ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Food Fortification as a Preventive Factor of Micronutrient Deficiency

Introduction. The problem of micronutrient deficiency remains a relevant issue all over the world. However, it is mostly developed countries that practice food fortification. The FAO and the WHO accumulate related experience and summarize it in various documents. Yet some aspects of the problem can be solved on state level. The present research featured micronutrient deficit and preventive measures in several countries taking into account local food traditions. Since 1920, a number of industrially developed northern countries have started developing and implementing various food fortification programs. Similar programs are being introduced in East, Central, and South Africa and Southeast Asia. For 40 years, Russia has been taking various measures to prevent micronutrient deficiency and related diseases.
Results and discussion. The research revealed the social and economic measures of food fortification that were found lacking in these countries. The main problem proved to be iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiency. However, lack of other micronutrients also remains a burning issue. The present paper gives an overview of iodine, selenium, and iron deficiencies in several countries. The authors proposed several solutions, e.g. food group selection, food additives (mono or premix), various ways of fortification, etc. The article also contains a list of main Russian regulatory documents that control the production and turnover of food fortification. The authors showed advantages of food fortification of mass consumption products, e.g. the low cost of processing, the affordability of enriched products, their availability for different social population, the well-developed regulation standards, the good social effect of food fortification projects, their economic efficiency, etc. Taking into consideration the environmental changes and various geopolitical and economic factors that negatively affect nutrition and population health, the authors recommend to continue evidence-based research in this direction to develop new technologies and food supplements.
Conclusion. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that it reveals priority areas for prospective scientific research in food fortification based on a thorough analysis of the existing experience. From the point of view of practical application, the research offers a deeper understanding of the problem, stresses its relevance, sets goals and objectives of future studies, and offers some ideas for preventive programs.
Micronutrients, deficiency, nutritional value enhancement, food supplementation, iodine, selenium, iron, legal framework
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How to quote?
Mayurnikova LA, Koksharov AA, Krapiva TV, Novoselov SV. Food Fortification as a Preventive Factor of Micronutrient Deficiency. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2020;50(1):124–139. (In Russ.). DOI: https://doi. org/10.21603/2074-9414-2020-1-124-139.
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