Volume 41, Issue 2, 2016
To make ready-cooked broiler chicken fillet, the quality of the latter was assessed after heat treatment of two kinds. The check sample was boiled traditionally using the “Ardo” gas cooker, the experimental one was cooked in the “SelfCooking Center” combi steamer (made by 'Rational'). It was recommended to boil broiler chicken fillet in the combi steamer. Steam convection heating guarantees uniform heat flow pattern in the process chamber and creates optimum mass exchange through all the fibers of the product. It was shown that after 15 minutes of 100°C steam treatment in the combi steamer the product's weight loss was 24.8%, while after 20 minutes of traditional boiling the loss in the check sample was 26.2%. Comparable difference between samples was retraced as for loss of moisture (5.8% in the experimental sample and 8% in the check one). Experimental samples of high readiness had better organoleptic index (5 points vs 4.1 of the check sample). The broiler chicken fillet cooked in a traditional way had hardish consistence and the meat was deficiently juiced. Specified organoleptic differences was compliant with reduction of water retention capacity by 11.4% in the check sample of the half-finished product. Treatment in the combi steamer reduced water retention capacity of the fillet by 10.3%. Rational combination of the airproof vacuum pack and freezing methods that ensure minimal changes of organoleptic and physicochemical properties of ready-cooked chicken fillet during cold storage at -18°C was justified. In the process of 3-month storage, the ready-cooked product boiled in the combi steamer and shock-frozen after vacuumizing preserved better.
To produce soft drinks the use of herbal adaptogens as a source of body resistance is of current interest. As raw materials possessing adaptogenic properties, fruits of the Chinese magnolia vine, field ashes, aktinidiya kolomikta, holly thistle, and a grass of purple echinacea herbs, golden harem herbs, roots and rhizomes of the rhodiola rosea and spiny eleuterococus, lime-tree flowers are chosen. The analysis showed the high content of biologically active agents, authenticity, high quality and safety of the chosen plant raw materials. To obtain extracts a maceration process is used. Because of prior information processing the most significant factors having the greatest impact on quality indices of the extraction process were marked out. The independent variables influencing the optimization criterion are determined whose values are the following: temperature of an ekstragent (T) - 85 °C; time of extraction (te) - 240 min; the hydromodule (η) - 1 : 15. The conducted studies resulted in developing the formulae of 12 samples of tonic beverages based on berry juices and extracts of medicinal and technical raw materials. The quantitative content of ingredients in the composition was determined with consideration for organoleptic compatibility of medicinal and technical raw materials, synergy effect and its preventive orientation. Physical and chemical indices of the beverage samples having the highest point during the organoleptic evaluation were investigated. Preventive efficiency estimation of the developed functional beverages with tonic properties was carried out in clinical trials on laboratory white rats. The obtained data testify that addition of the developed beverages to the main diet against the cold and heat stress background provided the increase of morphological and biochemical values in all the development groups, in comparison with the control ones by the end of the experiment. It has been revealed that the content of the general calcium in blood increased by 2.2%, and iron - by 6.6% in comparison with the control group. The developed beverages increase the body’s adaptive response to low and high temperatures.
The article discusses the possibility of using a number of system approach provisions in the development of a milk beverage enrichment technology. Selection of nutritional supplements, their optimum doses, methods and stages of introducing, taking into account the system principles are grounded. System factors of dairy product enrichment enhancing its nutritional value for school-age children and adolescents are described. It is shown that the majority of today's technological research is characterized by consideration of the objects from a technological perspective section without sufficient regard for the fact that these objects are also complex systems and have not only a specially technological, but also systemic properties and regularities. In this paper, the following system patterns were used: action focusing, comprehensiveness, phased object development (conversion), object multifunctional organization. Grounds for choosing the most complete version of milk beverage enriching are identified in the aspects of the functional components ratio and the sequence of their entry in the generated product. Consideration of system regularities in this study contributed to the expansion of the theoretical framework and methodological basis of functional enrichment technology development. Systemic vision of the technologies has allowed to identify additional opportunities for improving consumer qualities and health effects of the enriched products. Premix, pectin and Aloe Vera juice doses are set, which not only helps the dairy beverage to acquire the best organoleptic and physico-chemical properties, but also to achieve compliance with the daily requirement of vitamins for school-age children and adolescents.
Nowadays nutrition sauces play an important role allowing you to impart original taste and flavor to basic foods the, improve their digestibility. However, there is hardly any beetroot products in the range of canned snack foods, to which vegetable sauces belong. This is most likely due to high pectin content of beet, which impedes the manufacturing process. The purpose of the research is to develop the formula and technology of the vegetable sauce from red beet using hydromechanical dispersion to widen the assortment of the canned snack food. The research tasks were to conduct a comprehensive study of technological suitability for processing red beet; to elaborate beet sauce recipes; to test the hydromechanical dispersion method to produce new products. The study turned to conventional research methods (organoleptic and physico-chemical), the results of which were processed with software usage. It has been found that beet harvested in the Novosibirsk region meets the requirements of the quality regulation standard and organoleptic evaluation proves its high quality. It is shown that the chemical composition of beet corresponds to the average literature data. Formulation and production technology of beet sauce have been developed. The technology is based on the method of hydromechanical dispersion using the equipment, allowing inducing an overall effect on the products (simultaneous homogenization, pasteurization and partial deodorization). Basing on organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological studies the conditions and shelf life of new products, regulated quality indices including nutritional and energy values have been established. The red beet sauce allows us to expand the range of this commodity group.
CONSORTIUM OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND YEAST FOR RYE STARTER WITH THE INCREASED ANTAGONISTIC PROPERTIES
Lactic acid bacteria possess the leading role in fermentation of rye processed products. The purpose of this work is screening of active cultures for new consortium of lactic acid bacteria and yeast for preparation of rye starters with high antagonistic and technological properties meeting high standards and modern requirements of bread making. The research objects were the collection cultures of lactic acid bacteria of Lactobacillus previously allocated from wheat grain and flour, and isolates of lactic acid bacteria allocated from rye flour and starters, of various storage periods. Physiological and biochemical and antagonistic activities of lactic acid bacteria were defined according to the standard techniques. During the research conducted isolates of bacteria from rye flour and dry rye starters which were stored in KazSRIPFI collection within 10-12 years were identified. The morphological and cultural-biochemical properties of isolates were studied enabling to identify them as Pedicoccus acidilactici . It has been shown that the Pediococcus acidilactici P1-6 strain which was selected to create the consortium had the greatest acid-forming and antagonistic activity concerning Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. The study of biocompatibility of Pediococcus acidilactici P1-6 strain with collection cultures of Lactobacillus genus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast enabled to include in the composition structure 2 strains of lactobacilli - Lb. paracasei 2, Lb. pontis 67 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae LB yeast possessing biocompatibility, high acid-forming, biochemical and antagonistic activity, i.e. the ability to inhibit pathogens of potato disease of bread. Thus, the new active consortium of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei 2, Lactobacillus pontis 67, Pediococcus acidilactici P1-6 and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae LB has been created to prepare both liquid and dense starters, including the use of choux paste. The modes of rye starters preparation are offered.
RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF MASS FRACTION OF SOLIDS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF COTTAGE CHEESE WHEY MICROFLORA DURING THE ELECTRODIALYSIS PROCESSING
One of the problems of whey electrodialysis is the possible reduction of microbiological indices of raw materials during the process, which negatively affects the quality of the final product. Whey is a perfect medium for the development of microorganisms, so to determine temperature and time parameters is important today. Low-temperature electrodialysis whey processing enables to reduce the risk of the development of foreign microflora, but does not provide high efficiency of the process. The temperature increase, in its turn, can cause the intensive growth of microorganisms. It is undesirable, because demineralized whey is used as a base in beverages, desserts and baby products. This article presents the results of the influence of temperature conditions of desalting process on the development of thermophilic and psychrophilic microorganisms, yeasts and molds as well as QMAFAnM and CGB indices. The object of research was the natural cottage cheese whey with a mass fraction of solids (5.6 ± 0.2)%, and condensed cottage cheese whey with a mass fraction of solids (18.0 ± 10)%. Microbiological and physico-chemical parameters were controlled in the research. The results showed that with increasing temperature of (15.0 ± 1.0)°C to (30.0 ± 1.0)°C there is the development of the natural microflora in thermophilic cheese whey samples and yeast both in serum samples and in condensed samples of cheese whey, psychrophilic microflora in condensed whey at (22.0 ± 1.0)°C. QMAFAnM growth under all temperature conditions was insignificant. However, there was a decline of coliforms and psychrophilic microorganisms in the samples of natural cottage cheese whey. The results obtained enable to choose the optimum temperature modes of the electrodialysis processing of cottage cheese whey.
The compositions of aroma compounds of alcoholic beverages derived from distillates include the same basic groups of volatile compounds - alcohols, esters, acetals, aldehydes, volatile acids. However, their proportions and content vary considerably and depend on both the type of raw materials used and the processing procedure features. In order to develop objective quality estimation indices for cherry brandies 24 brandy samples produced by well-known European manufacturers were examined using gas chromatographic analysis, sensory testing method and methods of mathematical statistics that enabled us to carry out a correlation analysis of the results obtained. The sensory aroma profiles of investigated samples were created basing on the results of the study. It was found, that fresh cherry aroma with an almond shade is characteristic of high-quality cherry brandies. With canonical correlation analysis, the most significant correlations were identified. High degree of correlation between the tasting score and the concentration of 1-propanol (R = 0.722); the amount content of higher alcohols (R = 0.865); the ratio of the amount of C3 alcohols to the amount of C4, C5 alcohols (R = 0.872); and the ratio of ethyl esters of caproic, caprylic and capric acids (enanthic ethers) to the amount of all esters (R = 0,934) was established. The most significant negative correlation coefficients were determined for the concentrations of methanol (-0.974), acetaldehyde (-0.930), hexanol (-0.947) and ethyl lactate (-0.963). Based on the investigations objective quality estimation indices for cherry brandies were recommended, including sensory descriptors, the limit values of methanol, acetaldehyde, propanol, ethyllactate mass concentrations, and the ratio of the alcohols to the amount of C3 alcohols C4, C5 - not less than 0.51 and the ratio of enanthic ethers to esters - not less than 0.47.
Iodine is crucial to human life and health. However, almost the whole territory of our country is endemic in terms of iodine. Moreover, iodine deficiency is particularly dangerous for children and the elderly. In this connection, the necessity of creating new products of mass consumption, fortified with iodine is substantiated. Protein-and-fat emulsions for meat products having various kinds of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin in their formulae have been chosen as the object of iodization. The theoretical background for binding iodine with components of emulsions is presented: a protein component (milk powder, soy protein isolate, sodium caseinate) contains a sufficient amount of tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, and a fat component contains polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) fatty acids. With the help of a simplex - method of linear programming the optimum formulae of protein-and-fat emulsions with high functional and technological properties (stability 92-95%) and the maximum degree of binding of iodine (up to 86% rel.) have been designed. It was established experimentally that the maximum binding of iodine with obtained emulsions, a holding for 24 hours at a temperature not exceeding 4 °C is required. Basing on the results of experimental studies the technology for production of iodized emulsions for meat products has been developed.
Food fibers are some kind of food for useful intestines microorganisms without which a human body cannot exist. The purpose of the research is the development of activities to increase a nutritive value of cottage cheese. The object of the research is the factors forming examination of quality of the cottage cheese enriched with “FIBRIL 500” food fibers. The conducted investigations suggest that the quality of the product is a set of consumer properties making it possible to meet specific or estimated needs in the system of production relations. Any production released by enterprises has numerous properties, which reflect objective reality of a material world. Fuller use of milk components in case of using “FIBRIL 500” fibers allows us to increase profitability of cottage cheese production almost by 1.5 times. It is important that the increase in production efficiency be reached without increase in equipment costs, change of technology and intra shop expenses.
At present people’s excessive consumption of fat and sugar as well as lack of food fiber lead to the so-called ‘diseases of civilization’ i.e. high cholesterol, development of diabetes and some forms of cancer or obesity. Therefore, functional foods are getting more and more needed in the process of food industry development. Along with good organoleptic properties, functional foods also have a prophylactic effect. The objective of the research is to study and develop a dietary analogue to tiramisu, which includes polysaccharide, food fiber and stevioside - a natural sugar substitute. The goals of the research are to develop a new dietary product, which could be consumed by people suffering from diabetes and other associated diseases; to determine the nutritive and energy value of the food product; to analyze the rheological and organoleptic characteristics of the dessert. Considered is a new technology for producing the analogue to tiramisu having higher food advantages, low calorie content and a prophylactic effect and enabling to widen the assortment of dietary foods of heightened nutritive value due to the use of food fibers. At the same time, the product has a reasonable price owing to the use of baked milk and low-fat yoghurt instead of expensive “Mascarpone” cheese. The information about the nutritive and energy value of the desserts is presented. Rheological properties of desserts have been studied. A comparative estimation of organoleptic characteristics of the developed and traditional desserts is given.
The conditions in which domestic food enterprises function do not always contribute to their development and growth of competitiveness. Financial instability, low technical level and high wear of technological equipment, the lack of legal guarantees of contract realizations, a relatively low level of enterprise management, a high level of competition in the domestic market, inflation - all these require an approach revision to the formation of the system of the resource support of the food enterprises. There is an obvious need for the transformation of the composition and structure of sources and resources that determine the economic growth. First of all, the focus is on the innovative technical and technological development of food enterprises that will enable to move to the innovative development level. Innovation in engineering, technology, work organization and management is based on the use of scientific achievements and advanced experience, providing high quality production efficiency or product quality. Not every new thing is innovation. It should seriously increase the efficiency of the current system. Technology is a set of institutional arrangements, operations and techniques directed to the manufacture, maintenance, repair and / or operation of the product with the rated quality and optimal costs. The purpose of the article is to formalize the process of creating advanced technology of foodstuffs. The technology formalization includes the following steps: function formulation, prototype selection; creation of a tree of structural prototype evolution; elaboration and detailing of elements of the 1st and 2nd stages; transformation into the technical solution; feasibility and admissibility control; optimization of parameters, experimental testing, sale of the experimental batch of products; assessment of the effect expected, control of the application field of the product.
Due to the continuous increase in the volume of different types of food additives application for technological purposes, a deep studying of approaches and decisions on the production and development of raw sources of reproduction is urgent and demanded. To ensure necessary level of safety of people’s life and health and the rise of competitiveness of Russian products the authors do researches on the development of new functional ingredients at complex processing of plant raw materials of the Siberian region. As a result of the conducted researches, the choice of plant raw materials components is substantiated (fruits of sea-buckthorn, guelder-rose, dogrose, etc.) as sources of functional ingredients. The resource-saving technological scheme of complex processing of fruits of sea-buckthorn where along with sea-buckthorn oil the production of fruit powder from pulp of sea-buckthorn and clarified juice has been offered to develop. Rational use of seeds is provided. Complex dietary supplements based on the products of sea-buckthorn processing have been developed. Efficiency of the developed antioxidant and emulsifying additives using natural biologically active agents in the production technology of food emulsions has been theoretically proved and experimentally confirmed. Relevance and prospects of further developments and researches in the field of new domestic micro-ingredients development have been proved.
DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE DRUM MIXER OPERATION BASED ON THE REGRESSION ANALYSIS WHEN OBTANING THE DRY YOGHURT BASE
In most cases, loose components used in the production of dry yoghurt base have different granular-metric composition and density. Therefore, the development of the effective mixing equipment to obtain dry yoghurt base with a high degree of homogeneity is an actual problem for the dairy industry. To study the intensification of mixing the dry loose materials and to obtain high quality dry yoghurt base, the continuous drum mixer was developed and produced which possesses low energy consumption, mixing efficiency, preservation of the structure of mixed components. In addition, this unit is capable of combined longitudinal and transverse mixing of loose components due to the availability of different loops of the mixture recirculation throughout the length of the drum. The article presents the results of study on identification of the degree of influence of the drum rotation frequency, drum filing coefficient and the location of G-shaped blades on the quality of dry yoghurt base. Two variants of the location of G-shaped blades, staggered and helical, have been studied. It has been proved that the best quality of mixture is achieved with the helical arrangement of G-shaped blades. In this case, it is recommended to mix the ingredients at the drum rotation frequency of 25 rev/min, and the filling coefficient of 20%. Mathematical regression models were obtained because of the processing of the experimental data using the program “Statistica”. They predict the quality of dry yoghurt base with a high degree of accuracy. The values of relative error between the experimental and the predicted values of the heterogeneity coefficient are 8.9 and 0.98% for staggered and helical arrangements of G-shaped blades, respectively.
ANALYSIS OF CENTRIFUGAL SCREW MIXER OPERATION APPLYING MULTIPLE REGRESSION METHOD WHEN OBTAINING BAKER’S FLOUR MIX TO PRODUCE BAKERY PRODUCTS FOR SPORTSMEN
Currently, many regions of the Russian Federation including the Kemerovo region face serious problems with food products quality. Foods having a low content of essential macro- and micronutrients fill the grocery market. Therefore, enrichment of foods with amino acids, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, etc. is an urgent task. A centrifugal screw mixer for bulk materials with selected rational operation parameters used for the enrichment of flour mix with vitamins and other beneficial substances was developed in the laboratory of the department “Technological design of food production” at Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry (University). Analyzing the mixing process applying a multiple regression method, we have found that “Regression response surface” most accurately describes the process and that the number of screw flights and the frequency of the operation element rotation influence the quality of mixing significantly. Investigations on the optimization of the qualitative and quantitative ingredient composition of baker’s flour mix have been done at Research Institute of Baking Industry. Biological value of bread baked from the developed flour mix was analyzed, and it was found that its amino acid score had increased from 9 to 43% compared to the control additive-free sample. The shelf life for baker’s flour mix has been established.
To calculate aspiration networks and select standard equipment it is necessary to know the magnitude of pressure loss in the unit’s individual elements. To determine the effect of various design features of the classifier rotor on its hydraulic resistance an experimental unit and technique of experimental research are developed, and instrumentation is chosen as well. Experimental studies at various consumption and kinematic parameters of separation process of polydisperse materials into fractions and various structural features of the classifier operating unit are carried out. It is found that with an increase in the number of rotor blades and the angle of bend the classifier hydraulic resistance increases. The experimental data processing resulted in the equations describing the dependence of hydraulic resistance of the classifier as Euler’ criterion from airflow and rotor speed as modified Reynolds criterion for various values of blade bend angle and blade number. In addition, the dependence reflecting the effect of blade bend angle on hydraulic resistance of the unit in the form of the blade bend coefficient is obtained allowing us to define this parameter for geometrically similar systems. These equations simplify the process of engineering calculation of the centrifugal classifier for separating polydisperse powders and they can be used in the design of similar systems for specific process requirements at food enterprises.
Sea buckthorn berries occupy important place in the diet of the inhabitants of Siberia. They are the richest source of vitamins C and E, contain significant amounts of carotenoids, various vitamins of B, F, P groups, minerals, and contribute to the maintenance of health and longevity. One of the most effective methods of preserving fruits and berries is freezing. To develop efficient and energy-saving technology of low temperature preservation and storage of fruits and berries, particularly berries of sea buckthorn, we need reliable and objective information about their thermal and physical characteristics over the entire range of temperature exposure. In addition, knowledge of the thermal and physical characteristics is necessary for designing and selecting the process equipment to implement the freezing processes. This article is devoted to investigations of thermal and physicals characteristics of buckthorn berries of different varieties in fresh and frozen conditions. The first buffer method of two temperature-time intervals has been selected for determination of thermal and physicals characteristics. The methodology of the experiment and data processing method for determining the thermal properties of buckthorn berries at temperatures above cryoscopic point and after freezing have been described. The measured values of thermal and physical characteristics of five buckthorn berry varieties in fresh and frozen conditions are given. It has been established that the values of thermal and physical characteristics of the berries are determined to the greatest extent by their moisture mass fraction. Fluctuations in the values of thermal and physical characteristics of different varieties of sea buckthorn berries are very small, therefore, average values of thermal and physical characteristics should be used for heat engineering calculations of technological processes connected with thermal effects.
When designing refrigeration units with condensing pressure relative to the boiling pressure for more than eight, it is recommended to use a two-stage compression. This complicates the refrigeration unit circuit, increases capital and operating costs. The one-stage refrigeration unit circuit operating on a mixture of refrigerants allows obtaining low boiling point at high temperature condensation. For a more effective method of obtaining low temperatures, it is proposed to upgrade the one-stage refrigeration system. To ensure trouble-free operation hermetic reciprocating compressor of high reliability is chosen, mixture of refrigerants to be fueled, expansion tank and unit automation devices are changed. By means of low-temperature unit, operating on mixture of refrigerants it is possible to reach temperature in a chamber in the range of -40…-65°C. This unit has good performance: the lubricating oil is circulated in the system without accumulating in the cooling devices, and vapor sucked into the compressor has small overheat. The proposed one-stage compression refrigeration unit operating on mixture of refrigerants allows operating at high rates of condensing and evaporating pressure. The result is a lower boiling point in a one-stage compression, thereby reducing the capital and operating costs of the refrigeration unit as a whole.
NUMERICAL STUDY OF JUICE CONCENTRATION IN THE CONVECTION APPARATUS WITH SWIRLING HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT FLOW
The paper presents a highly potent vortex apparatus for fruit and vegetable juice concentration in the “gentle” regime ensuring the preservation of biologically active substances and high flavor quality of the product. Calculation of the convection apparatus with air tangent vortex generator with the concentrate’s known properties is based on the material and heat balances, together with condition that necessary evaporation time, induced by the process kinetics, should be provided by the chamber and vortex generator constructions, determined by hydro- aerodynamic laws and heat- and mass transfer distinctive features in the apparatus. The main requirement for the concentration termination is to achieve necessary mass content of soluble solids in the product. The designed mathematical model allows us to describe the behavior of an evaporating drop in a swirling gas flow over the wide range of calculated parameters and operating regimes for the vortex camera. Numerical calculation shows that average evaporation time for various drop diameters decreases 8.8 times with circulation ratio increasing from 0 to 5 in the concentrate liquid. The fact of the relative apparatus height reduction under the rise of the average consumed gas velocity in a vortex generator with decreasing blades’ inclination of the vortex generator and a liquid-gas ratio in various cases of the initial liquid drop diameter has been established. The numerical calculation indicates that the narrowing of annular rotating drop layer of liquid on increasing the circulation ratio for “smooth” entering of a drop onto its trajectory needs observance of the principle of equality between the initial drop tangential velocity and gas tangential velocity. According to the calculation, the gas temperature within 105 ± 25°C with liquid circulation ratio over two does not influence significantly the drop trajectory.
During field experiments in the Central Black Earth region of Russia, the optimum doses and ratios of fertilizers for potato under drip irrigation, allowing obtaining a high yield of potatoes with the best edibility characteristics have been established. With increasing doses of fertilizers from zero to maximum N150P210K180 the potato yield increased from 23.4 to 43.7 t/ha, and the concentration of nitrates from 15.7 to 234.8 mg/kg of raw tubers. In options N90-120P150-180K120-150 the harvest was 37.8-41.5 c/ha, the accumulation of nitrates - 107.1-165.4 mg/kg at maximum concentration limit equal to 250 mg/kg. Small and moderate doses of fertilizers increase the biological value of protein (CCR) up to 80.6-81.2%, against 80.0% in the control group. Against the background of high doses of fertilizers N90-120P150-180K150-180, CCR was 80.1-79.4%. At the maximum level of fertilizers N150P210K180 CCR content becomes depressed, this state being expressed quite strongly. The darkening of the tubers caused by mechanical damage increased at the highest dose of fertilizer and unilaterally enhanced nitrogen and nitrogen-potassium supply. Best culinary characteristics of boiled potato in our experiments were found in samples with small and moderate doses of fertilizers N30-60P90-120K60-90 - score 77.0-75.6 taste 4.6-4.4, against 76.2 and 4.5 points in fertilizer control ones. These figures were quite good in N90-120P150-180K120-150 options, with a ratio of N : P: K equal to 1 : 1.5-1.7 : 1.3 - the score was 73.8-70.0 taste 4.2-3.9. In general, the maximum dose of N150P210K180 fertilizers and unilaterally increased nitrogen or nitrogen-and-potassium supply significantly reduces edibility characteristics of the tubers. Under the conditions of drip irrigation in the Central Black Earth region it is expedient to supply the potato with N90-120P150-180K120-150, and avoid unilateral enhanced nitrogen or nitrogen-and-potassium supply and not exceed the nitrogen doses in excess of 120 kg/ha of ai.
It is known that the use of silver-containing preparations as anti-pathogenic agents is widely applied in many industries. The paper deals with domestic and foreign experience of cluster silvers application against pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microflora inhabiting the organic agricultural waste. The main mechanisms of stable cluster silver effect on bacterial cells and changes occurring in them are presented. The present study aims to evaluate the biocidal properties of cluster silver against pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic test cultures: Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 1353, Salmonella pullorum ATCC 19945, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli B-5, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 , representing the natural microflora of organic agricultural waste. The results of comparing the effectiveness of cluster silver application and that of antibiotics (amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol) to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 1353, Salmonella pullorum ATCC 19945, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli B-5, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 are presented. It has been found that cluster silver with 50 ug / ml concentration and above is capable of inhibiting the growth of test cultures at 1.5-2.0 times stronger than antibiotics are. The ability of various concentrations of cluster silver to inhibit the growth and development of bacteria in artificially contaminated substrates by the example of chicken manure has been determined. The bacteriostatic effect of cluster silver against gram-negative Escherichia coli B-5, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 at a concentration of 80 ug/ml and higher has been established.
Discussion of the problem on flour confectionery products damage is important. The author considers the food packaging treated with antimicrobial (biocidal) composition based on cluster silver as one of the means of extending the confectionery safety. The effect of biocidal compositions on the internal microflora of the package has been studied. The analysis of swabs from the inner surface of treated packaging compared to non-treated ones was conducted. The analysis was conducted using the petrifilms. It appeared that all packaging treated with a biocidal composition have a marked antibacterial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus , as well as mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic. A zone of microscopic fungi inhibition taken from the surface of the test piece of pastry products has been defined under the action of the investigated biocide composition and without it. The research was carried out using a disk diffusion method. The investigated composition based on cluster silver inhibits the development of microscopic fungi Penicillium spp . Basing on the research results, it can be concluded that the developed method of enhancing the safety of pastry by treating cardboard packaging with antimicrobial (biocidal) composition on the basis of cluster silver is effective. The shelf life of products has increased twice in comparison with the control samples. Such packaging prevents damage of stored food products, because the development of pathogenic microorganisms and microscopic fungi of Penicillium spp . is inhibited under the action of the biocide. The use of this packaging makes it possible to ensure preservation of quality and safety of flour confectionery products during transportation and storage.
In the market economy, competitiveness is a decisive factor in the commercial success of a product. Modern and civilized food consumption should include the freedom to choose the product of preferable quality. The basis for the buyer choice is not only indices of organoleptic characteristics and product price, but also the type and material of packaging, availability to complete information about the product, which must be provided by the manufacturer or retailer that ultimately determines the level of competitiveness of the goods. Different manufacturers are presented in the consumer market. They fight for the consumer's attention to their goods, which, in fact, is the foundation of their success, growth and prosperity. The aim of this study is to identify competitive goods. The article presents data on the comparative assessment of food quality indices on the example of honey samples. At the first stage a visual examination of sample packaging and label assessment were conducted in accordance with the requirements of technical regulations of the Customs Union 022/2011 “Food products concerning its labeling”. The second phase investigated the organoleptic, physical, and chemical indices of quality to meet the requirements of GOST 54644-2011. Group consumer criteria for assessing the competitiveness of the investigated samples were determined at the next stage. The calculation of single and comprehensive consumer criteria relative to the sample standard was carried out. Then, the calculation of "brand recognition", the economic criterion, and the weightiness factors of the first order was conducted. The level and class of the sample competitiveness were determined based on these data. The data obtained enabled to reveal a competitive honey pattern, to give recommendations to producers on improving the competitiveness of products, to form an assortment of honey to meet the consumer requirements.
The article presents the analysis of factors and conditions influencing the occurrence of information asymmetry in the market of dairy products and the study on consumer behavior characteristics of certain groups of population of Kemerovo concerning the choice of dairy products. For these purposes, the concept of "information asymmetry" in relation to the dairy market was determined. Attention is focused on the existing contradiction between the demand for cost-effective food production business and consumers’ requirements for food products. It is noted that the use of imported powdered milk and tropical oils in commercial production of dairy products hides serious problems in the industry of dairy cattle-breeding and negatively affects the quality of dairy foods. Various typological groups of respondents having peculiar features of consumer behavior were formed during the research. The results of the study were three main types of consumer behavior when selecting dairy products in relation to the degree of their naturalness, labeling, frequency of consumption and new types of foods.
Development of new methods and systems for control of physical properties of dairy products is a promising trend in the food industry. Using new methods of control improves product quality and helps to reduce manual labor at dairy plants. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for monitoring of milk coagulation with combined infrared koagulograph. Whole unpasteurized milk was the object of our study. Chymosin solution with activity of 8,000 units under the CHY_MAX trademark was used as a coagulant. To control the process of rennet coagulation we used a combined nephelometer-turbidimeter of our own design. The technique of coagulation monitoring is based on receiving turbidimetric and nephelometric data from multiple optical sensors operating in the near infrared region of the spectrum. Data were recorded using a laboratory complex based on universal multichannel ZET210 data collection device. The flux data from the sensors were recorded in the database and displayed using the applied KoaguMilk software of our own design. Possible photocell set for the coagulograph is also described in the paper. As a demonstration of the method possibilities the dependence of coagulation on chymosin concentration has been analysed. The data on the effect of the rennet concentration on coagulation rate obtained under this study are found to be corresponding to the conventional data. This proves applied effectiveness of our optical method for milk clot structuring under the rennet coagulation. We obtained diagrams for dependence of the IR radiation flow on time under the rennet coagulation, showing a decrease in the degree of flux transmission in direct and sidewise scattering and increase in backscattering at the active stage of milk coagulation.
The article is devoted to the comparison of automated information management systems for food enterprises. The aim of the research is to study the experience and the identification of possibilities for application of automated information management systems for food enterprises. The methods of comparative analysis, deduction, induction, synthesis and analysis of documents are applied. The work on the comparison of the following ERP-systems: “Galaktika Food Industry”, “1C: Enterprise”, “PARUS: Enterprise-8” is completed. Possibilities that they provide are the automation of operational planning, accounting and control. ERP-system reduces the time management decision-making, accelerates the coordination of production and management processes which positively affects the cost savings of the food enterprises. Possibilities that distinguish this ERP-system are defined. “Galaktika Food Industry” is characterized by broad functionality. “1C: Enterprise” provides specialized solutions for food enterprises and open source options as well. “PARUS: Enterprise-8” takes into account specific characteristics of different areas of the food industry in its product. Compared with ERP-systems, BPM-system “Intalev: Corporate Management” is described in the work. It offers the possibility of automating management tasks, as well as strategic planning and implementation of analytical operations. There are examples of foreign automated information management systems and enterprise management software for small businesses. The conclusions about the main factors that hinder the implementation of automated information management systems at food enterprises are made. These are the need for software adaptation on which the developers are focused, and the high cost of automated information management systems introduction. To mitigate the impact of the second factor arguments in favor of program-oriented approach intensification in food enterprise informatization are given.