Copyright ©Illarionova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Received 25 February, 2021 |
Accepted in revised form 01 April, 2021 |
Published 28 September, 2021
Introduction. An integrated monitoring of raw milk’s contents, quality, and security is a key factor that guarantees the high-quality dairy production. As a result, new research methods of rennet clotting are a topical and urgent area of study. The research objective was to systemize and analyze the basic criteria and assessment methods of rennet-induced protein gels in milk systems.
Study objects and methods. The authors reviewed the official Russian criteria and methods of raw milk assessment by its rennet coagulation properties. The research also featured the most widespread instrumental approaches used in best practices from around the world.
Results and discussion. In Russian and foreign cheese production, milk is always tested for its physicochemical and microbiological indicators, with a mandatory check of its coagulation characteristics. Russian cheese-makers use different modifications of rennet and rennet-fermenting tests based on subjective sensory evaluation, while international scientific trends in this area aim at developing and improving instrumental methods by using a complex indicator MCP. This indicator characterizes the parameters of rennet coagulation with the help of such devices as Formagraph, Lattodinamografo, Optigraph, etc. Formagraph is a simple instrument for measuring rheological properties of milk clotting. It was popular in the late XX century. The resent years saw the development of other methods of instrumental control, including those based on optical measurements. For instance, Ortigraph is one such instrument that receives unified data on coagulation properties of raw milk by using near-infrared waves. Sensory and instrumental methods have their advantages and disadvantages. However, the most significant criteria for a quick test of cheeseability, yield, and quality are the speed of analysis and the comparability and reproducibility of results.
Conclusion. To improve cheeseability testing, Russian cheese-makers need to use the international experience, which offers standardized evaluation criteria in combination with various instrumental approaches. However, the integration of foreign regulations and methods into Russian studies is not the only option. The improvement and development of national instrumental methods of evaluating milk protein coagulation is also crucial.
, rennet coagulation
, rheological methods
, optical methods
, infrared spectroscopy
- Galstyan AG, Aksyonova LM, Lisitsyn AB, Oganesyants LA, Petrov AN. Modern approaches to storage and effective processing of agricultural products for obtaining high quality food products. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2019;89(2):211–213. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1019331619020059.
- Gilmanov KhKh, Tyulkin SV, Vafin RR, Galstyan AG, Ryabova AE, Semipyatny VK, et al. Elements of DNA-technology forming quality and safe raw materials / [et al.] // News of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Series of Geology and Technical Sciences. 2020. Vol. 5. № 443. P. 54–62.
- Vesnina A, Prosekov A, Kozlova O, Atuchin V. Genes and eating preferences, their roles in personalized nutrition. Genes. 2020;11(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040357.
- Yurova EA, Kobzeva TV, Filʹchakova SA. Standartizatsiya metodik izmereniy pokazateley kachestva i bezopasnosti moloka i produktov ego pererabotki [Standardization of methods for measuring quality and safety indicators of milk and milk processing products]. Milk Processing. 2019;241(11):6–11. (In Russ.).
- Lisitsyn AB, Chernukha IM, Nikitina MA. Konstruirovanie mnogokomponentnykh produktov pitaniya [Design of multi-component food products]. Moscow: Moscow State Univetsity of Food Production; 2021. 176 p. (In Russ.).
- Oganesyants LA, Vafin RR, Galstyan AG, Ryabova AE, Khurshudyan SA, Semipyatniy VK. DNA authentication of brewery products: basic principles and methodological approaches. Foods and Raw Materials. 2019;7(2):364–374. http://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2019-2-364-374.
- Gilmanov KhKh, Semipyatnyi VK, Bigaeva AV, Vafin RR, Turovskaya SN. New determination method for the ratio of the relative proportions of κ-casein alleles in milk powder. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2020;50(3):525–535. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21603/2074-9414-2020-3-525-535.
- Tyulkin SV, Vafin RR, Zagidullin LR, Akhmetov TM, Petrov AN, Diel F. Technological properties of milk of cows with different genotypes of kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin. Foods and Raw Materials. 2018;6(1):154–162. https://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2018-1-154-162.
- Kruchinin AG, Vafin RR, Radaeva IA, Illarionova EE, Bigaeva AV, Turovskaya SN, et al. Regarding the biopolymers heat stability formation. News of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Series of Geology and Technical Sciences. 2020;4(442):77–85.
- Renhe IRT, Zhao Z, Corredig M. A comparison of the heat stability of fresh milk protein concentrates obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration and diafiltration. Journal of Dairy Research. 2019;86(3):347–353. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029919000426.
- Bigaeva AV, Kruchinin AG, Radaeva IA, Gilmanov KhKh, Illarionova EE. Influence of polymorphic CSN3 gene types on technological traits of milk. Dairy Industry. 2020;(4):54–55. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.31515/1019-8946-2020-04-54-55.
- Shuvarikov AS, Baimukanov DA, Dunin MI, Pastukh ON, Zhukova EV, Yurova EA, et al. Estimation of composition, technological properties, and factor of allergenicity of cow's, goat's and camel's milk. Bulletin of the National academy of sciences of Republic of Kazakhstan. 2019;6(382):64–74.
- Mironenko IM. Functions of ionic calcium and native milk proteases in the process of rennet clotting. Cheesemaking and Buttermaking. 2021;(1):25–28. (In Russ.).
- Yurova EA, Zhizhin NA, Denisovich EYu. Osobennostʹ primeneniya metodov kontrolya pokazateley kachestva i bezopasnosti v molochnoy produktsii [Control methods for quality and safety of dairy products]. Milk Processing. 2019;235(5):6–9. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.33465/2222-5455-2019-5-6-8.
- Franzoi M, Niero G, Penasa M, Cassandro M, De Marchi M. Technical note: Development and validation of a new method for the quantification of soluble and micellar calcium, magnesium, and potassium in milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2018;101(3):1883–1888. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13419.
- Manuelian CL, Penasa M, Visentin G, Cassandro M, De Marchi M. Phenotypic analysis of milk coagulation properties and mineral content of Pinzgauer cattle breed. Archives Animal Breeding. 2018;61(2):215–220. https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-61-215-2018.
- Strani L, Grassi S, Alamprese C, Casiraghi E, Ghiglietti R, Locci F, et al. Effect of physicochemical factors and use of milk powder on milk rennet-coagulation: Process understanding by near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics. Food Control. 2021;119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107494.
- Yurova EA. Fil'chakova SA, Kozlovtseva DV. Efficient ways to ensure raw milk quality. Dairy Industry. 2019;(9):44–47. (In Russ.).
- Sviridenko GM, Zakharov MB, Onosovskaya NN. Sistema kontrolya pokazateley mikrobiologicheskoy bezopasnosti moloka i molochnoy produktsii [Monitoring system of indicators of microbiological safety of milk and dairy products]. Milk Processing. 2019;241(11):14–19. (In Russ.).
- Semenikhina VF, Rozhkova IV, Begunova AV, Raskosnaya TA, Shirshova TI. Influence of microbiological and technological factors on the quality of cottage cheese. Production Quality Control. 2018;(5):53–57. (In Russ.).
- Sviridenko GM, Zaharova MB. Microbiological safety indicators monitoring system and quality of milk and dairy products in accordance with current regulatory documents. Dairy Industry. 2020;(4):22–26. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.31515/1019-8946-2020-04-22-26.
- Inikhov GS, Brio NP. Metody analiza moloka i molochnykh produktov [Methods for the analysis of milk and dairy products]. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost’; 1971. 423 p. (In Russ.).
- Petrov AN, Galstyan AG, Radaeva IA, Turovskaya SN, Illarionova EE, Semipyatniy VK, et al. Indicators of quality of canned milk: Russian and international priorities. Foods and Raw Materials. 2017;5(2):151–161. https://doi.org/10.21603/2308-4057-2017-2-151-161.
- Magan JB, Tobin JT, O'Callaghan TF, Kelly AL, Fenelon MA, Hennessy D, et al. Physicochemical properties of whole milk powder derived from cows fed pasture or total mixed ration diets. Journal of Dairy Science. 2019;102(11):9611–9621. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16415.
- Bittante G, Cologna N, Cecchinato A, De Marchi M, Penasa M, Tiezzi F, et al. Monitoring of sensory attributes used in the quality payment system of Trentingrana cheese. Journal of Dairy Science. 2011;94(11):5699–5709. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4319.
- O'Callaghan DJ, O'Donnell CP, Payne FA. A comparison of on-line techniques for determination of curd setting time using cheesemilks under different rates of coagulation. Journal of Food Engineering. 1999;41(1):43–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(99)00072-2.
- Bobrakova LA, Mamaev AV. Issledovanie reologicheskikh parametrov pri proizvodstve obogashchennogo zernenogo tvoroga [Rheological parameters in the production of fortified cottage cheese]. Vestnik Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Oryol State Agrarian University]. 2013;40(1):172–176. (In Russ.).
- Gaber SM, Johansen A-G, Schuller RB, Devold TG, Rukke E-O, Skeie SB. Effect of freezing temperatures and time on mineral balance, particle size, rennet and acid coagulation of casein concentrates produced by microfiltration. International Dairy Journal. 2020;101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.104563.
- Mayorov AA, Sidenko YuA, Musina ON. New high-tech methods of rheological properties evaluation in cheesemaking: Study of milk coagulation and formation of cheese curd structure. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2017;45(2):55–61. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21179/2074-9414-2017-2-55-61.
- Djaowé G, Bitjoka L, Boukar O, Libouga DG, Waldogo B. Measurement of the rennet clotting time of milk by digital image sequences (2D + t) processing. Journal of Food Engineering. 2013;114(2):235–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.07.024.
- McMahon DJ, Brown RJ. Evaluation of Formagraph for comparing rennet solutions. Journal of Dairy Science. 1982;65(8):1639–1642. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82390-4.
- Koczura M, Martin B, Turille G, De Marchi M, Kreuzer M, Berard J. Milk composition, but not cheese properties, are impaired the day after transhumance to alpine pastures. International Dairy Journal. 2019;99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.104540.
- Stocco G, Pazzola M, Dettori ML, Cipolat-Gotet C, Summer A, Vacca GM. Variation in caprine milk composition and coagulation as affected by udder health indicators. International Dairy Journal. 2019;98:9–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.06.005.
- Beux S, Waszczynskyj N, Pereira EA, Cassandro M, Nogueira A. Milk coagulation properties and methods of detection. Ciência Rural. 2017;47(10). https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20161042.
- Bonfatti V, Gervaso M, Rostellato R, Coletta A, Carnier P. Protein composition affects variation in coagulation properties of buffalo milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2013;96(7):4182–4190. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6333.
- Currò S, Manuelian CL, De Marchi M, Goi A, Claps S, Esposito L, et al. Italian local goat breeds have better milk coagulation properties than cosmopolitan breed. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 2020;19(1):593–601. https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2020.1772130.
- Costa A, Visentin G, De Marchi M, Cassandro M, Penasa M. Genetic relationships of lactose and freezing point with minerals and coagulation traits predicted from milk mid-infrared spectra in Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2019;102(8):7217–7225. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15378.
- Pazzola M. Coagulation traits of sheep and goat milk. Animals. 2019;9(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080540.
- Vacca GM, Stocco G, Dettori ML, Bittante G, Pazzola M. Goat cheese yield and recovery of fat, protein, and total solids in curd are affected by milk coagulation properties. Journal of Dairy Science. 2020;103(2):1352–1365. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16424.
- Cecchinato A, Cipolat-Gotet C, Casellas J, Penasa M, Rossoni A, Bittante G. Genetic analysis of rennet coagulation time, curd-firming rate, and curd firmness assessed over an extended testing period using mechanical and near-infrared instruments. Journal of Dairy Science. 2013;96(1):50–62. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5784.
- Karacheviev Y, Angelova T, Yordanova D, Karabashev V. Modelling of buffalo milk coagulation kinetics after addition of enzymes at different concentrations by means of mechanical lactodynamography. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review. 2018;6(9):1–11.
- Niero G, Costa A, Franzoi M, Visentin G, Cassandro M, De Marchi M, et al. Genetic and non-genetic variation of milk total antioxidant activity predicted from mid-infrared spectra in holstein cows. Animals. 2020;10(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122372.
- Mcdermott A, De Marchi M, Berry DP, Visentin G, Fenelon MA, Lopez-Villalobos N, et al. Cow and environmental factors associated with protein fractions and free amino acids predicted using mid-infrared spectroscopy in bovine milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2017;100(8):6272–6284. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-12410.
- Visentin G, McParland S, De Marchi M, McDermott A, Fenelon MA, Penasa M. Processing characteristics of dairy cow milk are moderately heritable. Journal of Dairy Science. 2017;100(8):6343–6355. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-12642.
- Franzoi M, Manuelian CL, Penasa M, De Marchi M. Effects of somatic cell score on milk yield and mid-infrared predicted composition and technological traits of Brown Swiss, Holstein Friesian, and Simmental cattle breeds. Journal of Dairy Science. 2020;103(1):791–804. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16916.
- Franzoi M, Niero G, Visentin G, Penasa M, Cassandro M, de Marchi M. Variation of detailed protein composition of cow milk predicted from a large database of mid-infrared spectra. Animals. 2019;9(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040176.
- De Marchi M, Toffanin V, Cassandro M, Penasa M. Prediction of coagulating and noncoagulating milk samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Dairy Science. 2013;96(7):4707–4715. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6506.
- Manuelian CL, Visentin G, Boselli C, Giangolini G, Cassandro M, De Marchi M. Short communication: Prediction of milk coagulation and acidity traits in Mediterranean buffalo milk using Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Dairy Science. 2017;100(9):7083–7087. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-12707.
- Visentin G, De Marchi M, Berry DP, McDermott A, Fenelon MA, Penasa M, et al. Factors associated with milk processing characteristics predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy in a large database of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2017;100(4):3293–3304. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-12028.
- Cipolat-Gotet C, Cecchinato A, De Marchi M, Penasa M, Bittante G. Comparison between mechanical and near-infrared methods for assessing coagulation properties of bovine milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2012;95(11):6806–6819. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5551.
- Catarino I, Martins APL, Duarte E, Prudencio ES, De Pinho MN. Rennet coagulation of sheep milk processed by ultrafiltration at low concentration factors. Journal of Food Engineering. 2013;114(2):249–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.08.013.
- Zhang J, Yang M, Cai D, Hao Y, Zhao X, Zhu Y, et al. Composition, coagulation characteristics, and cheese making capacity of yak milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2020;103(2):1276–1288. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17231.
- Gomes S, Belo AT, Alvarenga N, Dias J, Lage P, inheiro C, et al. Characterization of Cynara cardunculus L. flower from Alentejo as a coagulant agent for cheesemaking. International Dairy Journal. 2019;91:178–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2018.09.010.
- Pang Z, Xu R, Zhu Y, Bansal N, Liu X. Tribo-rheology and kinetics of soymilk gelation with different types of milk proteins. Food Chemistry. 2020;311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125961.
- Gaber SM, Johansen A-G, Devold TG, Rukke E-O, Skeie SB. Minor acidification of diafiltration water using various acidification agents affects the composition and rennet coagulation properties of the resulting microfiltration casein concentrate. Journal of Dairy Science. 2020;103(9):7927–7938. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18237.
How to quote?
Illarionova EE, Kruchinin AG, Turovskaya SN, Bigaeva AV. Methods of Assessing Milk Proteins Coagulation as a
Part of the Forecasting System of Technological Properties. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2021;51(3):503–519.
(In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.21603/2074-9414-2021-3-503-519.