Volume 43, Issue 4, 2016
EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES INTRODUCED INTO DAIRY DESSERT ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BIOLOGICAL OBJECTS
Dairy dessert with increased antioxidant activity (AOA) based on milk and sweet whey with food additives (FA) such as barley flour, sunroot and chicory powders have been developed for prevention of oxidant stress induced-diseases. AOA of FA and dessert have been studied. Total content of water-soluble antioxidants was the following: 0.36mg/g (24-fold higher than in milk) in sunroot; 3.2 mg/g (213-fold higher than in milk) in chicory; 0.037 mg/g (2.5-fold higher than in milk) in barley flour; 0.24 mg/g (4-fold higher than in a FA-free control sample) in enriched dessert. Physical-chemical parameters of a product have been evaluated. The dessert contained 5.15 g of protein, 4.4 g of fat, 16.84 g of carbohydrates, 1.96 g of inulin, 0.39 g of fibers in 100g of the product. Introduction of FA into dairy product allowed us to enrich the product with natural antioxidants, food fibers, inulin, a complex of minerals. The total amino acid amount increased by 4.1-6.7%, the content of Omega-3 and Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased 5- and 2.3-fold respectively. The dessert AOA increased 4-fold vs. a control sample. Medico-biological evaluation of the dessert in homothermal animals has been done. Blood antioxidant parameters of the dessert fed animals have been studied. It has been demonstrated that malondialdehyde concentration in blood serum of experimental animals was lower than that in a control group fed with a FA-free dessert, whereas the concentration of reduced glutathione was 2.5-fold higher. This reflects protective serum potential against free radical formation both in intact and control groups. The introduction of the dairy dessert into the diet of experimental animals improved peripheral blood values decreasing cholesterol level by 10-11.1% and triglycerides by 17-23.9%. Based on our results, the developed dairy dessert can be recommended for strengthening antioxidant protection of the body, preventing cardiovascular diseases.
WAYS OF PURIFICATION OF EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM WILD PLANT RAW MATERIAL OF THE SIBERIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT
It is known that the excess of maximum permissible concentrations of harmful substances is observed in the Siberian Federal District. This is a cause of their accumulation in the body which results in health problems and lowering the quality of life. Wild plant raw material is a rich source of alkaloids, glycosides, coumarins, vitamins, essential oils, phenols and other groups of nutrients that provide recovering and protective action. The most promising method of extraction of bioactive compounds from wild plant raw material is extraction leading to obtaining galenicals and neogalenicals. The most important step in extraction of biologically active compounds is purification of extracts from the ballast substances. The paper deals with four ways to purify extracts obtained from wild plant raw material of the Siberian Federal District. The most effective way for purification of extracts has been founded. It is a two-step purification (ultrafiltration and reversed-phase liquid chromatography) which allows us to achieve the quality values of extracts purification from the ballast substances in the range of 77.7-95.4%.The technological scheme of extract production from wild plant raw material of the Siberian Federal District (cowberry ( Vaccinium vitisidaeva L .) leaves, viburnum fruits ( Viburnum opulus ), sea buckthorn fruits ( Hippophae rhamnoides ), echinated hips ( Rosa acicularis ), mountain ash fruits ( Sorbus aucuparia ) has been developed. The main technological steps of extract production are preparation of wild plant raw materials; preparation of the extractant or a mixture of extractants; obtaining of extracts; concentration; purification of extracts; crude product obtaining; purification of a crude product; standardization for active ingredients; packing, labeling, prepackaging of finished products.
DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM CULTIVATION CONDITIONS FOR SYNTHESIS OF BACTERIOCINS WITH BACILLUS ENDOPHYTICUS AND BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS STRAINS AND THEIR STABILITY INVESTIGATION
Bacteriocins are substances of protein nature which have antimicrobial properties. Due to the wide spectrum of antagonistic activity which bacteriocins of some microorganisms have, they have the potential for being used as components of antibacterial drugs. Due to the widespread problem of antibiotic resistance of many bacterial strains that cause human diseases, the studying of bacteriocins is particularly relevant as they may be an alternative to antibiotics. Despite the popularity of researches devoted to the study of bacteriocins properties in recent years, many bacteriocins have not been discovered yet and this field of research is relevant. Thus the aim our research is determination of the optimum conditions for cultivation of Bacillus endopheticus and Bacillus licheniformis strains producing bacteriocins for increasing the efficiency of their synthesis, and studying the stability of bacteriocins. Optimum conditions for cultivation of Bacillus endopheticus and Bacillus licheniformis strains have been determined. They are the temperatures from 25 to 37 °C and the acidity of the medium from 6.5 to 8.0. The maximum growth of strains is observed at the temperature of 30 °C and pH 6.5. The influence of temperature and pH on bacteriocins sensitivity has been studied. Bacteriocins are proved to be stable at a neutral pH and a temperature not higher than 80 °C. Antagonistic activity of bacteriocins subjected to different temperatures and pH towards Escherichia coli strain has been determined using a disk diffusion method. The research results are valuable for the development of novel medicinal preparations based on bacteriocins.
RESEARCH ON BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SOME FRUIT CROPS GROWING IN THE SOUTHEAST OF KAZAKHSTAN
The article is devoted to obtaining polyphenol concentrates from black currant, raspberry and plum with the purpose of their further use in foods as a source of biologically active substances. The chemical composition of black currant, raspberry and plum growing under the conditions of South-East Kazakhstan is studied. The effect of various process parameters (water duty, alcohol concentration, duration of extraction) on the extraction of phenolic compounds from raw materials is analyzed. The optimum technological conditions for producing extracts from the berries of black currant, raspberry and plum such as water duty of 1:5, the alcohol concentration of 40%, the duration of extraction of 30 min have been established, wherein the polyphenol content is 690 mg/dm3 in the currant extract, 535 mg/dm3 in the raspberry extract, and 522 mg/dm3 in the plum extract. The obtained extracts were used to produce liquid concentrates by means of evaporation in a vacuum rotor evaporator until complete extraction of ethanol. The nutritive and energy value, the content of vitamins, minerals, toxic elements, pesticides, radionuclides and microbiological indices have been determined in the concentrates. The obtained concentrates have a high content of phenolic antioxidant substances with antioxidant activity, particularly a concentrate of black currant up to 2095 mg/dm3. This allows us to recommend using the concentrates not only for the enrichment but also for increasing the storage life of foods.
The article considers the aspects of fat base creation for milk-and-fat emulsion products taking into account the criteria of maximum approach of structural and rheological, physical and chemical factors and indices of nutritional value to the corresponding milk fat characteristics. The results of researches on the content of transisomers of fatty acids in various fat-yielding materials are presented. The glyceride and fatty acid composition, temperatures of melting and hardening of raw components for production of cream-vegetable spreads have been studied. Structural and rheological characteristics of different samples of milk fat and those of palm oil have been studied due to their use in spread composition. It is shown that palm oil has higher content of solid triglycerides than milk fat at high temperatures; however its melting point is in the range of a body temperature. This specifies the possibility of its use in fat bases of spreads in a mix with milk fat and liquid vegetable oils. The study on fatty acid composition including transisomer content of fatty acids in various fat-yielding materials has shown that when designing fat bases for milk-and-fat products it is reasonable to use mixes of milk fat with liquid and solid natural oils and fats which haven't been modified for the purpose of minimization of transisomer content of fatty acids in a finished product. Fat bases of spreads from milk fat, natural vegetable oils and fats providing the designed technological and consumer properties of finished milk-and fat products have been simulated.
The relevance of the research is to study the need for new strains of edible mushrooms for accumulation of mycelia biomass which would create the optimum physiological culture conditions to achieve high and stable yield of biomass. One way to increase the yield of high quality mycelium can be administering vitamins at different stages of fungi ontogenesis. The aim of the research was to study the effect of vitamins on growth and development of the mycelium of Armillaria mellea (Vahl: Fr.) P. Kumm and Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler F-1000 when cultured under stationary conditions. The biomass of the mycelium has been obtained on a liquid nutrient medium composed of 1.0% of glucose, 0.5% of peptone main dry, 1.1% of KH2PO4, 0.1% of MgSO4 × 7H2O, 97.3% of H2O (dist.). To study the effect of vitamins on the growth of mycelium of fungi cultures of A. mellea and L. edodes we used riboflavin (LSR-002944/07), thiamine (LSR-002679/07), nicotinic acid (LSR-015076/01), vitamin C (LSR-000781/08) and a mixture of four vitamins in a glucose-peptone medium at concentrations of 0.15, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80 mg/ml. As a result, comparing the data obtained on the control and fortified media, both positive and negative effects of adding vitamins on the growth rate and the development of A. mellea mycelium and L. edodes have been established. The kinetic and condition-growing indices of mycelium A. mellea and L. edodes have been found. It has been stated that riboflavin and thiamine have a stimulating effect on the intensification of mycelium growing processes in A. mellea and L. edodes . Using these vitamins in optimum concentration of 0.20 mg/ml allows increasing the average daily rate of growth of mycelium A. mellea vs. a control one in 1.44-1.46 times. Nicotinic acid and vitamin C demonstrate low stimulating efficiency on the growth of A. mellea and L. edodes .
The article deals with a science intensive technology of fast-frozen dishes production with the use of activated liquids and systems. The objective of this research is to investigate the measurement of water activity in the developed frozen meat products. A receipt of fast-frozen dishes includes sausage goods and a vegetable garnish. The sausage goods are made of beef, pork, dried milk, starch, protein-fat emulsion and gel based on the «Kat-gel 95» protein preparation. The water used is treated in the apparatus of «Izumrud» type, obtaining acid and alkaline fractions with a specified level of pH. Their further activation is done using a commercial sound processor «Hielscher Ultrasound Technology UP». Activated liquids obtained have pronounced bactericidal and antiseptic qualities, thus promoting prolonged shelf life of finished goods. The research is done using the analytic and organoleptic methods, the method of measurement, the method of calculation and the expert one. To determine the water activity index we use samples defrosted after thirty days of storing. The values of water activity indices are determined separately for fast-frozen dishes produced with the use of activated liquid systems and for control samples produced with the use of tap potable water. According to the results of the water activity index determination it has been established that the samples produced with the use of activated liquids and systems have the index of 0.9638. The water activity index of the control samples appears to be higher by 0.0198 units in comparison with the samples produced with the use of activated liquids. This fact indicates that water has a stronger connection with non-aqueous components during activation of aqueous systems when producing foods. Consequently, water has a lower possibility to support processes leading to goods spoilage.
The literature screening data show that to date most of the existing receipts of gluten-free foods have poor quality in terms of organoleptic, rheological and biological properties of the produced foods. Taking into consideration the basic technological principles for the development and improvement of production technology of new types of foods the authors of the article show the practical possibility of improving the basic organoleptic and textural-and-mechanical properties of model test systems by targeted combining of raw materials having different chemical composition and functional and technological properties. The above process of optimization of gluten-free mixture composition based on specified criteria was carried out with the use of modern applied software for the processing of experimental data - Statgraphics Centurion 16.1.11 and Statistica 10.0, and allowed us to determine the optimum composition of the flour mix for the production of dumpling dough. When planning and implementing experimental studies it has been found that the best ratio of the components can be regarded as the use of 69.6% of rice flour, 6.8% of amaranth flour, 11% of chick-pea flour, 1.3% of flax meal, 11.3% of corn starch and 55 ± 0.5% water amount to the weight of the flour mix used to knead the model test systems. This composition of the flour mix and the quantity of water used for the batch made it possible to obtain a model test system with a maximum value of elastic and plastic deformation, most similar in value to the control one based on wheat flour. The resulting gluten-free flour mix can be recommended for the production of functional foods and foods having preventive properties.
According to experts, one of the innovative directions of the development of food biotechnology is the development of biotechnological approaches to the production of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, ferments and food ingredients, new strains of lactic acid and other technological microorganisms, microbial consortia with predetermined biological properties and optimized processing characteristics. The inclusion of polycomponent probiotic consortia - bacterial preparations from cultures of lactic acid bacteria - into foods can be the basis for the prevention of various diseases. Experts predict the start of production of probiotic products with proven efficiency in Russia by 2017 and their mass production by 2020. The use of lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures of direct application and having necessary range of features will improve the functional-and-technological and consumer properties of dairy products. The paper deals with the study of physiological-and -biochemical and commercially valuable properties of strains of lactic acid bacteria when creating combined starter cultures of direct inoculation with high proteolytic activity. It has been found that the lactic acid bacteria of Lactococcus lactis subspecies cremoris B 2276, Lactobacillus plantarum B 3242, Lactococcus lactis B 5946 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides B 8404 have high proteolytic activity contributing to the formation of low molecular weight peptides and free amino acids in milk and show high antagonistic activity against sanitary significant intestinal microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli) . The results on the study of biocompatibility show the lack of inhibitory effect which allows their use in preparing the combined starter of direct inoculation.
Application of morphometry makes it possible to widen the results of histological assay. The main stages in the quantitative study using image analysis system are reading the image from a microscope with a connected photo-video camera, its transfer to a comput- er, storing, correction of the computer program, selection of the object for morphometry, measurements, statistical processing and analysis of data, presentation of the results in tabular or graphical forms. Image adjustment includes the following steps: correction of contrast, brightness and color; noise reduction; smoothing; sharpening, and details highlighting, correction of light and white balance. The correct method of sample preparation and the choice of a special method of staining of the studied components is a determining condition for a successful automatic analysis. They are Sudan III, IV or Oil Red O, for fat components staining, Lugol solution for starch, immuno-histo-chemical methods for vegetable proteins. Automatic measurement mode reduces the time of research signifi- cantly, but requires active intervention of the operator for manual correction of operations implemented by a computer. The meas- urements are carried out with the following parameters: area (including inner area and perimeter), dimensions (diameter, chord, size, length, width), shape dimensions (form factor, circularity, elongation), characterizing the position and orientation of objects (the X and the Y, direction), or optical densitometry (brightness, optical density). The application of image analysis system is useful when carrying out a quantitative microstructure assay in accordance with GOST 32224-2013 "Meat and meat products for child nutrition. Method for determination of bone particle size", and GOST R 54047-2010 "Meat and meat products. Method of dispersion determi- nation". The use of the latest software allows increasing productivity and obtaining high quality results quickly.
DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCT USING WILD PLANT RAW MATERIALS OF SEA-BUCKTHORN AND NETTLE
The use of local wild plant raw material resources in the food industry contributes to the solution of the problem of import substitution thus ensuring food security of the population of Russia. The wild plant raw materials of nettle and sea-buckthorn belong to perspective types of plant raw materials for production of enriched foods and highly effective food additives. Considering valuable properties and abundance of sea-buckthorn and nettle in the Siberian region the possibility of creation of milk based food products enriched with them has been studied. The modeling of prophylactic food is based on fundamental tenets of food science . The technology has been developed, and the technological scheme of production of a cottage cheese product enriched with biologically active substances of nettle and sea-buckthorn is given. Organoleptic and physical-and-chemical indices of a cottage cheese product have been investigated. The nutritive, energy and biological value of a product has been determined. The developed product belongs to protein dairy products with balanced amino-acid content. It is a low-in-fat product of a low energy value. The use of wild plant raw material of nettle in a compounding of a cottage cheese product makes it possible to raise the score of the first limiting metionin+tsistein acid by 6.7%. In comparison with traditional cottage cheese products the developed product is enriched with β- carotine and vitamin C performing antioxidant protection of the body and improving protein and calcium assimilation. The use of local resources of wild plant raw materials in the dairy industry will make it possible to widen the assortment of foods of improved nutritional value and enriched content which are in consumers’ demand and hence to increase competitiveness and efficiency of enterprises.
One way to solve the problem of balancing the chemical composition of minced meat semi-finished products is the integrated use of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. The purpose of the research is the development of formulations and determination of nutritional value of minced meat semi-finished products with oilseeds. The chemical composition of sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, and pumpkin seeds has been studied and the possibility of their use in the manufacture of semi-finished minced meats has been revealed. The formulae of minced meat semi-finished products, in terms of functional-technological and organoleptic properties, have been developed with optimum ratio of plant and animal components. Total organoleptic evaluation of the samples has shown a positive trend. Taste, smell, texture and overall evaluation have been improved. A slight reduction of the criterion for chemical composition of semi-finished products compared with that of a control sample has been found. It has been caused by the change of protein : fat : solids balance with the increase of vegetable fat and protein. The studied samples are characterized by a more balanced amino acid composition: the increase in SCOR and efficiency ratios is marked. The index of comparable redundancy is reduced, indicating a more complete use of the essential amino acids of minced meat semi-finished products for anabolic purposes. The developed samples meet the daily requirement for a number of essential nutrients by 11 - 64%. The content of vitamins A, B1 and E in the finished product containing sunflower seeds, that of magnesium and calcium in the sample containing sesame seeds, and 1.5 - 2 times increase of iron and zinc content enhance their nutritional value and allow classifying the samples as fortified foods.
The supply of consumers with available functional foods is the main objective of the food processing industry. Considering adverse environmental conditions in most regions of Russia, foods must not only provide the body with necessary substances but also protect people from the adverse external environment impact. This task is carried out by foods containing pectin. Pectin or pectin substances are components of all plants. The most valuable property of pectin substances is their ability to form insoluble complexes enabling the body to get rid of heavy metals, radionuclide, toxins, etc. The above property is found in pectin extracted from sugar beets, sun- flower heads, cotton shutters. The aim of the research is to study the heads of different varieties of sunflower grown in the Krasnodar region and the possibility to use the obtained sunflower pectin in functional foods. Mass fraction of pectin substances in sunflower heads of different varieties has been determined as well as their yield as the main index which characterizes the technological im- portance of raw materials to be processed. In the obtained samples of pectin the degree of esterification has been determined. It is one of the main factors influencing the complex-forming ability. Mass fraction of ballast substances and pure pectin has been also deter- mined. Research results show high purity of obtained samples of pectin allowing us to develop new types of functional beverages containing sunflower pectin. The developed drinks have high organoleptic and physicochemical indices and can be recommended as preventive dietary foods for the population of Russia.
The relevance of the study is connected with prospects of using dry mare milk in children, dietary and preventive nutrition and determination of the optimal shelf-life by assessing the degree of oxidation of the fat component of the product. The aim of the research is to study the best possible shelf life of dry mare milk by determining the level of final, primary and intermediate products of lipid peroxidation and peroxide value in the dynamics of milk storage from 0 to 14 months. Organoleptic, physical and chemical methods of research, as well as methods for evaluating peroxide value, the level of primary, secondary and end products of lipid peroxidation have been used. It has been established that during storage of dry mare milk accumulation of lipid peroxidation products takes place testifying the oxidation of fat and thus the change of dry mare milk organoleptic characteristics. The assessment of lipid peroxidation products as one of the factors of spoilage of dry mare milk is used. The results of the survey make it possible to conclude that the maximum shelf life of dry mare milk obtained by means of freeze-drying may be in the range of 6-12 months depending on the storage conditions and vacuum packaging. The use of vacuum packaging that can extend the shelf life of dry mare milk without the use of antioxidants up to 12 months has been justified.
One of the factors restraining production and storage of frozen and half-finished products is the high cost caused by additional operations of freezing and regeneration. Additional energy costs are determined by storage conditions. These energy costs are difficult to determine as there are no special studies on identification of additional leaks in the refrigeration apparatus when opening the doors. The energy losses are particularly significant for small-size refrigeration equipment used in food service industry and trade. At significant ratio of the door area to the volume of operating chamber specific for cooling and display cabinets the losses at door openings can amount up to 30%. Such mode of operation causes repeated-varying mode of heating-cooling of the stored products. The pulsation of temperature fields in the operating chamber caused by door openings can adversely affect the quality of stored half-finished products. The necessity of precise observation of foods storage conditions has been considered; the need of temperature pulsation recording in the apparatus operating volume when opening the doors has been shown. The experimental data characterizing the frequency of door openings are presented in the article. The experimental studies and the results of the solution of heat conductivity problem describing the temperature field in the frozen product volume under storage conditions in commercial refrigeration equipment - refrigerated sales cabinets are presented. The obtained analytical solution makes it possible to determine the rate of cooling (heating), specific energy consumption to maintain the required condition as well as to choose the optimum ratio of operating period duration and refrigerator shutdowns. A technical solution enabling to compensate the loss of cold when opening the doors is proposed.
The article deals with the problem of reducing the cost of corn starch by separating technological solutions using the method of reverse osmosis. Shown is the purpose of the experimental work; objects and methods of the research are presented, a scheme of the pilot unit and the design of its basic element - the membrane device with flat intermembrane channels, and the principle of its operation are given. The membrane device can effectively separate the technological solutions of starch-treacle production. We have studied such factors as hydrodynamic permeability and the rejection rate through the membranes of MGA-100 and OPM-K when separating technological solutions of corn starch production at OAO Hobotovskoe plant «Krakhmaloprodukt». Graphic dependences of hydrodynamic permeability and the rejection rate on substance concentration in the original technological solution of starch-and- treacle production when using semipermeable membranes of MGA-100 and OPM-K are presented. It is shown that the membrane of OPM-K type has a maximum hydrodynamic permeability during the process of reverse osmosis under the same experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, the membrane working area, etc.). The obtained data on the separation of technological solutions of corn starch production using the MGA-100 and OPM-K membranes allow us to conclude that the use of reverse osmosis makes it possible to perform a closed technological process, clean water being used only for washing the starch. All other operations use the return water. Cleaning the solutions of starch-treacle production will enable using the minimum amount of water for technological processes. As a consequence, the charges constituting a significant proportion in corn starch cost will be reduced.
The article presents the results of research on energy efficiency of using various refrigerants in single-stage cold supplying systems of separation freeze-out plants. Separation freeze-out is used for low temperature concentration of liquid foods, water purification, separation and concentration of aqueous solutions. The volume of energy consumption in separation freeze-out is determined by the temperature of the object to be concentrated and that of the environment, as well as by thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant. Analytically, using known thermodynamic relations we have determined the energy consumption required for crystallization of 1kg of water from the solution when single-stage refrigerators using R-717, R-134a, R-22, R-404a, and R-410a as refrigerants are applied to remove heat of crystallization. The data have been obtained in the temperature range of boiling of the refrigerant from -5 C to-30 C and ambient temperatures from 15 C to 35 C. On the basis of thermodynamic analysis it has been found that a cold supplying system using R-22 as the refrigerant has better energy and operational efficiency for separation freeze-out plants. A coldsupplying system using ammonia has better energy efficiency compared to the ones using other refrigerants in a more restricted operating range, the refrigerant boiling point being above -20 C. In addition, the use of ammonia refrigerating systems for separation freeze-out is limited by constructive features. The use of R-134a refrigerant in the cold supplying system will lead to a significant increase in energy consumption for separation freeze-out compared to other cooling agents. R-410a can be a worthy replacement for R-22 after its withdrawal from use in the refrigeration industry for use in separation freeze-out plants.
The development of equipment for food processing enterprises caused by dissatisfaction with the reached level requires further improvement of methods for the development of the equipment-and-technology system, and also requires the analysis of all processes in a technological flow. Diagnostics of the corresponding technological system should become an indispensable condition of scientific justification of such developments. The article deals with quality evaluation of the integrity level of existing and adapted technological flows of instant granulated drink production. As a result of the research it has been established that the level of integrity of the existing production technology is low and constitutes Θ=-0.16. It has also been established that low stability of functioning of the line as a system considerably decreases in time because of instability of functioning of a subsystem of extraction (η=0.64) that is caused by instability of the process of extraction performed by a traditional method resulting in low quality of the produced drinks. To increase the stability of a subsystem of extraction the device for dispersing and extraction of plant raw materials has been developed. The use of the device makes it possible to intensify the process of extraction of fruit raw materials due to more effective impact on its cellular structure. As a result the output of extractives with preserved physiological value increases, and the need for preliminary crushing of the extracted raw materials passes. Thus, after performing repeated diagnostics of the modernized technological flow it has been established that stability of a subsystem of extraction has increased up to η=0.92 during the estimated interval of time. It has led to substantial increase of the level of integrity of a technological flow of instant granulated drink production up to Θ=0.21 followed by a shift of the level of integrity of a technological flow from the sphere of badly organized systems to the sphere of highly organized, complete systems.
EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF RAW MATERIALS ON EXTRUSION COOKING PROCESS AND QUALITY OF COMPOSITE SNACKS
Rational selection of composition particles size distribution is an important factor for extrusion technology of high quality snack production. Influence of the milling rate of rice, millet, buckwheat and lentil on extrusion cooking regimes and technological parameters of extrudates was investigated. Decreasing of hammer mill sieve openings from 5 to 1 mm resulted in increasing of small fraction with size below 0.2 mm for rice from 18.2 to 60.0%, for millet from 33.5 to 82.0%, for buckwheat from 18.0 to 56.0%. This allowed obtaining composition with more uniform particle size distribution. Investigation of extrusion cooking process showed increasing of torque and pressure at extruder die with decreasing of composition particles size. The shift of the sieve openings frommm to 1.0 mm caused 10.0% increase of extrusion energy consumption. Reduction of the particles size increased the extrudate expansion rate coefficient from 8.8 to 13.0, the water absorption index from 8 to 8.35 g/ g of dry matter and solubility from 22 to 37%. Moreover it caused a significant reduction in the bulk density from 137 to 82 kg/m3. This trend changed the texture of the extrudates to a more delicate structure. The hardness of the product was reduced from 9.8 to 6.1 H at a constant value of the fractures number.
The development of production technologies by implementation of new or modernized equipment is the most efficient way to raise their efficiency and improve the product quality. Implementation of the extractor with an oscillating plate in a concentrated fruit extracts production line leads not only to the significant shortening of material processing but also to the increase in the concentration of desired components in the obtained extract. The increase of integrity and improvement of quality of modernized technology when implementing new equipment is an important task that require the design of an operator model of the discussed technology based on the methodology of workflow theory. The bottleneck of the model has been defined. It is the subsystem of the formation of intermediate product with given quality parameters. The stability of subsystem functioning has been calculated when using an extractor with an external recirculation contour and without it. The level of system integrity has been determined. To value the stability of subsystem functioning, according to preliminary researches, the following parameters have been determined: estimated period (60 min), required sample numbers (25 samples), allowable limit of parameter divergence (5%). The research results show that the extractor equipped with an external recirculation contour provides stability of functioning of the subsystem of intermediate product formation equal to 1, comparing with 0.47 (without the external recirculation contour). The obtained value of subsystem functioning stability stimulates the increase of system integrity, which value (in case of using the extractor with an oscillating plate) is 0.75.
Analysis of canned milk market in the city of Kemerovo conducted by market research is presented. A brief description and classification of market research are given. Manufacturers and canned milk brands presented in retail trade network have been studied. It has been revealed that the market of canned milk in the city of Kemerovo is represented by 14 manufacturers and 15 brands, the highest share being occupied by "Kuzbasskonservmoloko" company with the trademark "Tyazhin". The appearance of new brands designed for children and adolescents as well as new types of packaging of different sizes have been marked. As far as a foreign manufacturer is concerned, Belarus dairy products have been only presented. The appearance of the canned milk products in retail trade network under their own brands has been noted. Conducting the major survey it has been revealed that the majority of respondents (60%) use condensed milk regularly, the trademark "Tyazhin" being the most preferable among the represented brands. Condensed full cream milk appears to be the most popular type of canned milk. The study results have been used to work out recommendations for product promotion in the market.
Consumer behavior in the market of vodka has a number of specific features. Often taste, aroma, and other characteristics of brands from different manufacturers do not have important differences. It is impossible to evaluate them at the time of purchasing. Recognizable drinks are preferred. The main selection criteria are one’s own consumption experience and recommendations of friends. It is a very difficult task to promote a new brand of vodka under the conditions of normative restrictions on advertising. A good name will play a huge role in successful solution of the problem. Professional approach to naming based on the results of marketing research will create a more attractive product for consumers. In this paper, the authors analyze the existing typology of vodka names. Taking them into account for the purposes of market research nine types of names of vodka are identified: natural (ecological); patriotic ("Rossijskoe"); foreign/pseudo foreign; reflecting a certain type of activity; belonging to a certain group; emotion and creating mood; associated with the technology of production; associated with the characteristics of the drink composition; associated with a character; associated with the place of origin. The use of these types of names by Russian manufacturers of vodka has been estimated. The degree of use of each type has been established. The authors have summarized the results of the inquest of consumers of vodka in the city of Kemerovo which concerned the attractiveness of different types of names depending on sex and age of the respondents. Differences in attractiveness of different types of names among people of different age have been identified. The data obtained can be used by producers to improve the efficiency of naming and further promotion of new brands of vodka.
ORGANIZING, STRUCTURING AND UNIFICATION OF CREDIT RISK ESTIMATE PROBLEMS WITHINTHE COMMERCIAL LENDING OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES
The risk management process is based on the evaluation procedure that encourages authors to concentrate on the study of evaluation problems as the fundamental components of the risk management system. The key position within the risk system belongs to the credit risk having a complex nature, a wide range of effects, manifested in various forms of credit relations, acting as an autonomous object of research, and one of the structural elements of the situation of uncertainty. At the same time one of the forms of credit rela- tions of production are the relations between enterprises within the commercial lending resulting in receivables and payables. Rele-vant and important is the perspective of credit risk estimate the consequences of which are the possible critical areas of unfinished debt within the commodity-money relations in the industrial sector as well as an effective evaluation procedure at the stage of man- agement decision-making to prevent non-payment problem in the economy and, consequently, increase the level of quality of the enterprise debt. When studying the problem areas in the credit risk evaluation procedures three stages are identified: 1) the reduction of problems to a certain unity in the functional aspect i.e. their classification; 2) combining the individual problems in holistic essen- tial groups i.e. problem structuring; 3) the reconciliation, bringing separate challenges to the uniformity i.e. their unification. Based on the research results, it can be confirmed that the problem areas in credit risk estimate are monitored by certain vectors: terminolo- gy sector; the legislative framework; information material; economic forces; methodological technology.
LEVEL OF FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY AS CRITERION FOR PERFORMING PRODUCTION FUNCTIONBY RURAL TERRITORIES OF THE KEMEROVO REGION
To date the prior task of the region economy in the field of agribusiness development is an accelerated import substitution through the creation of conditions for accelerated growth in the volume of own production. Agricultural production is a guarantee of the region's food self-sufficiency. In order to meet the challenges aimed at ensuring the food security of the country the Government of the Russian Federation has adopted a number of important agriculture state programs the general objective of which is the development of agriculture and the expansion of its activities with the aim of increasing production volumes. Rural territories perform a number of national functions, the main one being the production function because it captures the essence of the adopted state programs. The purpose of the study is to analyze the degree of fulfillment of the production functions by rural territories of the Kemerovo region using the criterion of food self-sufficiency. The criteria of fulfilling the production function by rural territories have been established. The degree of fulfilling of this function in the period of 2000-2014 has been determined on the basis of self- sufficiency indices. The influence of production factors on self-sufficiency has been analyzed. The resources required to carry out a production function by rural territories have been identified. Methods of comparative analysis and correlation-and-regression analysis have been applied. Regression models of the influence of agricultural resource factors on the level of self-sufficiency have been built. Conclusions on the criteria that can be used to estimate the degree of fulfilling the production functions by rural territories have been made. Prior factors and their use for increasing the food self-sufficiency of the region have been identified.
In the evolution of market relations one of the main factors influencing economic indicators is human resources. The authors as- signed a resource potential to the group of economic factors which directly affect the formation of human resources. It should be noted that wage and unemployment factors directly influence the formation of job security. Sociologist’s researches have shown that the level of security of human resources depends on such indicators as health care quality, housing, availability of educational institu- tions and cultural facilities, areas with infrastructure coverage. All this affects the growth of population and reduces the outflow ofpopulation from rural areas. Human resources formation is largely dependent on the demographic factors such as fertility and mortal- ity rates, proportion of the population in the economically active age, migration, life expectancy, etc. The analysis of the economistsStrumilin, E.V. Hasimovsky, E.R. Saruhanov, Y.M. Ostapenko, T. Vladimirova, V.P. Zotov et al.) shows that final perfor- mance results in rural areas depend on their human resources security. The problem is to make the production process in the agricul-tural production more attractive i.e. to improve working conditions and implement a program of social development of the village. Objective dynamics of increasing the rural population's income in terms of purchasing power is possible only under the condition ofcomparable wages growth that will make it possible to consider real possibilities of an employee in rural areas to meet necessary requirements. During the years of the reform (1992-2015) there appears a tendency of reducing the level of human resources in theagricultural production both in quality and quantity. Analyzing the efficiency indices of human resources the authors note that the calculation of multifactor and total labor productivity index is of rather great importance. This can be explained by the fact that agri-cultural enterprises increase productivity by introducing new technologies, organization of production, etc.
DISCOURSE ALGORITHM OF DEBTORS’ DIFFERENTIATION FOR CREDIT RISK GROUPS IN COMMERCIAL CREDITINGOF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OF THE KEMEROVO REGION
Due to the fact that commercial crediting is a relatively new form of credit relations in modern Russia, there are no complete methodical technologies aimed at credit risk estimate in production sphere in home literature. This explains the interest of the authors to recommendations of foreign scientists in the field of estimating procedures including those based on the quality vector of debit and credit debts as key characteristics of a commercial credit. Analytical and financial-engineering studies have been carried out in 2 stages: the identification and grouping of credit risk indicators in the field of commercial credit; unification of credit risk indicators in the form of the discursive algorithm. The identified credit risk indicators are of interest not so much from the standpoint of their private studies but in terms of the possibility of analytical tools engineering based on them. Construction of a new analytical scheme has been preceded by a thematic grouping of indicators necessary to highlight the key vectors in the estimating procedure. Five trends in credit risk estimate are clearly traced within the commercial credit analysis: the quality of debit indebtedness, the quality of creditor indebtedness, the degree of their contingency, liquidity, and stock dynamics. Based on the results of the thematic grouping of indicators, the authors have developed a discursive algorithm of debtors’ differentiation for credit risk groups taking into account their region-and-branch sectors.
TRAINING SPECIALISTS ENGAGED IN PROVIDING POPULATION WITH FOOD AS CONDITION FOR SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL SOCIOECONOMIC SYSTEM
Successful functioning of a region as a socioeconomic system assumes the solution of a set of various tasks. The major one among them is the adequate provision of population with food and consequently, training appropriate specialists. The analysis of the sociological data of regional questionnaire of students from 8 state higher educational institutions of the Kemerovo region has been carried out for quality evaluation of training specialists at Kemerovo Institute of Food Science and Technology (KemIFST). It showed that general attitude of KemIFST students to the higher educational institution and studies is more positive than on average across the Kuzbass that testifies to the positive emotional background created at the educational institution. More than 80% of KemIFST students are sure that their future profession will be demanded in the labour market. Most of the students hope to get a profile job after graduating. At the same time, high salary, comfortable working conditions and the opportunity to make a career will be the most important factors to be considered when choosing a place of employment by KemIFST graduates. Two thirds of KemIFST students firmly intend to work within their specialty, but one third of them aren’t determined with the plans for future working life yet. To find a job the students are going to start with mailing their résumé to enterprises and organizations; a lot of students expect to have direct communication with employers and to get the aid of the higher educational institution. However, at KemIFST there are far fewer, than on average in the region, students who work while studying at the institution. The carried-out analysis show that the students highly appreciate the quality of professional training at the higher educational institution; it gives them confidence in successful employment after graduating. And the region can expect that specialists trained at KemIFST will be able to ensure its food security.
An important success factor for innovative activity of countries, industries, firms is the availability of qualified personnel. A very small number of educational institutions train highly qualified personnel for innovative business in Russia. At the same time the range of non-governmental institutions offering courses in the fields which are components of innovation, such as marketing, economics, etc. promote poor training. To correct the situation one should create high demand for knowledge. The consumers, i.e. innovative entrepreneurship, including small enterprising are in need of development. An effective solution of this problem may be based on the formation and development of innovation environment and innovation sphere in different areas of social life. The basis for modeling the development process of food service establishments based on the development and implementation of innovative projects under regional conditions are presented. The concepts of innovation environment and innovation sphere are given. The main elements of mechanism for formation of the innovation environment and its functions promoting the efficiency of innovative activities and implementing innovative projects are described. Selection of elements is based on the patterns of the innovation cycle which results in options depending on the kind of innovative activity under regional and field of industry conditions. The described functions of the main elements of the mechanism for innovation environment formation make it possible to determine the variant approaches to the innovative activity management based on knowledge management. It is shown that the overall innovation environment promotes the activation of scientific-innovative activity and, as a consequence, the development of enterprises and organizations on the basis of innovative projects and programs.
One of the main directions in the development of economy of any country is agricultural industry. In Russia, the number of agricultural enterprises reaches 30% of the total number of enterprises of the country. Under the conditions of the world crisis, a large number of agricultural enterprises in our country are to be closed down because of lack of prospects for further managing in the sphere of agricultural production. The article deals with the main methods and approaches to carrying out the restructuring of agricultural manufactures, which could take them to a new level of development and help them to become profitable. The authors consider all types of the economic analysis directly preceding the creation of the restructuring program in detail and pay much attention to various possible options of reforming for identification of the most optimum one for further development of agricultural enterprises. A complex of actions for restructuring of the agro-industrial enterprises is a key factor beneficially effecting both a financial-and- economic situation of a separately taken enterprise, and intensification of the process of reforming of the Kemerovo region economy in general. At the same time, there is a dependence of the results of the region economy development on successful restructuring.
Methods of sedimentation analysis are used to determine the degree of homogenization and milk emulsion composition, and to calculate the dispersed phase particle sizes. At present, such studies are conducted using instrumental electronic optical analyzers operating in the infrared spectrum range. The aim of this research is to develop optical turbidimetry system for monitoring fat settling in whole and homogenized milk and identification of opportunities to use this device as a butyrometer. The objects of this study were whole and homogenized milk samples with different fat content. A method for the analysis of fat setting through periodic vertical scanning of the sample with an infrared sensor is proposed. To implement this method optical-mechanical device named «kremograph» has been developed. During 90 minutes milk samples with different fat content were exposed to periodically repeating scanning with the frequency of about 0.2 min-1 with a synchronously moving infrared radiation source and receiver. In this case, there was a clear relationship between the intensity of radiation passing through the whole milk sample and fat globule concentrationin milk allowing the thickness of the cream plug to be uniquely determined. The study results are presented in the form of graphs - kremograms. The data obtained have promoted the calculation of fat content of whole milk samples, and the radii of fat particles have been determined. Estimated value of the particle sedimentation rate is 0.11 mm/min. The average size of particles settled in a cream layer is 3.8 microns. The thickness of cream plug on whole milk settling with fat content of 4% is 10 mm. The feasibility of using kremographs for sedimentation analysis and the establishment of the dispersion degree of milk fat particles as well as the determination of the mass fraction of fat in milk after mechanical processing is demonstrated.