet cherry genomes was carried out, and small sequences present in all genomes were selected. The data on the banana genomes was analyzed, 23 sequences being presented. The analysis of kiwi genomes were fulfilled and 10 sequences having the greatest affinity were selected. Phylogenetic dendogram of fruit and berry raw material genes were built. The alignment of nucleotide sequences using the Word program was done. The similarity of the nucleotide sequences of the genome areas of the studied objects was determined. The results obtained are important for further development of new methodology in the identification of fruit and berry raw materials.
2637
Abstract
The article presents the developed methodology of foodstuffs demand forecasting in the region, based on the methods of mathematical statistics, and also provides an example of analysis of consumption volume forecasting for meat and meat products (in terms of meat) and for milk and dairy products (in terms of milk) per capita of the Kemerovo Region. The conclusions are drawn from the data obtained. The need for marketing foodstuffs demand forecasting is caused by the fact that under the global market conditions food supplying for countries and in-country regions is formed not only by national, regional food industry. Under the conditions of globalization of the world economy and creation of economic unions (Customs Union, the Eurasian Economic Union, the European Economic Union, the World Trade Organization and others) both regional, national, and international companies of the food market participate in the process of food and nutrition assistance of the region. For various reasons (climatic, economic, etc.) according to the physiological standards for balanced nutrition of the population, [1] it is not possible to produce all foods, such as meat, milk, fruits, vegetables and others entirely within the region. However, using different types of cooperation (national, international), one can plan the purchase of a particular type of food. The required amount of procurement is determined by the regional demand forecasting. Using the methods of mathematical statistics allows to predict the demand for foodstuffs in the region with high accuracy.
2836
Abstract
The method of calculating working capital demands and the existing procedure for determining standards for the enterprise's circulating assets, including the finished product, is considered The main problems of the own working capital formation and planning shortcomings caused by the enterprises' current economic position and economic turnover features are defined. Various approaches to the definition of coping strategies of the specified working capital are disclosed, the identification of the need for the latter being an important part of managing this kind of property. Special features of the working capital normalization at agricultural enterprises are given. The fact that the working capital demand is influenced by many factors, such as the company's spatial position and its industry specialization, is emphasized. The net working capital calculations are given in two ways, the turn-round measures are considered as key indicators affecting the working capital demand of the enterprise. According to the above methods, the calculation of working capital demand, exemplified by the Kemerovo region «Sukhovsky State Farm» JSCo, is reported.
2698
Abstract
On the basis of consumer survey, according to the questionnaire developed by the authors researches are conducted and the main tendencies of consumer preferences in the beer market of Kemerovo are revealed. The age structure of potential beer consumers is defined. It is established that main consumers of beer are young people under 35 years old. The most popular brands of beer with the youth are Holsten, Heineken, Miller, Tuborg with the ethyl alcohol content varing from 4,6 to 6,0 %. More than 50% of the respondents prefer to buy beer brands with the lower content of alcohol. Beer with low alcohol content is mainly prerferrend by female audience, while men prefer beer with the high content of alcohol. When buying beer, 62% of men respondents are guided by domestic producers. The most popular packing of beer for the majority of respondents (66%) is a standard bottle with a capacity of 0,5l. The price appeared more important characteristic as the criterion which is first considered by elderly people than by young, ones. On the basis of the conducted researches it is shown that the beer market in the city of Kemerovo is non-uniform, and has a high potential.
2623
Abstract
The elaboration of scorecard system for assessment of food security, comparable to international assessment system, is necessary for the complex solution of the food security problems. In the article the comparative analysis of the approaches to the assessment of food security, applied by experts from the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and State governmental authorities of the Russian Federation, is conducted. The generalities and the characteristics of the presented approaches consisting in different interpretations of the category «food security», various structures of factors, and lack of the uniform system of criteria for the assessment of food security are revealed. The assessment of food security in Russia based on the criteria offered by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and the factors stated in the Food Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation is given. The comparative assessment of the level and dynamics of food security factors in the USA, the Russian Federation and the least developed regions of the world for 1990-2013 is given. The proposals for improvement of the system of the food security assessment at the international level connected with the development of the system for the threshold values of food security with its division into the levels: standard, pre-crisis, crisis, critical, and connected with the introduction of additional factors for food security assessment at the national level for the purpose of ensuring comparability with international researches are made. First of all, it means the introduction of a factor group for assessment of the access to food and a factor group characterizing consequences of inadequate food consumption, first of all by children under the age of five.
2229
Abstract
The article describes the order of deduction from wages of the employee. Mandatory deductions, on the initiative of the employee and the employer, are distinguished. Since the latter two types of deductions cause most controversial issues these groups are considered in the first place. Cases of deductions in accordance with the regulatory framework, the size of deductions depending on the type of the worker’s debt are disclosed. The employers' mistakes when collecting the worker’s, debt and errors by accounting specialists, making the calculation of these amounts are considered. Features of making deduction of the alimony, of unduly paid wages, and many other deductions are considered in this article. Order of recording wage deductions into the account is given. Often, the employer seeks to deduct the amount of penalty for violation of labor regulations, smoking in the workplace, job description failure, etc. from the wages of the employee. Labour code sets strict rules governing the cases, procedure and sizes of deductions. The article considers practical cases, the legality of the employer's actions and provides solutions on every disputable issue. Thus, the subject of the work is error occurrence and actions of illegal character when calculating payments. The purpose of the work is to study the order of deduction from the worker's wages and to estimate the legality of such reduction of payment.
2530
Abstract
In the conditions of globalization of world economy the role and importance of international trade as a factor influencing the development of the food merchandise trade has significantly increased. It is significantly influenced by the policy of «no protectionism», the processes of integration and regionalization, as well as the emergence of global value chains of goods. The main trends of modern international trade influencing the development of the market of food products have been identified and classified. They are the following: - significant growth of volumes of international trade, changes in traditional trade structure and increase of the number of its participants from developing countries, making Russia an active player on the global food market; - increase of trans-nationalization, leading to the emergence of global chains of added value within the production process, to the use of transfer prices and to their appreciation on the world market of food products; trade liberalization and the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers that contribute not only to the legitimate movement of goods across the customs borders, but also to the illegal trade creating a serious threat to the global economy and food security of states; - increase of the impact of internationalization, integration and regionalization on the functioning of the national commodity markets resulting in adverse market effects on the food markets of less developed countries, including Russia; - expansion of innovative approaches in the logistics and global supply chains of goods taking into account individual characteristics and consumer preferences of certain groups of the population, leading to an increase in transaction costs of participants of foreign trade and higher prices of imported food products in the Russian Federation; - increased dependence of pricing on the world agrarian market on the environmental standards of the country and security requirements and utility of foods, leading to the cost increase of imported food products. These factors lead to the necessity of amplification of state regulation in the field of international trade and import substitution in order to mitigate based pricing in the Russian food market from the adverse global market conditions.
2665
Abstract
In the conditions of globalization of world economy the role and importance of international trade as a factor influencing the development of the food merchandise trade has significantly increased. It is significantly influenced by the policy of «no protectionism», the processes of integration and regionalization, as well as the emergence of global value chains of goods. The main trends of modern international trade influencing the development of the market of food products have been identified and classified. They are the following: - significant growth of volumes of international trade, changes in traditional trade structure and increase of the number of its participants from developing countries, making Russia an active player on the global food market; - increase of trans-nationalization, leading to the emergence of global chains of added value within the production process, to the use of transfer prices and to their appreciation on the world market of food products; trade liberalization and the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers that contribute not only to the legitimate movement of goods across the customs borders, but also to the illegal trade creating a serious threat to the global economy and food security of states; - increase of the impact of internationalization, integration and regionalization on the functioning of the national commodity markets resulting in adverse market effects on the food markets of less developed countries, including Russia; - expansion of innovative approaches in the logistics and global supply chains of goods taking into account individual characteristics and consumer preferences of certain groups of the population, leading to an increase in transaction costs of participants of foreign trade and higher prices of imported food products in the Russian Federation; - increased dependence of pricing on the world agrarian market on the environmental standards of the country and security requirements and utility of foods, leading to the cost increase of imported food products. These factors lead to the necessity of amplification of state regulation in the field of international trade and import substitution in order to mitigate based pricing in the Russian food market from the adverse global market conditions.