ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Volume 49, Issue 4, 2019

2303
Abstract
Introduction. Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) are one of the most cultivated mushrooms in Russia. Oyster mushroom sauce has a greater potential for public catering when used in processed state as a semi-finished paste. The research objective was to develop a technology of hot and cold mushroom sauces based on paste-like semi-finished product from cultivated oyster mushrooms. Results and discussion. A rational technology for processing oyster mushrooms into a semi-finished paste included simultaneous grinding and heat-treatment of mushroom stipes. Fine powders of dried white mushrooms and chanterelles, which are also called mushroom salts, were used as a flavoring additive, including some other ingredients according to the formulations. The sauce formulations were composed using linear programming mathematical modelling method to obtain products with certain sensory characteristics and minimal energy value. The calculated formulations were used to prepare hot and cold sauce samples, which received high scores during sensory evaluation. The results of rheological evaluation showed that the concentration of the paste was rational in the range from 30% to 50% depending on the desired consistency of the sauce. For sauce samples, nutritional and energetic value was calculated based on the average daily requirements. Conclusion. The developed technologies and formulations of mushroom sauces based on paste-like semi-finished product from oyster mushroom can widely improve the range of mushroom sauces on consumer market and diversify the taste of different kinds of public catering products.
2537
Abstract
Introduction. Grain germination can improve the nutritional value and functional properties of grain. The research featured the effect of technological processing on the quality of the finished product as in the case of natural, germinated, and canned wheat grains. A set of experiments was conducted to define the mineral substances and amino acid composition as factors that affect the chemical composition of a product during its production. Study objects and methods. The research featured soft wheat grain, germinated wheat grain, and canned germinated wheat grain. The latter consisted of 55% of pre-treated germinated wheat grain and 45% of filling, which contained 4.5% of sugar and 3.5% of salt. The content of mineral substances was determined by atomic-emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma using an atomicemission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV (USA). The amino acid composition was determined using a liquid chromatograph Agilent 1200 (USA). Results and discussion. 100 grams of canned germinated grain contained about 15% of daily manganese, 12% of chromium (III), 8.4% of copper, and 8.3% of zinc. Canned germinated wheat demonstrated a high biological protein value and contained 20.6% of essential amino acids. As for amino acids, canned germinated wheat grains had a high content of proline (958.4 mg/100 g) and glutamic acid (2456.4 mg/100 g). The characteristics of the nutritional value of canned protein from germinated wheat grains included amino acid rate, amino acid feedstock difference coefficient (AAFDC), and potential biological value (PBV). The proteins of canned germinated wheat appeared inferior in their amino acid composition and contained insufficient amounts of lysine and threonine. The coefficient of differences in amino acid scores was 71.9%, while the potential biological value of the protein was 28.1%. Conclusion. Germinated grains have a certain set of minerals and amino acids in their composition. Therefore, they can be used to develop canned foods or dishes for public catering industry. The effect of technological processing on the mineral composition of the finished product resulted in the loss of mineral substances from 45 to 85%. Moreover, germinated wheat should be combined with products that are rich in lysine and threonine.
2471
Abstract
Introduction. Information on the structure of fatty acids is crucial for production and promotion of goat and sheep milk in dairy industry. The profile of fatty acids of milk fat can affect the nutrition value and market value of dairy products. Study objects and methods. The present research featured fatty acid structure of goat and sheep milk and its transformation during yogurt production. The fatty acid structure was studied using gas chromatography. The milk was obtained from goats of the Zaanensky breed and sheep of the North Caucasian breed. Their ratio in the yogurt was 1:1. Results and discussion. The content of saturated fatty acids was 12% less in goat milk than in sheep milk. Olein, stearin, and palmitic acids are the main fatty acids in the fatty phase of milk and yogurt. The research revealed some changes in concentration of individual fatty acids during milk processing and during the storage of yogurt. As a result of ripening and storage, the amount of saturated fatty acids in yogurt increased by 5% on day 7, in comparison with the initial dairy mix. The content of the polynonsaturated fatty acids decreased by 19.27%. Goat milk had the highest value of the ratio of the hypocholesteremic and hypercholesteremic fatty acids. Goat milk demonstrated the most acceptable fatty acid structure in terms of healthy nutrition and prevention of atherosclerosis and thrombogenesis. During yogurt production and storage, the monononsaturated and polynonsaturated fatty acids decreased, while the content of saturated fatty acids increased. Thus, goat milk can increase the amount of monononsaturated and polynonsaturated fatty acids in dairy products. However, the research also revealed a general tendency to decrease in monononsaturated and polynonsaturated fatty acids during yogurt production and storage, with a parallel increase in the content of saturated fatty acids. Unlike ship milk, goat milk had a lower value of the indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenesis. Conclusion. The indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenesis provided additional information on the functional properties of the product. The established features of the fatty acid profile and its transformation during yogurt production provide data that can help produce qualitatively new dairy drinks with a healthy fatty acid profile.
2599
Abstract
Introduction. Rational use of dairy raw materials is important for the national economy. The research objective was to improve the existing technologies of milk raw material processing using new type membrane equipment with polarization layer diversion. The process was mathematically simulated according to the theory of automatic control and transfer functions. Study objects and methods. The study featured a new installation constructed on the basis of a membrane device with membrane layer diversion. The new equipment can serve as a basis for a novel low-waste and non-waste technology. Unlike traditional membrane apparatus, this one has three flows: a more concentrated polarization layer (concentrate), a core layer of retentat, and a layer of permeat. The mathematical model of the process can describe the behavior of any dynamic system of almost any structure and complexity. Results and its discussion. The simulation showed that recycling of the diverted concentrate can intensify the concentration. To increase the intensity of membrane concentration in such installations, partial recirculation of the concentrate flow can be recommended, with its subsequent transfer to the main flow. Partial recycling of the retentate flow did not prove effective, as it did no increase the concentration of the final product. However, it can be used for a more complete extraction of the target component. This aspect requires further research. Conclusions. The paper introduces a new technology that improves the concentration of milk raw materials and possesses practical importance.
2138
Abstract
Introduction. Market evolution requires a constant improvement of monetary relations. Commercial credit expands the ability of enterprises to maneuver their working capital. It also mobilizes and redistributes free commodity resources in the production sector. The paper presents a holistic research in the field of credit risk assessment in a particular sector of commercial lending. Study objects and methods. The theoretic section of this publication identifies the design features of a commercial loan and the specific credit risks. The theoretical studies were performed in the context of the classical, legislative, scientific, and synthesized copyright formats. To conduct an assessment, it is necessary to focus on a separate segment of the commercial loan market, with a given regional and industry affiliation. By sorting the market participants according to the balance of outstanding pending debts, the authors chose the metallurgical enterprises of the Kemerovo region as research object. Results and discussion. The applied section reflects the authentic three-stage methodological approach, which includes the following stages of experimental and analytical work. The first stage involves structuring the risk situation and the structural elements of credit risk. The macroeconomic level involves three zones of indirect impact: state, region, and industry. At the microeconomic level, the authors identified several types of risk, in the order of their manifestation. The first one is the risk of delay in repayment of debt arising from the risk of capital structure and business risk. The second type involves subsequent risk of default on the loan, associated mainly with the potential risk of bankruptcy of a potential debtor. The second stage reflects the identification of private indicators for assessing credit risk in the context of its structural elements as based on 17 popular techniques, models, and recommendations of leading foreign and domestic scientists. The targeted selection was based on a given preference criterion, i.e. frequency of applying the coefficient in analytical practice. Thus, the authors obtained the following thematically differentiated combinations: financial independence ratio (capital structure risk indicator), indicators of the quality and correlation of receivables and payables (business risk indicators), coefficient current liquidity and the ratio of own working capital (bankruptcy risk indicators). The third stage involves an analysis of private indicators of the main components of credit risk. The analysis is based on the formed valuation design and the synthesis of valuation characteristics at a given regional and industry level, as compared with all-Russian trends. Conclusion. The analysis of most indicators revealed an unstable situation in the credit policy of metallurgical enterprises in the region, i.e. huge arrays and a high share of overdue debts, an irrational capital structure, a low level of liquidity of the balance sheet, and a significant proportion of unprofitable enterprises. Thus, a high level of risk of delay in repayment of debt and an increasing risk of bankruptcy can increase the level of risk of loan default.
2215
Abstract
Introduction. Kuzbass is a large territorial complex with highly-developed industries. However, the local agriculture is also quite intensive. The research objective was to summarize the results various studies of the current state of the grain market in the Kemerovo region and identify areas of its development. Implementation of the grain complex development strategy with marketing elements will strengthen the position of the Kemerovo region on the international market of grain and products of its processing. Study objects and methods. The research was based on a systematic approach to the study of the regional grain market and employed abstract-logical, statistical-economic, and graphical research methods. Results and discussion. The article focuses on the current state of Kemerovo grain market and identifies development prospects and sale opportunities. In recent years, the jvolUni of wheat and rye yield has significantly increased, as well as the canola acreage. The main consumer of grain crops grown in the Kemerovo region is the region itself. Nevertheless, the region is gradually becoming a grain exporter. The authors identified factors that affect the enterprises specializing in the production and sale of grain. The region has a good base for the development of agriculture in general and grain crops in particular. Unfortunately, the current problems in cultivation technologies, price fluctuations, insufficient state support, and poor marketing hinder the development of the industry. The authors proposed several directions of grain market development proceeding from possibilities of producers and change in the structure of production sales taking into account foreign trade risks. Conclusion. Marketing and realization of grain production in the Kemerovo region should be based on a well-planned development strategy of improving the competitive positions of the region and the development of a large production and technological complex.