|Title of article
||PROSPECTS FOR USING AMARANTH AND NATIVE BUCKWHEAT IN DRY GLUTEN-FREE MIXES FOR CHILDREN WITH GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
Urubkov S., Cand.Sci.(Eng.), Senior research of the Department of Childrenâ€™s and Dietary Nutrition, Scientific Research Institute of Food-Concentrate Industry and Special Food Technology â€“ a branch Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, firstname.lastname@example.org
Khovanskaya S., Cand.Sci.(Eng.), Head of the Department of Childrenâ€™s and Dietary Nutrition, Scientific Research Institute of Food-Concentrate Industry and Special Food Technology â€“ a branch Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, email@example.com
Smirnov S., Cand.Sci.(Eng.), Deputy Director for Scientific Work, Scientific Research Institute of Food-Concentrate Industry and Special Food Technology â€“ a branch Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, firstname.lastname@example.org
||Introduction. Diet therapy is one of the main approaches to the treatment of various diseases of the digestive system. A strict lifetime diet is the main method of treatment for gluten intolerance. However, young patients, who are particularly sensitive to dietary restrictions, often fail to follow the diet due to the limited menu of recommended foods and dishes. The diet for children with gluten intolerance should include a sufficient amount of gluten-free grain-based products. They provide children with carbohydrates, dietary fibers, vegetable proteins, fats, B vitamins, and minerals, e.g. potassium, magnesium, selenium, etc. In this regard, it is urgent to develop new types of specialized gluten-free products to expand the diet both in terms of nutritional value and taste diversity.
Study objects and methods. The research is part of a project on the development of dry gluten-free mixes based on buckwheat and amaranth with fruit, vegetable, and berry raw materials. The new formulations are intended for children older than three years of age with gluten intolerance. The research objective was to study the main nutrients in amaranth and buckwheat flours. The study involved the method of infrared spectroscopy using a SpectraStar 2500 analyzer. The data obtained made it possible to calculate the nutritional and energy value of products based on amaranth and buckwheat flours, as well as fruit, vegetable, and berry powders intended for children older than three years of age with gluten intolerance.
Results and discussion. Amaranth flour proved to be rich in protein (13.4%), lipids (5.1%), and ash (2.8%). Native buckwheat flour contained 7.5% of protein, 3.6% of lipids, and 1.4% of ash. The carbohydrate content appeared approximately the same in both samples (56â€“58%). The dry gluten-free mixes can serve as an important source of vegetable protein (up to 9.44 g per 100 g of the finished product), carbohydrates (up to 40.08 g per 100 g of the finished product, and energy (from 158.12 to 221.85 kcal per 100 g of the finished product).
Conclusion. The high nutritional and biological value of amaranth and buckwheat flours, as well as fruit, vegetable, and berry powders, confirmed the prospect of using them as the main components for functional foods. Amaranth and buckwheat contain no gluten but are rich in protein, amino acids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and biologically active elements, which makes them an important source of nutrition for children with gluten intolerance.
||Food, grain, children, food scheme, celiac disease, gluten
||Received March 11, 2020
Accepted May 29, 2020
Available online June 29, 2020
||Urubkov SA, Khovanskaya SS, Smirnov SO. Prospects for Using Amaranth and Native Buckwheat in Dry Gluten-Free Mixes for Children with Gluten Intolerance. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2020;50(2):232â€“241. (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21603/2074-9414-2020-2-232-241.
- Parfenov AI, Maev IV, Baranov AA, Bakulin IG, SabelÊ¹nikova EA, Krums LM, et al. The Russian consensus on diagnosis and treatment of coeliac disease in children and adults. Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2016;44(6):661â€“668. (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.18786/2072-0505-2016-44-6-661-688.
- Rubio-Tapia A, Kyle RA, Kaplan EL, Johnson DR, Page W, Erdtmann F, et al. Increased prevalence and mortality in undiagnosed celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2009;137(1):88â€“93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2009.03.059.
- BelÊ¹mer SV. Ehpidemiologiya tseliakii: fakty i vyvody [Epidemiology of celiac disease: facts and conclusions]. Lechaschi Vrach. 2013;(1):16â€“19. (In Russ.).
- Zhuravskaya NV, Petrova AI, Turkina NV. Tseliakiya u detey [Celiac disease in children]. Meditsinskaya sestra. 2005;(6):4â€“6. (In Russ.).
- TutelÊ¹yan VA, KonÊ¹ IYa. Detskoe pitanie: rukovodstvo dlya vrachey [Childrenâ€™s food: a doctorsâ€™ guide]. Moscow: Medical News Agency; 2017. 782 p. (In Russ.).
- Urubkov SA, Khovanskaya SS, Dremina NV, Smirnov SO. Grain-based products for baby food. Pediatric Nutrition. 2018;16(4):67â€“72.
- Urubkov SA, Khovanskaya SS, Smirnov SO. Study of the content of the main macronutrients in gluten-free crops and products of their processing. Proceedings of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies. 2019;81(2)(80):102â€“107. (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.20914/2310-1202-2019-2-102-107.
- Egorova EYu, Reznichenko IYu. Development of food concentrate â€“ semi-finished product with amaranth flour for gluten-free cupcakes. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2018;48(2):36â€“45. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21603/2074-9414-2018-2-36-45.
- Egorova EYu, Kozubayeva LA. Formulation of dry mix with amaranth and sesame flour for making gluten-free pancakes. Bread products. 2018;(2):40â€“42. (In Russ.).
- Coelho LM, Silva PM, Martins JT, Pinheiro AC, Vicente AA. Emerging opportunities in exploring the nutritional/functional value of amaranth. Food and Function. 2018;9(11):5499â€“5512 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/c8fo01422a.
- Martinez-Lopez A, Millan-Linares MC, Rodriguez-Martin NM, Millan F, Montserrat-de la Paz S. Nutraceutical value of kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L.). Journal of Functional Foods. 2020;65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.103735.
- Burgos VE, Armada M. Characterization and nutritional value of precooked products of kiwicha seeds (Amaranthus caudatus). Food Science and Technology. 2015;35(3):531â€“538. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-457X.6767.
- Chauhan A, Saxena DC, Singh S. Total dietary fibre and antioxidant activity of gluten free cookies made from raw and germinated amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) flour. LWT â€“ Food Science and Technology. 2015;63(2):939â€“945. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.115.
- Tapia-Blacido D, Sobral PJ, Menegalli FC. Development and characterization of biofilms based on Amaranth flour (Amaranthus caudatus). Journal of Food Engineering. 2005;67(1â€“2):215â€“223. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.05.054.
- Bruni R, Guerrini A, Scalia S, Romagnoli C, Sacchett G. Rapid techniques for the extraction of vitamin E isomers from Amaranthus caudatus seeds: ultrasonic and supercritical fluid extraction. Phytochemical Analysis. 2002;13(5):257â€“261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.651.
- Venskutonis PR, Kraujalis P. Nutritional components of amaranth seeds and vegetables: a review on composition, properties, and uses. Comprehensie Review in Food Science and Food Safety. 2013;12(4):381â€“412. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12021.
- Urubkov SA, Khovanskaya SS, Smirnov SO. Comparative analysis of the glycemic index of amaranth and other gluten-free products. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2019;49(4):629â€“634. (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.21603/2074-9414-2019-4-629-634.
- Bavykina IA, Zvyagin AA, Miroshnichenko LA, Gusev KYu, Zharkova IM. Efficient products from amaranth in a gluten-free nutrition of children with gluten intolerance. Problems of Nutrition. 2017;86(2):91â€“99. (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2017-00038.
- Liu C-L, Chen Y-S, Yang J-H, Chiang B-H. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) buckwheat sprouts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;56(1):173â€“178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf072347s.
- Beitane I. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flour: Composition and technological properties. In: George F, editor. Buckwheat: Composition, production and uses. Nova Science Publishers; 2018. pp. 1â€“30.
- Wronkowska M, Haros M, Soral-Åšmietana M. Effect of starch substitution by buckwheat flour on gluten-free bread quality. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2013;6(7):1820â€“1827. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0839-0.
- Maryin VA, Vereshchagin AL, Fomina IG. Estimation of consumer properties and surface morphology of the unground buckwheat of different colors. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2013;31(4):59â€“63. (In Russ.).
- Vysochina GI. Amaranth (Amaranthus L.): chemical composition and prospects of using (review). Chemistry of plant raw material. 2013;(2):5â€“14. (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi.org/10.14258/jcprm.1302005.
- Mota C, Santos M, Mauro R, Samman N, Matos AS, Torres D, et al. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals. Food Chemistry. 2016;193:55â€“61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.043.