ISSN 2074-9414 (Печать),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Онлайн)

Том 49, №4, 2019

2239
Аннотация
Введение. Вешенка обыкновенная (Pleurotus ostreatus) является одним из широко культивируемых грибов в России. В рецептурах продукции общественного питания, в частности в грибных соусах, перспективно использовать вешенку в переработанном виде в форме пастообразного полуфабриката. Целью настоящей работы является разработка рецептур и технологии приготовления холодных и горячих грибных соусов на основе пастообразного полуфабриката из культивируемой вешенки обыкновенной. Результаты и их обсуждение. Рациональной технологией переработки вешенки в полуфабрикат является измельчение ножек плодового тела гриба с одновременной тепловой обработкой. В качестве вкусоароматической добавки в соусах использовались измельченные до порошкообразного состояния белые грибы, лисички (грибные соли) и другие ингредиенты в соответствии с рецептурами. Рецептуры соусов составлены на основе математического моделирования продукции методом линейного программирования, целью которого является получение продукции с минимальной энергетической ценностью. На основе рассчитанных рецептур были приготовлены образцы горячих и холодных соусов, получившие высокие баллы по органолептическим показателям. Результаты реологических исследований образцов соусов показали, что полуфабрикат рационально вводить в диапазоне концентраций от 30 % до 50 % в зависимости от желаемой консистенции готового соуса. Для образцов соусов был проведен расчет пищевой и энергетической ценности с учетом доли от среднесуточной потребности. Выводы. Разработанные технологии и рецептуры соусов на основе пастообразного полуфабриката из вешенки обыкновенной позволят значительно расширить ассортимент грибных соусов на потребительском рынке и разнообразить вкус различных видов продукции общественного питания.
2515
Аннотация
Introduction. Violation of the ecological balance and modern processing methods may result in a lower content of important nutrients in food. Therefore, there is a need to restore the balance of biologically active substances in food products. In this regard, it seems appropriate to use plant materials that contain biologically active substances, as well as pigments. The use of aromatic plants for these purposes remains understudied. The research objective was to extract chlorophyll-based green pigments based from green plants. Study objects and methods. The object of the study was dried parsley (Petroselinum vulgare). The extractants included acetone, ethyl alcohol (95%), hexane, petroleum ether, and chloroform. Results and discussion. The extractants were chosen according to the total content of chlorophylls, which determine the color of the extract. Since carotenoids are extracted along with chlorophylls, the content of this component was also determined. Acetone demonstrated the maximum degree of chlorophyll recovery. However, this solvent cannot be used in food industry. Therefore, 95% ethanol, which also showed a high degree of chlorophyll extraction, was chosen as the extractant. A set of experiments made it possible to establish the ratio of feedstock and extractant as 1:60 (three times extraction with a mass ratio of parsley and extract); the optimal time of each extraction was 0.5 ± 0.1 h. Magnesium carbonate (MgCO2) helped to preserve the dyes. In order to increase the concentration of coloring substances, the obtained extract was subjected to thickening at a residual pressure of 400 Pa at 40°C. Conclusion. The obtained concentrate from dried parsley can be used in production of combined foods.
3668
Аннотация
Introduction. Bread and bakery are products of mass consumption. However, bread can hardly be considered as a perfectly balanced healthy product. To improve the quality of bread and bakery products, it is necessary to develop new formulations of baking mixes that can improve the nutritional and biological value of the finished product. New varieties of healthier, better quality bread with high nutritional and biological value can improve the diet of the population. Study objects and methods. The present research featured baking mixes made up of the following components: wheat baking flour, wholemeal barley flour, wholemeal lentil flour, textured lentil flour, brown rice flour, buckwheat flour, wholemeal wheat flour, rye bakery flour, milk whey, and demineralized milk whey. The research employed generally accepted standard methods, as well as the quick dough method. Results and discussion. The shape stability of the bread was calculated as the ratio of its height to diameter. The research yielded five composite baking mixes: mix 1 – a diabetic mix with barley wholemeal flour; mix 2 – a diabetic mix with buckwheat flour and dry cheese whey; mix 3 – a diabetic mix with buckwheat flour and dry demineralized whey; mix 4 – a mix with lentil wholemeal flour and brown rice wholemeal flour; mix 5 – a mix with textured lentil flour and brown rice wholemeal flour. All five samples demonstrated satisfactory sensory, physical, and chemical quality indicators. The authors also determined nutritional value and percentage from the daily requirements of an adult diet. The results proved that the finished products had a high content of proteins, dietary fibers, and minerals. An analysis of the granulometric composition of the baking composite mixes showed that the particle size varied from 5 to 600 microns. The content of particles in the range from 10 to 50 microns was 30–35% of the total jvolUni. There was no significant difference in the particle size distribution in the samples. The mixes were close to homogeneous, which makes it possible to predict the uniform distribution of prescription components in the storage process and the production of high-quality bakery products. Conclusions. The obtained characteristics of the developed mixes make it possible to introduce them into the existing technological schemes of bakery production without using special equipment for dosing and storage.
2251
Аннотация
Statics of drying is based on the laws of interaction between the gas medium and the dehydration facility, which seek a thermodynamically equilibrium state. Jackfruit is a wet thermolabile material. With a static equilibrium between the product and the environment, the water content in a hygroscopic state depends on the type of the product, its energy, humidity, and a jnumUni of parameters, e.g. temperature and partial pressure of the vapor on the surface. The paper introduces graphical dependences of the activity of water of jackfruit slices on humidity at various ambient temperatures. The authors also give its analogy in semilogarithmic coordinates. It helped to define a range of humidity that determined the type of connection between the moisture of the object and the dry residue. The laws of the mechanism of heat and mass transfer are relevant in determining the dynamics of the dehydration process. Their study can help to intensify the process of moisture removal with rational operating parameters. The present study featured the equilibrium states in the system, which made it possible to find the driving force of moisture transfer and to evaluate the heat carrier potential, as well as to substantiate the values of the parameters and the environment during storage and transportation of the finished dry product. The value of relative moisture content in equilibrium was determined by isothermal sorption curves. The value depends on the pre-treatment of the drying object, the conditions of its contact with the external environment, as well as by the energy and type of relationship between the dry residue and the moisture. The empirical results were arranged in the form of graphical dependences, which made it possible to theoretically obtain their mathematical approximation. The equations of dependence between the equilibrium moisture content of the material and the relative humidity of the vapor-air medium included a lot of constants, which also needed to be determined empirically. The mathematical dependences approximate the isothermal sorption curves, i.e. the relationship between the product’s moisture and water activity indices. The dependences can be used to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of the sorption process and determine the free, bound, and internal energies of the process of moisture absorption by the capillary-porous object of study. The hygroscopic examination of jackfruit is also necessary when making design decisions for the rational implementation of technological operations, including the storage and transportation of dry jackfruit slices.
2247
Аннотация
Introduction. Weather conditions during vegetative period have an effect on the duration of fruit storage, as well as the yield of commercial fruits unaffacted by physiological disorders or microbiological diseases. In this regard, new apple varieties demand a detailed study of economic and biological indicators, determination of storage period, and various factors that may affect it. Study objects and methods. The research featured preservation capacity of five new scab-immune columnar apple varieties cultivated at the All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding (Orlov Region, Russia), namely ‘Vostorg’, ‘Zvezda’ ‘Efira’, ‘Poezia’, ‘Priokskoye’, and ‘Sozvezdiye’. The apples were stored in an industrial refrigerator at +2°C. The Selyaninov’s hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) was used as a predictive indicator of the potentially effective storability. Results and discussion. A set of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of the weather conditions during the vegetative period on the yield of commercial fruits. The best preservation was recorded for the fruits harvested in the years with sufficient rainfall during the growing season. The most comfortable conditions of seasonal humidification for the long-term storage of fruits were formed for ‘Zvezda Efira’ and ‘Sozvezdiye’ in 2014 and ‘Poezia’ and ‘Priokskoye’ in 2016 at HTC = 1.0. The storability depended on the weather conditions during the growing season and the variety. The ‘Sozvezdiye’ variety showed the highest commercial yield after storage in 2014 (96.7%), while the lowest commercial yield (64.2%) belonged to the ‘Vostorg’ apples in 2016. ‘Sozvezdiye’ had the highest effective persistence of commercial fruits (83.6–96.7%) during the whole study period (92.0% on average). ‘Vostorg’ and ‘Poezia’ demonstrated worse results than other varieties (76.2% and 76.8% on average, respectively). Conclusion. Poor precipitation and excess heat in the period of 30 days before harvesting adversely affected the fruit storability, which led to scald. ‘Zvezda Efira’ and ‘Sozvezdiye’ were absolutely stable to scald. The dry year of 2012 had a positive effect on the apples as the level of ascorbic acid increased during storage (82.8% of the baseline). Therefore, it is advisable to use HTC to predict fruit quality and storage period.
2459
Аннотация
Введение. Проращивание зерна считается одним из способов, который улучшает пищевую ценность и функциональные свойства зерна. С целью изучения влияния технологической обработки на качество готового продукта проведены исследования по содержанию минеральных веществ и аминокислотному составу в зерне пшеницы до проращивания, после проращивания и в консервах из пророщенного зерна пшеницы. Объекты и методы исследования. В качестве объектов исследований использовалось зерно мягкой пшеницы, пророщенное зерно пшеницы и консервы из пророщенного зерна пшеницы (подготовленное зерно пророщенной пшеницы 55 %; заливка – 45 %, содержащая 4,5 % сахара и 3,5 % соли). Содержание минеральных веществ определяли методом атомно-эмиссионной спектрометрии с индуктивно связанной плазмой на атомно-эмиссионном спектрометре Optima 2100 DV (США). Аминокислотный состав определяли на жидкостном хроматографе Agilent 1200 (США). Результаты и их обсуждение. В 100 г консервированного пророщенного зерна содержится около 15 % марганца от суточной потребности, 12 % хрома (III), 8,4 % меди, 8,3 % цинка. Показана высокая биологическая ценность белков пророщенной пшеницы, содержащих 20,6 % незаменимых аминокислот. Среди заменимых аминокислот высокое содержание пролина (958,4 мг/100 г) и глютаминовой кислоты (2456,4 мг/100 г). Коэффициент различий аминокислотного скора составляет 71,9 %, потенциальная биологическая ценность белка – 28,1 %. Выводы. Пророщенные зерна, имея в своем составе определенный набор минеральных веществ и определенный аминокислотный состав, могут быть использованы как для разработки консервов из пророщенного зерна пшеницы, так и для приготовления блюд общественного питания. Изучение влияния технологической обработки зерна пророщенной пшеницы на минеральный состав готового продукта установило, что потери минеральных веществ составляют от 45 до 85 %. Пророщенное зерно пшеницы следует комбинировать с продуктами, содержащими большое количество лизина и треонина.
2393
Аннотация
Введение. Информация о структуре жирных кислот имеет решающее значение для производства и продвижения козьего и овечьего молока в производстве молочных продуктов. Профиль жирных кислот молочного жира может влиять на пищевую ценность и рыночную стоимость молочных продуктов. Целью исследования стало изучение особенностей жирнокислотного состава козьего и овечьего молока и его трансформации в процессе производства йогурта. Объекты и методы исследования. Исследование жирнокислотного состава выполнялось с применением метода газовой хроматографии. Объектами исследования стали: молоко коз зааненской породы и овец северокавказской породы, йогурт, полученный из смеси козьего и овечьего молока 1:1. Результаты и их обсуждение. Установлено, что в козьем молоке содержание насыщенных жирных кислот меньше на 12 %, чем в овечьем молоке. Олеиновая, стеариновая и пальмитиновая кислоты – это основные жирные кислоты, содержащиеся в жировой фазе молока и йогурта. Отмечены изменения в концентрациях отдельных жирных кислот при переработке молока и в процессе хранения йогурта. В результате созревания и процесса хранения в течение 7 суток количество насыщенных жирных кислот в йогурте увеличилось на 5 % по сравнению с исходной молочной смесью. Содержание полиненасыщенных жирных кислот в йогурте снизилось на 19,27 %. В козьем молоке отмечено наивысшее значение соотношения гипохолестеринемических и гиперхолестеринемических жирных кислот. Показано, что козье молоко характеризуется наиболее приемлемым жирнокислотным составом с точки зрения здорового питания и профилактики атеросклероза и тромбообразования. Выводы. В процессе производства и хранения йогурта отмечена тенденция к снижению мононенасыщенных и полиненасыщенных жирных кислот с одновременным увеличением содержания насыщенных жирных кислот. Установлено, что производство йогурта с использованием в составе смеси козьего молока позволяет снизить значения индексов атерогенности и тромбогенности. Результаты исследования дают информационную основу к производству качественно новых кисломолочных напитков с благоприятным жирнокислотным профилем для здоровья человека.
2535
Аннотация
Introduction. Milk has a high nutritional value and is a vital component of human diet. Today, the dairy market is one of the largest and actively developing food markets. However, this industry is characterized by such problems as seasonality and poor transportability of raw materials. These problems particularly affect small farms. Deep processing of dairy raw materials to obtain dry powders is the most effective way to solve these problems. The research objective was to develop a low-tonnage dryer for producing milk powder on small farms and to select the optimal drying temperature. Study objects and methods. The research featured whole milk of the ‘Svoya Ferma’ brand, mass fraction of fat = 3.4–4.5%. The research was performed on the premises of Kemerovo State University (Kemerovo, Russia). The milk was dried on a pilot sample of the roller dryer developed by the research team. The dryer consisted of a vessel, heating drums, and a microcontroller, which was connected to the temperature sensor and the control circuit of the power part, which had a powerful rectifier and pulse regulator. Results and discussion. When the drying temperature exceeded 98°C, the characteristics of the milk powder deteriorated, and the milk failed to meet the State Standard. The optimal drying temperature was 92–95°C, since at this temperature all the characteristics, except for the solubility index, corresponded to the State Standard. The sensory and physical properties of the milk powder were improved by reducing the drying time and the distance between the knife and the drum. Conclusion. Further experiments have to be performed to determine the optimal rotation speed of the drums and the distance between the knife and the drum.
2150
Аннотация
Introduction. The process of oil extraction from oilseeds is very complicated as it depends on a large jnumUni of related factors. The complex porous structure of pulp is a combination of three phases: dry solids, liquid (oil), and air. Therefore, the study of the process of pulp pressing requires a special method for determining the friction characteristics of the material. Study objects and methods. To determine the friction and jvolUni characteristics of oilseeds, an original experimental unit was developed and manufactured. The study involved samples of the same mass weighted using a high-accuracy analytic balance (permissible error = ± 5%). The first stage of the experiment featured jvolUni characteristics of ten samples. The second stage featured friction characteristics of the five first samples obtained during the first stage at different pressures. Results and discussion. The pressure time proved to have a more significant effect on the oil yield than the pressure jvolUni, since the complex capillary structure of the pulp demonstrated a significant hydrodynamic resistance to oil outflow. The dependence of the oil yield on the pressure was described by an asymptotic function; the limit (asymptotic) value of the pressure was 48 MPa. At this pressure, the oil yield reached φ = 54 %. The dependence of the friction coefficient on the values of temperature, pressure, and sliding velocity was described by a power-law regression equation with the coefficient of accuracy of approximation R2 = 0.96. Conclusion. The obtained data are of practical importance and can be used to improve the efficiency of pressing equipment.
2813
Аннотация
Introduction. Semi-finished products help food industry enterprises to meet the population’s need for high-quality and nutritious foods. Popular semi-products are loose mixes enriched with vitamins, minerals, and biologically active substances. The world is currently experiencing a shortage of food protein, and its deficiency is likely to continue in the coming decades. Therefore, loose high-protein baking mixes are one of the promising directions of healthy nutrition industry. Multicomponency of such mixes makes it possible to balance their composition and develop products that have a useful comprehensive effect on the human body and strengthen protective functions. Study objects and methods. In order to ensure a balanced composition of mixes and high-quality food production, the authors propose a new design of a continuous action vibration mixer. Experimental and industrial tests were carried out as part of a technological line for production of baking mixes with increased protein content. Trials included idling and serviceability check under load, quality tests of the obtained high-protein baking mix, as well as vibration and noise level tests. The tests provided the following rational operation parameters: amplitude of vibration A = 0.0045 m; angle of vibration β = 45°; frequency of vibration f = 33.33 Hz; jnumUni of revolutions n = 4; diameter of perforations d = 0.007 m. Biological value was determined according to the results of amino-acid analysis. Results and discussion. The new mixing unit had the average value of the non-uniformity coefficient Vc = 6.86%, which indicated the high quality of the obtained high-protein baking mixes. The biological value of the finished food product showed a higher nutritional value than in the control sample. Conclusions. The new vibration type mixing unit made it possible to obtain baking mixes of specified quality at the ratio of mixed components 1:60. This simple but reliable device had relatively low material and energy costs.
2521
Аннотация
Введение. Целью работы является совершенствование технологии концентрирования молочного сырья на мембранных установках, укомплектованных аппаратами с отводом поляризационного слоя. Одним из путей повышения производительности различных процессов мембранной переработки растворов является осуществление рециркуляции растворов в мембранной установке. Математическое моделирование установок позволяет сократить затраты времени на проектирование и подбор оптимальных конструктивных и режимных параметров, в связи с чем разработка математических моделей мембранного оборудования является актуальной задачей. Объекты и методы исследования. Объектом исследования является установка на базе мембранного аппарата с отводом примембранного слоя. Отличительной особенностью аппаратов является наличие трех отдельных выходящих потоков: пермеата, ядра потока ретентата и более концентрированного потока из примембранной области (концентрата). Для совершенствования процесса разработана математическая модель на основе метода передаточных функций, позволяющих описать поведение динамической системы практически любой структуры и сложности. Результаты и их обсуждение. По результатам моделирования установлено, что для интенсификации концентрирования целесообразно производить рециркуляцию отводимого концентрата. Показано, что эффективным способом повышения интенсивности мембранного концентрирования в установках с аппаратами, отводящими примембранный слой, может быть рециркуляция части потока концентрата с передачей его в основной питающий поток. Рециркуляция части потока ретентата не является эффективной с точки зрения повышения концентрации конечного продукта. Однако она может быть использована для более полного извлечения целевого компонента. Этот аспект совершенствования технологии должен быть предметом дальнейших исследований. Выводы. Предложена технология улучшения концентрированного молочного сырья, которая имеет практическое значение.
3144
Аннотация
Introduction. The mechanical characteristics of foam gelatin broth make it a promising material for studying the process of obtaining dry gelatin. The preliminary foaming of the product and the use of infrared (radiation) energy supply during its dehydration can significantly improve the process. Study objects and methods. The research featured gelatinized gelatin broth prepared from fish wastes. The efficiency of the proposed drying method was assessed by comparative studies of the kinetics and intensity of convective and convective-radiation foam drying. Specific productivity of the process was selected as evaluation criterion. Results and discussion. The paper introduces a method of convective radiation foam drying of gelatinized fish broth. A set of experiments made it possible to define the optimal process conditions with the maximum yield of dry gelatin, i.e. 0.998 kg/(m2·h): initial concentration of solids in the product C = 0.24 kg/kg; temperature T = 292–295 K, humidity W = 50–60%; the speed of the drying agent v = 4–5 m/s; the initial diameter of the foam rod dI = 0,004 m; the density of the heat flux incident on one side of the rod E = 2.45 kW/m2; the wavelength of infrared emitters λ = 1.01–1.11 microns. The research revealed the effect of the main factors influencing the drying process on the approximating dependences of the specific yield of dry gelatin from a unit area of the working surface per unit of time. The introduction of radiation energy supply into the process of convective foam drying of gelatinized broth under rational conditions was three times as high as the specific productivity of the process. An analysis of the kinetics of convective and convective-radiation drying helped to obtain some functional dependences of the drying speed of the foamed gelatin broth extrusions from the concentration of dry substances in the product for the considered process conditions. An analysis of heat and mass transfer during convective-radiation foam drying was performed using the velocity curves. The nature of the change in the drying rate of the product proved typical of most biopolymers. Conclusion. The results obtained are applicable in the calculations of the productivity of drying equipment in dry gelatin production and other products with similar complex properties.
2098
Аннотация
Introduction. Oat-meal mills often have a low efficiency ratio of oat grains, which may be improved by new dehulling methods. The present research proved that it is possible to reduce the amount of destroyed cores by replacing elastic steel decks with viscoelastic polyurethane ones. The research objective was to assess the feasibility of using viscoelastic material in oat dehulling. Study objects and methods. The study featured two size fractions of oats. The grain was harvested in the foothills of the Altai Territory in 2017. A set of comparative tests was performed to define the efficiency of two dehulling machines. One had a standard metal deck, while the other had a deck made of material of A-80-95 ShA and an elastic modulus of 2.8 MPa during the second dehulling. Results and discussion. The polyurethane deck remained efficient for the first fraction during the second dehulling after 400 tons, for the second fraction – after 1,500 tons. The dehulling coefficient for the polyurethane deck exceeded the results for the metal deck by 12.0% during the second dehulling of the first fraction and by 5.9% during the second peeling of the second fraction. The integrity of the core increased by 34.0% for the first fraction and by 30.0% for the second fraction, which increased the mass fraction of the finished product by 2.9%. Conclusion. Ppolyurethane decks proved efficient for the second dehulling of the first and second fractions. Their use improved the processing of oat grains into Hercules oat flakes by 3.1%.
2225
Аннотация
Introduction. It is healthy and balanced nutrition that determines human health from childhood, thus forming able-bodied, reproductive, intellectual, and vital potential of the country. Therefore, children’s diet should take into consideration the physiological needs of the growing organism for energy, macro and microelements, minor and biologically active substances. The research featured the diet of preschoolers. The paper describes an attempt to optimize the energy, nutritional value, and balance according to the physiological norms. Study objects and methods. The research involved preschoolers aged 3–7 from a local nursery boarding school (Ivanovo, Russia). Based on the analysis of the menu, the authors assessed its diet compliance with the daily physiological nutrition norms. The fat content of the daily ration was assessed, first, according to the absolute deviation from physiologically complete dietary fat. The index has a zero value for fat proper. The second index was the ratio of polyunsaturated linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, which should be 5–10:1. Results and discussion. The daily caloric intake exceeded the norm by 6 %. The diet lacked dietary fiber and was too rich in fat. As for the qualitative composition of the fat content, the children’s diet showed a significant deficit of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The authors proposed to partially replace sunflower oil with flaxseed, substitute the fatty filling in the waffles with fruit filling, slightly reduce the proportion of butter, and add encapsulated fish oil. Conclusion. Аs a result of the optimization, the fat content in the diet decreased by 12%; the ratio of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-6 and ω-3 was 7.8:1, which corresponds to the standard parameters.
2449
Аннотация
Introduction. For patients with gluten intolerance, diet therapy is the main method of treatment. However, gluten-free diets are found lacking in many important components. Children that fail to consume neccessary nutrients or have problems with their absorption tend to be physically retarded. Gluten-free diet may increase the risk of autoimmune diseases, especially type I diabetes. Therefore, products for children with celiac diseases should be both gluten-free and have adequate bioavailability of carbohydrates. This article features the chemical composition of amaranth, the geometric structure of starch grains, and its effect on the formation of colloidal solutions. It also compares the glycemic index (GI) of amaranth with other gluten-free grains, i.e. rice, buckwheat, and corn. Study objects and methods. The research featured native amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) (Mexico), puffed amaranth kernels (Mexico), and coarse granular amaranth flour (Mexico). Results and discussion. Amaranth grain contains 12.5–23% of protein, 50.7–77.0% of carbohydrates, 6.0–8.0% of lipids, 10.5–18.3% of dietary fiber, and 2.5–3.5% of minerals. The GI of amaranth and its products were compared with similar values of other glutenfree crops, namely rice, buckwheat, and corn. Amaranth grain and its products demonstrated a higher GI, if compared with other gluten-free grain raw materials. The GI of amaranth grain was 87, the GI of the puffed amaranth kernels was 101, and the GI of the coarse granular amaranth flour was 97. Amaranth starch is easy to digest, which is mainly due to the high content of amylopectin (88 to 98%), since amylopectin breaks down faster than amylose. The relatively small size of starch granules (1.5–3.0 microns) increases the attack capacity of enzymes. These properties make amaranth starch glycemic, or low-resistant, which means that amaranth is easily digested and possesses stability to retrogradation. Conclusion. The unique nutritional and functional properties of amaranth gluten-free products can significantly improve the diet of children with gluten intolerance. However, amaranth starch and its products have a high GI. Hence, it is necessary to control the percentage of these components in formulations and be careful with the selection of additional components and their impact on the total GI.
2188
Аннотация
Introduction. Motor muscle of a shrimp takes about 37% of the total mass. Traditionally, muscle tissue has been used in the food industry. The rest of the shrimp, i.e. about 63%, is considered waste. The production wastes of the Northern shrimp (Pandalus Borealis) are used to obtain chitin, chitosan, biologically active substances, various feeds, and dyes. Our previous research revealed that about 8% of the muscle tissue is wasted, in spite of its high content of well-balanced valuable protein. The current research objective was to develop a biotechnology that would make it possible to produce hydrolyzate from the waste products of Pandalus borealis for further use in food production. Study objects and methods. The research featured muscle tissues of the northern shrimp (Pandalus Borealis). PanReac AppliChem pepsin was chosen for enzyme preparation. Results and discussion. A set of experiments made it possible to establish the following rational parameters: hydromodule – 1:2, period – 3 h, temperature – 45°C. These conditions ensured maximum protein accumulation in the hydrolyzate. After hydrolysis, dense and liquid fractions of the hydrolyzate were obtained. The liquid phase had the following characteristics: water – 90.87%, protein – 6.45%, lipids – 0.4%, carbohydrates – 0.23%, ash – 0.51%. The freeze-drying of the liquid part of the hydrolyzate resulted in flakes of dark orange color and a dense crumbly consistency with a rich shrimp smell and taste. The protein content in the hydrolyzate obtained after freeze-drying was 74.23 ± 3.71. The hydrolizate was rich in proteins and mineral insoluble substances, while carbohydrates and lipids were found in insignificant amounts. The ratio is typical of this type of raw material. In terms of safety, the hydrolyzate met the requirements specified in regulatory documentation. The main operations included grinding, enzymatic hydrolysis for 3 h at 45°C, centrifugation, enzymatic inactivation, and freeze-drying until residual water content fell below 10%. Conclusion. The hydrolyzate obtained from northern shrimp production wastes can be used in food technology for food fortification.
2441
Аннотация
Introduction. Nutrition has a great effect on the quality of life and longevity. Modern food industry pays much attention to the issue of obtaining high-quality and safe livestock products grown without feed antibiotics. The research objective was to study the effect of chamomile extract on a complex of economically useful traits of young rabbits and the qualitative characteristics of meat, as well as to determine the optimal dosage of chamomile extract. Study objects and methods. The experimental research was carried out on the animal farm of the Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy in 2018. Five experimental groups and one control group of young Californian rabbits were formed according to the principle of analogue pairs. Each group included 10 rabbits. From 70-day age, the animals of the experimental group I were supplemented with a phytobiotic feed additive based on wild chamomile extract at a dose of 0.5 g per rabbit per day. In experimental group II, each rabbit received 1 g per day; in experimental group III, it was 1.5 g per rabbit per day; in experimental group IV – 2.0 g per rabbit per day; in experimental group V – 2.5 g per head per day. The experiment lasted 30 days. Results and discussion. The best result was achieved in experimental group II. In the experimental groups, the rabbits demonstrated an increase in hemoglobin. The use of phytobiotic feed additives in the diet did not cause any pathological changes in internal organs. The average live weight at the end of the experiment, compared with the control group, was higher: experimental group I – by 0.82%, experimental group II – by 6.96%, experimental group III – by 5.01%, experimental group IV – by 3.73%, experimental group V – by 2.80% (P ˃ 0.01). An analysis of the chemical composition of rabbit meat after the experiment showed that the water content in the rabbit meat ranged from 76 to 77%, which suggests high water-holding properties. The high dietary qualities of the rabbit meat depended on the content of protein (20–22 wt%) and the low fat content (5–7%). These data make it possible to promote rabbit meat for dietary products. Conclusion. According to the slaughter indicators and the phytobiotic feed additives parameters of meat, the optimal dose of phytobiotic feed additives is 1 g per head per day.
2350
Аннотация
Introduction. Hypovitaminosis is currently common among various social groups. The present research offers a new medical formulation that includes a complex of antioxidant vitamins with a highly beneficial synergistic effect. Study objects and methods. The research employed the SF-36 questionnaire to assess the quality of life in patients with chronic diseases, as recommended by the WHO. The SF-36 questionnaire provides a quantitative description of the physical, emotional, and social components of the quality of life. Clinical control was performed on days 31–32 from the onset of the medication. The state of the microcirculatory bed was assessed in laboratory conditions by applying pressure to the nail bed. The concentration of malondialdehyde was determined by the method developed by M. Uchiyama and M. Mihara. Results and discussion. The paper introduces the formulation and describes the properties of each component. The efficacy of the medicine was confirmed experimentally. Twenty education and health workers were administered the medicine for one month. The control group consisted of fifteen volunteers, who were randomized and grouped according to professional factor, sex, and age. The control group consumed the medicine together with standard vitamins A, C, and E in adequate dosages. Conclusion. The developed medicine proved able to improve the physical, social, and emotional aspects of life quality under high psychophysical stress. The polyvalent effect of the components demonstrated a tropism to collagen synthesis. In addition, it showed an antioxidant effect and improved microcirculation. The medicine can be used preventively to reduce the risk of chronic pathology based on the accumulation of excess free radical activity.
2139
Аннотация
Introduction. The research features a detailed sensory evaluation of mass fishing objects belonging to different families, namely: the Macrouridae represented by the giant grenadier (Albatrossia pectoralis), the Herrings represented by the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), and the Salmons represented by the Keta salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The research objective was to study the possibility of increasing the information content of the verbal description of fish raw materials in combination with a quantitative assessment of individual sensory indicators. Research objects and methods. The paper introduces the concept of detailed verbal description of group parameters of raw and heattreated muscle tissue. The description can increase the information capacity of sensory studies. The concept of extended description of fish raw material was added to the main sensory properties that describe color, smell, taste, and consistency. They include data on the properties of local areas with subcutaneous layer, dark muscles, fat layers, etc. Such a detailed verbal description gives an in-depth view of the sensory properties, which is part of general information on the functional and technological properties of the fish and a key factor in designing new developed products. To improve the objectivity of sensory research, the authors employed the method of quantitative evaluation. Results and discussion. The results were summed up as data on the significance coefficients established by experts, ranked, and expressed as a percentage. The significance coefficient is a method of quantitative regulation of the share of each sensory indicator in the general sensory evaluation. The research showed that the greater the jnumUni of group sensory indicators that characterize the object, the smaller and more similar their coefficients of significance, which dramatically reduces application opportunities. Therefore, significance coefficient proved a convenient means of measurement and visual presentation. However, the research was limited by the experimental conditions. Conclusion. The study of the fish raw materials established, identified, and described individual sensory indicators that involved about twenty lexical units for raw material and thirty units for heat-treated muscle tissue. The individual sensory indicators characterized color, smell, and taste. They differed in the presence of several degrees of gradation and fit into a vertical three-level (sometimes two-level) classification. Group touch indicator of the consistency describes mostly single-level unit indicators with 4–6 lexical units. As a result, the detailed description of sensory properties of fish raw materials included 2–3 times more lexical units compared to the traditional description of fish raw materials in the special reference literature.
2068
Аннотация
Введение. Эволюция рыночных условий хозяйствования экономических субъектов диктует непрерывное усовершенствование денежно-кредитных отношений, в составе которых особое место занимает коммерческий кредит, расширяющий возможности предприятий в маневрировании оборотным капиталом и активизирующий механизм мобилизации и перераспределения свободных товарных ресурсов в производственной сфере. В научной статье представлены целостные исследования в области оценочной процедуры, ориентированной на уровень кредитного риска в определённом секторе коммерческого кредитования. Объекты и методы исследования. По результатам теоретических исследований в разрезе классического, законодательного, научно-исследовательского и синтезированного авторского форматов, были выделены идентификационные конструктивные особенности коммерческого кредита и зафиксирована специфика кредитного риска в указанных условиях. Результаты и их обсуждение. Для проведения оценочной процедуры необходима ориентация на отдельный сегмент рынка коммерческого кредита с заданной регионально-отраслевой принадлежностью. На основании сортировки участников рынка по сальдо зачёта незавершённых долгов выбор пал на металлургические предприятия Кемеровской области. Выводы. Прикладной раздел статьи отражает авторский трёхстадийный методический подход, включающий следующие этапы экспериментально-аналитической работы: 1) структурирование рисковой ситуации и унификация структурных элементов кредитного риска; 2) выявление частных индикаторов оценки кредитного риска в разрезе его структурных элементов; 3) анализ частных индикаторов основных компонентов кредитного риска на базе сформированной оценочной конструкции, а также синтез оценочных характеристик на заданном регионально-отраслевом уровне на фоне общероссийских тенденций.
2143
Аннотация
Введение. Реализация стратегии развития зернового комплекса с использованием элементов маркетинга позволит усилить позиции Кемеровской области на международном рынке зерна и продуктов его переработки. Работа ставит своей целью проанализировать состояние рынка зерновых культур в Кемеровской области и определить перспективы сбыта данной продукции. Объекты и методы исследования. Статья носит обзорный характер, в основе написания которой лежит проведенный ранее анализ отраслевых и территориальных конкурентных позиций оптово-розничной торговли зерновыми культурами Кемеровской области. Данное исследование основывается на системном подходе к изучению регионального рынка зерновых культур, используя абстрактно-логический, статистико-экономический и графический методы исследования. Результаты и их обсуждение. За последнее время значительно возрос объем сборов пшеницы и ржи, увеличиваются посевные площади под рапс. Основным потребителем зерновых культур, выращенных в Кемеровской области, прежде всего, является сам Кузбасс. При этом регион начинает развиваться как экспортер зерна. Для развития сельского хозяйства в целом и зерновых культур в частности в Кузбассе имеется хорошая база, но существующие проблемы в технологиях, колебаниях цен, недостаточной государственной поддержке и отсутствии маркетинга сдерживают развитие отрасли. Определены факторы, влияющие на предприятия по производству и реализации зерна в Кемеровской области: уровень экономики региона, спрос на зерновую продукцию, цена. Для развития рынка зерна необходимо опираться на конкурентные позиции региона, в частности инфраструктурные возможности поддержки экспорта в юго-восточном направлении на основе поиска потребителей и инновационных сегментов. Выводы. Представлены направления развития рынка зерновых культур, исходя из возможностей производителей и изменения структуры сбыта продукции с учетом внешнеторговых рисков при активном внедрении маркетинговых инструментов в организационную и сбытовую деятельность, используя потенциал региональных центров поддержки экспорта.