ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Methods of Assessing Milk Proteins Coagulation as a Part of the Forecasting System of Technological Properties

Introduction. An integrated monitoring of raw milk’s contents, quality, and security is a key factor that guarantees the high-quality dairy production. As a result, new research methods of rennet clotting are a topical and urgent area of study. The research objective was to systemize and analyze the basic criteria and assessment methods of rennet-induced protein gels in milk systems. Study objects and methods. The authors reviewed the official Russian criteria and methods of raw milk assessment by its rennet coagulation properties. The research also featured the most widespread instrumental approaches used in best practices from around the world. Results and discussion. In Russian and foreign cheese production, milk is always tested for its physicochemical and microbiological indicators, with a mandatory check of its coagulation characteristics. Russian cheese-makers use different modifications of rennet and rennet-fermenting tests based on subjective sensory evaluation, while international scientific trends in this area aim at developing and improving instrumental methods by using a complex indicator MCP. This indicator characterizes the parameters of rennet coagulation with the help of such devices as Formagraph, Lattodinamografo, Optigraph, etc. Formagraph is a simple instrument for measuring rheological properties of milk clotting. It was popular in the late XX century. The resent years saw the development of other methods of instrumental control, including those based on optical measurements. For instance, Ortigraph is one such instrument that receives unified data on coagulation properties of raw milk by using near-infrared waves. Sensory and instrumental methods have their advantages and disadvantages. However, the most significant criteria for a quick test of cheeseability, yield, and quality are the speed of analysis and the comparability and reproducibility of results. Conclusion. To improve cheeseability testing, Russian cheese-makers need to use the international experience, which offers standardized evaluation criteria in combination with various instrumental approaches. However, the integration of foreign regulations and methods into Russian studies is not the only option. The improvement and development of national instrumental methods of evaluating milk protein coagulation is also crucial.
Milk, cheeseability, coagulation, rennet coagulation, viscosity, rheological methods, optical methods, infrared, infrared spectroscopy
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How to quote?
Illarionova EE, Kruchinin AG, Turovskaya SN, Bigaeva AV. Methods of Assessing Milk Proteins Coagulation as a Part of the Forecasting System of Technological Properties. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2021;51(3):503–519. (In Russ.).
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