ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Volume 36, Issue 1, 2015

2686
Abstract
The appearance of up-to-date technological equipment and modern methods of raw materials processing and cooking in the market of food services leads to the necessity to study consumer properties of finished goods. Today, the modern professional equipment market has a wide range of different brands of steam convection oven. However, the parameters of different modes of heat processing in steam convection oven are poorly studied. Therefore, the study of quality characteristics of raw materials processed in a steam convection oven is relevant. For consumers, one of the main quality factors of the product is its nutritive value, as well as organoleptic characteristics which depend on a number of factors such as the processing mode, the duration of treatment and the type of equipment. Raw materials of animal origin such as beef, chicken, salmon, pollack and eggs were the main objects of the study. Conventional methods were used in the research. At the first stage of the research the amount of edible parts in the tested samples of meat, fish end egg products were determined during mechanical treatment. The differences of technological parameters (modes) of processing of raw animal materials prepared in a steam convection oven and by a standard technology have been studied and analyzed. Determined was the mass fraction of solids and fat both in raw materials and finished goods. At the last stage of the research organoleptic characteristics of raw materials subjected to various kinds of heat treatment (cooking, roasting, stewing) have been studied. The results obtained showed that the product prepared in the steam convection oven has several advantages: 5-10 min cooking time reduction; improved organoleptic characteristics of the product in comparison with the one produced using the standard technology.
3072
Abstract
Currently, the world market of food production is aimed at implementing the concept of a healthy lifestyle. Foods are regarded not only as means of biological existence but also as indications of lifestyle, enhancers of positive emotions, stimulators of health and longevity. Fruit raw materials play an important role in a healthy diet of the population reducing the deficiency of vital nutrients, and act as an effective instrument in prevention of a number of common diseases. Food industry is in a crisis, in particular, because of strong dependence on foreign supplies of raw materials used in the manufacturing process. At the same time, the home resource base enables to fully satisfy the consumers’ requirements and producers’ needs. In order to use local “renetka” wild apples for direct consumption and food manufacture their technological suitability as well as their commercial quality in relation to the requirements of the legal documentation have been studied. Scientific novelty of the research manifests itself in comprehensive studies of commercial properties of the raw material and its processability. Conventional and special organoleptic and physico-chemical methods were used when solving the tasks. It has been established that the investigated fruits meet the requirements of the 1st grade of RSFSR 657. The taste score of investigated fruits is 3.2 points. The suitability of the apples for the production of fruit juice according to the norms of GOST R 52185 has been determined. The taste score of juice manufactured from the fruits studied is 4.1 points. The conducted research and the obtained results are of theoretical and practical interest to postgraduate students and food engineers.
2631
Abstract
The use of natural raw ingredients in confectionery technologies meets the trend of shaping the healthy diet consumer market. As confirmed by the results of marketing research, the share of natural food dyes in the composition of the confectionery products is increasing; the vast majority of respondents preferred natural food dyes. The common pattern of water-alcohol amaranthine extraction (pigment of Valentine amaranth varieties selectied by VNIISSOK), was established. The reduction of particle size of pre-dried leaf mass, increasing process time and temperature lead to an increase in the optical density of the extract. According to research results, the proposed method of obtaining cherry-red food coloring is as follows: grain size distribution of the dried amaranth leaf mass is not more than 0.3 mm, the process temperature is 40 - 50 C, the duration is 40-50 minutes, the water ratio - 1:10. The method of mathematical planning enabled us to study of the influence of the dye and citric acid dosage on color and a comprehensive assessment of the quality of caramel. The optimum values of the studied factors are defined by the method of ridge analysis". For the formation of a pronounced caramel colour the dosage of aqueous-alcoholic extract of amaranth leaves, as a dye is 4.1 g/100 g of caramel, of citric acid - 0.54 g/100 g of caramel. Manufacturing formula for caramel with natural amaranth dye has been developed and approved.
4641
Abstract
The use of whey protein concentrate obtained with the ultrafiltration method (KSB-UF) in the technology of restructured formed products manufactured from broiler meat to enhance their biological value is grounded. The evaluation criterion of optimality was equilibration of amino acids content (biological value). Amino acid score, utility (u) and redundancy (σred) coefficients of protein were taken as characteristic indices of biological value of the product. Mathematical modeling of the formulation of restructured formed broiler meat product made it possible to calculate the optimum quantity of KSB-UF, adequate to increase the biological value of protein in the product compared to FAO/WHO “model” protein. Values of KSB-UF varied within 0.5-4.0 % interval. Estimation of food value and equilibration of the modeled meat products formulations is adduced together with the physical and chemical properties of the formulations developed. The addition of 2 % KSB-UF is determined to enhance quality parameters of meat products. The said quantity of the concentrate in a restructured formed product, makes it possible to increase protein content by 0.93 % and absorbency rate by 13.5 %, and to decrease the level of amino acids irrationally used by organism by 12.81 %. Together with that, the moisture-retaining capacity of the product increased by 5.92 %, fat-holding capacity increased by 2.4 % and product output increased by 1.4 %.
3323
Abstract
At present producers of soft drinks pay great attention to the development of products using natural ingredients. The purpose of the research was to study the influence of ultrasound on polygrain drink shelf life. It is revealed that such drinks have a rather short shelf life if not subjected to any treatment. The analysis of earlier published papers devoted to the influence of ultrasonic waves that possess a great amount of mechanical energy and cause a number of physical, chemical and biological phenomena has been performed. The influence of intensive ultrasonic radiation ranging from 45 to 90 W/cm2 and lasting for 2, 3, 5 minutes on the amount of microorganisms in a polygrain drink has been studied. The results of the conducted research showed that by the 6th day of the experiment the amount of microorganisms in the untreated drink was 6 times the amount in the initial sample. As for organoleptic characteristics, their worsening was observed, sour taste and smell, and turbidity being developed in the drink. It has been proved that ultrasonic treatment of the drink approximately two times increases its shelf life. It has also been established that 2 - 3 min treatment isn't sufficient to achieve the desired effect. The study has also shown that the increase in intensity of ultrasonic radiation decreases the amount of microorganisms. The 5 min treatment and the ultrasonic wave intensity of 90W/cm2 have been established to be the optimum mode. At this mode the quantity of microorganisms has decreased by 92 - 95% in comparison with the control sample. The technological scheme of polygrain drink production including the stage of ultrasonic treatment aiming at the increase of polygrain drink shelf life from 7 to 14 days has been developed.
3098
Abstract
Dry fruits raw material is rich in biologically active substances, micro and macro elements, and is perfect for production of soft drinks. Dried fruits based beverage (compote) is a tasty, useful and at the same time easy to prepare traditional dessert. Dried fruits mixture is widely used at public food service enterprises including those for children. Traditional compote production technology involves prolonged boiling of dried fruits followed by blending of the obtained liquor with sugar syrup and citric acid. At the same time the organoleptic characteristics of produced beverage is more dependent on the richness of starting liquor, level of extraction of flavoring and aromatic agents from the initial raw material. This paper shows the possibility and prospects to use dried fruits as a raw material for commercial production of soft drinks. The target components extraction was carried out in the vibration plate extractor. The description and operating parameters of the pilot unit are given. The study of dried raw material quality in terms of organoleptic criteria has been conducted. The kinetics of extraction of soluble solids from dried apples in the extractor fitted with a vibrating plate is shown. The experimental data shows that extraction is possible at 50 oC during 14 minutes. As a result, the loss of thermolabile substances is decreased and power consumption is reduced due to the lower temperature the process is conducted. The experiments make it possible to develop both the technology and the recipe of soft drinks based on dried fruits raw material. The ingredients for such drinks are quite simple and include dry fruits, sugar syrup and citric acid. The obtained soft drink’s physical and chemical characteristics have been analyzed.
2640
Abstract
According to modern developments in dairy industry we had developed a technology of milk-fat product with a long shelf life i.e. «Healthy breakfast» butter with «Aloe Vera» and birch bark antioxidant complex. The purpose of our research was to study the microstructure of fresh-made «Healthy breakfast» butter ,the size of fat micrograins and plasma drops and their changes during storage. Microstructural studies were conducted using the «Leica DM 5000 B» electron microscope giving 200 times magnification. Preparations were made ready according to the«crushed drop» type. As a result of studies on the microstructure it was established that «Healthy breakfast» butter had a "grainy" structure. This butter possesses good ductility and heat resistance as compared to the control sample. Morphological element sizes of fresh-made samples of «Healthy breakfast» butter, and the control one were ranged from 0,5 to 3,0 microns and from 0,5 to 2,5 microns for fat micrograins and from 1,0 to 7,0 micron for plasma drops, respectively. In both samples fat micrograins ranging from 1,5 to 2,0 microns and plasma drops from 1,0 to 2,5 microns dominated. Differences in the size of microstructural elements of butter samples at the end of the term of storage were marked. Namely, the maximum diameter of fat micrograins and plasma drops in the control sample has increased to 5,0 microns that amounted to 7%, of the total number of drops and to 12,0 microns (5%), and in the examined one - to 4,0 microns (5%) and 8,5 microns (3% ), respectively. In «Healthy breakfast» butter, the total number of plasma drops having the size from 1,0-7,0 microns proved to be 30% larger compared with the control sample. Comparative analysis of the butter microstructure shows even and slow destruction of the structural components of the «Healthy breakfast» butter during storage. Consequently, the complex of natural antioxidants has a positive effect on the changes in the morphological elements of the product by inhibiting the oxidation process, thereby prolonging shelf life.
4945
Abstract
The modern development of the meat industry is based on the selection of ingredients which not only affect the functional and technological properties of raw materials but also have a high biological value. Kefinar is a lactoacidic bioproduct produced by a step-by-step fermentation of milk with the kefir ferment and the ferment containing probiotic acidophilic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus “NarineTNSi”. Microorganisms in Kefinar are characterized by their high technological properties, expressed proteolytic activity, and the ability to produce bioactive components. The purpose of this scientific experiment was to study the influence of Kefinar bioproduct on dynamics of functional and technological properties of raw meat and the nutritional quality of meat delicacies. The production cycle of smoked and cooked pig meat products was modeled. The #1 samples were made according to the traditional recipe, the # 2 and 3 samples contained a probiotic Kefinar product in the amount of 40% and 48% of the brine volume. During the experiment the functional properties of raw meat were examined. Over the entire period of maturation the water binding capacity of meat raw material increased by 34.51-36.80% without any significant difference in the samples. In the later stages of the product maturation the hydrophilic properties of muscle tissue in test samples increased more rapidly as a result of accumulation of low molecular substances and exopolysaccharides in the tissue fluid. As a result of accumulation of the lactoacidic microorganism biomass a more significant acidic shift of pH of the test samples was recorded during the maturation. The decrease in the reaction capacity of the meat raw material contributed to the suppression of vital activity of pathogenic organisms and dissimilation of sodium nitrite. As a result of metabolic processes of microorganisms the accumulation of protein and B vitamins and the reduction of residual sodium nitrite concentration were noted in the carbonade.
2664
Abstract
One of the important quality factors of a functional food is the ability to preserve its curative and preventive properties for the entire shelf life. The article presents the experiment results on enriching the bakery foods of accelerated and traditional sponge method of production with selenium and their mathematical assessment. The destruction of selenium in the production process is estimated to be at the level of 45-55 % of the introduced dosage. During the storage of unpackaged goods the losses of selenium have been approximately 2-24 % in goods made with the accelerated production method and 2-28 % in goods made with the sponge method. In the packaged goods of the latter production method and with selenium dosage of 50 and 100 mcg/100 g the microelement content does not change by the end of the shelf life (72 hours), while for other selenium dosages the losses have amounted to 9-19 % for the sponge method goods and from 4 to 24 % for accelerated method goods with the highest selenium conservation with initial doses of 50 and 100 mcg/100 g. While investigating the dependence between selenium losses in the production process and selenium losses during the product storage and the introduced selenium dosage, the availability of the obvious positive correlation of these variables with significant correlation coefficients has been established. When comparing the average values of total selenium losses in the packaged goods of both production methods, Mann-Whitney criterion at a significance level of 0.1 has shown the presence of statistically significant differences between the distributions of the parameters examined. Packaged goods of sponge production method have less selenium losses during the storage. Taking into consideration the variety of factors the accelerated method is recommended for the manufacture of free of packaging goods and the sponge method is recommended for the manufacture of packaged goods with the optimum selenium dosage of 40 mcg/100 g (174 mcg/100 g of food additive "SELEX") in both cases.
3426
Abstract
A proper nutrient adapted diet considering the specific kind of sport, sex and individual characteristics of sportsmen is necessary for achieving high sports results. Therefore, the development of bakery products, which are nutrient adapted to the sportsmen nutrition, optimization of ingredient composition of bakery products with regard to technological properties of raw materials and biomedical recommendations will not only contribute to the achievement of better athletic results, but also prevent a number of alimentary-dependent diseases and conditions of this population category, that is a significant task. The article presents the data on the optimization of ingredient composition of bakery products with regard to technological properties of raw materials and biomedical recommendations for sportsmen nutrition. The list of ingredients with immunomodulating and antioxidant properties and their application in the production of specialized bakery products of sports nutrition have been scientifically proved. The optimization has been performed with the use of modern programs involving mathematical modeling of product recipes in the implemented range of parameter changes. Qualitative and quantitative recipe composition has been modeled in accordance with the biomedical requirements to foods for sportsmen taking into account their physical activities. The interconnection between the mass fraction of protein components (garbanzo bean flour and egg albumin) and physical and chemical quality indices of bakery products for sportsmen nutrition has been established. It has been experimentally proved that the use of the developed recipe compositions helps to increase the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals. It will increase the biological value and total content of water-soluble antioxidants in bakery products for the nutrition of sportsmen during their active training before competitions.
3218
Abstract
The involvement of raw materials of plant origin in the turnover of foods and the development of optimal methods of their processing can solve the main problems of the food industry in the supply of population with functional foods. In this research the comparative evaluation of the quality of semi-finished goods from bio-activated wheat and products on their basis has been performed, their organoleptic, physical and chemical characteristics, the intensity of the carbohydrate breakdown and the change of sugar level in blood after bread consumption, protein digestibility of the crumb, microbiological indices have been studied. It has been established that "Ecohmel" and "Elite" breads have the best organoleptic, physical and chemical characteristics due to the properties of the additional raw materials (hop composition and wheat germ cake flour). The higher glycemic index has been observed in the product from wheat germ cake flour because of its chemical composition. The "Luchik" bread had the lowest protein digestibility of the crumb. Samples based on yeast prepared with hop composition had a large microbiological purity because of the antibacterial properties of hop introduced at the stage of preparation of thick yeast, which also contains lactic and acetic acids which have bacteriostatic and fungicidal effects. The calculation results of the chemical composition, energy value and the degree of satisfaction of daily norms of various substances have shown that all products are rich in minerals and vitamins. Introduction of wheat germ cake flour contributed to further increase of the biological value of grain bread through the complete amino acid composition of the contained proteins. These studies form the basis for the development of technology expanding the range of products of high nutritional value from bio-activated wheat.
3087
Abstract
One of the priorities of the state policy in the field of prevention of nutrition-related diseases and health promotion is the solution of problems of food safety, as well as the formation of scientific bases and the industry of healthy nutrition. The main direction of the problem is the development and practical implementation of new types of specialized products with various functions. This way proves to be the most efficient and economically rational as well as acknowledged at the state level by the Decrees of President and Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. One of the objects under consideration can be non-alcoholic beverages, in particular balsams, taking into consideration their popularity and demand among the population. All these considerations have determined the purpose and objectives of the present research. The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop consumer properties of a new balsam based on local raw materials. The objects of the study were the samples of non-alcoholic balsams based on sugar syrup, composition components and production technologies. Conventional and special research methods were used during the assessment of the product quality. The recipe for the enriched non-alcoholic balsam that includes functional bioactive substances has been formulated. The functional aim of the "Golden lake" balsam is defined by the following ingredients: extract of cinnamon rose ( Rósa majális Herrm ), extract of rowanberry ( Sórbus aucupária Shneid .), extract of Rhodiola rosea (Golden root) ( Rhodíola rósea L. ), pantohematogen-S and blackcurrant juice ( Ribes nigrum L. ). The production technology of a new product has been developed and tested. It consists of the following stages: raw material preparation, balsam manufacture, filling and packing. Regulated organoleptic and physical and chemical properties of a new product have been defined. Energy and nutritional values have been calculated: 100 ml of the balsam contain 60 g of carbohydrates and no less than 110 mg of vitamin C. The energy value is 240 kcal. The terms and conditions of product storage have been determined. The technical documentation for the new product has been developed. The developed balsam is recommended as a supplementary source of vitamin C with direct functional properties.
2954
Abstract
To intensify the brewing industry it has been proposed to use new highly effective equipment that increases productivity by saving raw materials, lowing energy costs and reducing the duration of manufacture of the final product. For this purpose the following stages in brewing are distinguished - mashing, fermentation and afterfermentation. Mashing is an extraction process, a rotary-pulsation apparatus being proposed for application in this process. When operating this unit the following processes occur: intensive turbulent flows, hydrodynamic micro flows, oscillation of material particles in the places of friction, cavitation. Beer is a product of the yeast biochemical activity. The method of yeast activation in a rotor-pulsation apparatus that uses processes of cavitation, aeration and temperature rise has been studied. The use of whey and wort syrup has been proposed as a protective function for the yeast cell walls from the rigid mechanical action. The aim of this research is to study the intensification methods of mashing, fermentation and afterfermentation when using a rotor-pulsation apparatus. The experiments have proved the effectiveness of using the apparatus during mashing, the period of wort syrup formation being 10 - 15 minutes. It has been proved that yeast treatment in the rotor-pulsation apparatus together with yeast food has a positive effect on the physiological and biochemical properties of the culture. This yeast activation method enables to reduce the fermentation period of wort syrup by 1.5 days. The optimal technical characteristics of the apparatus have been determined. Physical and chemical, and organoleptic indices of the finished beer brewed from control samples have been estimated as good. This study shows the benefits of using a rotor-pulsation apparatus for the brewing industry and its application in other industries.
2486
Abstract
Studies on feruloyl-oligosaccharides show high efficiency of these molecules in the prevention of colon cancer. Fractionation of hydrolysates of plant substrates on polystyrene adsorbents resulting in acquisition of feruloyl-oligosaccharides was described. Wheat bran cleared of starch and proteins were fermented, and the hydrolysate obtained was passed through a column with polystyrene adsorbent «Amberlite XAD-4». The column was successively washed with water, water-alcohol mixture (1:1) and alcohol for elution of mono/oligosaccharides, feruloyl-oligosaccharides and free ferulic acid, respectively. The quantitative content of bound and free ferulic acid in the fractions was determined using the method of Folin-Ciocalteu (in application to ferulic acid), and the quantitative content of free ferulic acid was determined with the help of capillary electrophoresis. Qualitative content of free and bound ferulic acid in the fractions was determined by TLC. It has been found that Amberlite XAD-4 fractionnates mono/oligosaccharides, feruloyl-oligosaccharides and free ferulic acid. Ethanol has shown itself more effective than methanol in elution of fractions of feruloyl-oligosaccharides and free ferulic acid. Water fraction contained a small amount of bound ferulic acid, water-alcohol fraction contained mainly bound ferulic acid, and alcohol fraction contained free ferulic acid. It has been also determined that ferulic acid and its derivatives are chromatographed during the first passage through the column. The evaporated fractions were analyzed by TLC on plates of Silicagel 60 F254. After exposure to ammonia vapors in the hydro alcoholic phase under UV light, spots acquired light green fluorescence, which corresponds to the description of feruloyl-oligosaccharides in literature.
2497
Abstract
Research on the development of sports nutrition products is highly relevant due to the increasing demand for this type of the product. Protein-rich mixtures required for rapid buildup of muscle mass and for timely recovery of the body after training and during competitions, are gaining more and more popularity in the sport industry in recent years. In this paper the composition of protein-rich foods for athletes engaged in competitions and training has been justified and the recipes have been developed. Dry mixing technology is significant for the production of high-protein dry mixtures. The object of the investigation is the process of dry mixing, which has been held on a drum batch mixer "Turbula" C-2.0. To receive high quality product the most rational blending modes have been set up. The physical and chemical characteristics of the resulting product have been investigated; the investigation has revealed that the product complies with the current standards. During the study of the consumer properties of the food the optimum concentrations of flavor additives have been determined, organoleptic characteristics of dry mixtures have been investigated, and, as a result, two flavors that meet the organoleptic indices of the target product have been selected. Based on the focus group tasting the product at the final stage of the study a dry natural flavoring called "Wild Berry" has been selected for protein-rich sports nutrition products. The composition of protein-rich dry mixture has been presented and recommendations for its use have been provided.
2873
Abstract
Membrane methods are widespread in the processing of liquid food media. Development and implementation of new membrane equipment involves the reasonable choice of its parameters, including the sizes of several structural elements. Mathematical modeling makes it possible to select the parameters of the developed membrane equipment at the design stage on the basis of the creation and study of appropriate mathematical models. Particular interest is in the mathematical models of hydrodynamic conditions in the internal channel of the tubular ceramic membrane filter when it contains elements of various geometric shapes, aiming to reduce the influence of "concentrated polarization" on the productivity of the processing of liquid food media. The use of hydrodynamic elements enables to increase locally the flow rate of the product, which leads to a decrease of detained substance layer on the membrane surface and intensifies the membrane process. The hydrodynamic element in the form of conic surface has been selected. The basic analytical dependences have been examined. They helped to determine the hydrodynamic conditions, such as flow rate (Reynolds criterion) and loss of pressure, depending on the viscosity and geometric dimensions of the hydraulic resistance in the form of a conic surface in the cylindrical channel. The method of calculation of hydrodynamic conditions of the liquid flow around the conic surface in the cylindrical channel has been considered. The mathematical model of hydrodynamic conditions with hydraulic resistance in the form of a conic surface in the cylindrical channel has been created with MathCAD. The calculation of hydrodynamic conditions by the example of the movement of low concentrated water solution in the internal channel of the tubular ceramic membrane filter has been done. The rational sizes of geometric dimensions of a conic surface have been chosen.
2366
Abstract
The optimization of nutrition of workers at the industrial enterprises aiming at the prevention of professional diseases, support of health and increase of capacity for work is one of the priorities of the state policy in the field of healthy nutrition till 2020. The analysis of the food status of workers in aluminum industry reveals a unbalance of diets and a deficiency of essential nutrients: phospholipids, polyunsaturated w3 and w6 fatty acids (as well as violation of their recommended ratio), food fibers, ascorbic acid, thiamin, retinol, carotenoids, folic acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides. Recipes of specialized drinks enriched with vitamins and mineral substances have been presented. Consumer properties (organoleptic, physical and chemical) and safety criteria (microbiological, toxicological, and hygienic) of the product have been analyzed. Regulated quality factors including nutritional value and functional purpose have been defined. The program and methodical recommendations for optimization of healthy and disease preventive diet for those working at metallurgical enterprises have been developed. It should contain 1 glass (200 cm3) of the vitamin-enriched drink prepared from the non-alcoholic drink concentrate before a shift; 1 glass (200 cm3) of vitamin- and calcium-enriched fruit kissel for dessert at lunchtime; 4 glasses (1 dm3) of drink from the mineral concentrate during a shift (time scheduled by the enterprise). The specialized foods in the program provide mineral balance and remove deficiency of micronutrients according to standard requirements taking into account actual nutrition of workers of metallurgical enterprises.
4708
Abstract
The nutrition factor assessment in health promotion and increase of professional activity of workers of industrial enterprises is essential when developing specialized foods and optimizing cure-and-disease-preventive diets. The assessment of actual nutrition, vitamin supply, and antioxidant system of workers engaged in aluminum production has been given. Investigation of excretion of ascorbic acid and riboflavin has shown that the amount of examined vitamins is below the recommended norms. Nutritional unbalance of primary food substances and energy has been established. The data obtained were the basis for scientific justification of a recipe for a specialized «Vitalife» drink enriched with necessary nutrients: vitamins C, A, D, E, B 1, B 2, B 6, B 12, nicotinamide, pantothenic and folic acids, biotin and pectin. The results of clinical tests of the efficiency of the developed product are presented. The drink was included in the diet of workers for one month, two times per day. The excretion of vitamins C and B2 with urine, the content of products of peroxide oxidation of lipids, and activity of antioxidant protection ferments (thiobarbituric acid - an active product - malonic dialdehyde, activity of a catalase and superoxidedismutase) have been studied. The application of the specialized drink in prophylactic nutrition has shown its efficiency in protection of the human organism from unfavorable working conditions which can be perceived as a factor of health promotion and prevention of professional and production-caused diseases. The possible mechanisms of such influence connected with direct interaction of oxidizers with antioxidants, the influence of the latter on capture of free radicals and singlet oxygen, protective action aiming to prevent the contact of active forms of oxygen with biologically active components of a cell, replacement and reparation of the damaged ferment structures have been considered.
2343
Abstract
The samples of honey from the Smolensk region of the Altai territory (52º15' N. 85º08' E., 2013) were studied in the temperature range from -100 oC to +70 oC with differential scanning calorimetry using the Shimadzu-60 device (Japan, Shimadzu) and the thermo-mechanical analysis using the DMA 982 device connected with DuPont 1090 thermal analyzer (USA, DuPont) to determine the initial softening temperature applying the Wick’s method. The samples of mono-flora (Onobrychis) and poly-flora (Onobrychis+Melilótusofficinális) honey, as well as processed sucrose and sucrose syrup have been studied. Organoleptic evaluation of samples for taste, smell, texture and color showed that all samples had a distinctive taste and smell of honey. To compare the samples, three different stages were defined: 1. (eutectic formation) from -20 oC to +5 oC; 2. (melting) from +5 oC to +20 oC; 3. (homogenization) from +20 oC to +70 oC. It has been established that the shape of the DSC curves, phase transition temperatures and the thermal effect depend on the origin of the samples, which provides ground for using the DSC method. The differences in the form of DSC curves, phase transition temperatures and thermal effect values have been determined depending on the sample origin. This result gives ground to use the DSC method to identify the origin of honey samples.
3063
Abstract
Due to the fact that food products are considered to be potentially dangerous, it is becoming increasingly important for the food industry of all countries to develop and use management systems that ensure food safety for consumers and also provide the necessary and stable product quality. The main producers of confectionery of Kemerovo region, as well as their products have been studied. The main reasons for the development and implementation of quality management systems and food safety assurance have been considered. An integrated management system for "Konditer" LLC consisting of quality management system and food safety system in accordance with the requirements of GOST R ISO 9001-2011 and HACCP principles has been designed. Based on the analysis of the performance of "Konditer" LLC for the last 5 years, an operational program of the development and implementation of the integrated system has been created, as well as the program of training the leading personnel, targeting to improve the staff qualifications and prepare them for the management system implementation. The enterprise processes have been identified and presented in the form of a process model. The flowchart of the production process of honey cakes has been developed, on the basis of which the hazards and critical checkpoints have been identified. Development of the required documented procedures as well as policies and goals in the field of quality and safety appeared to be the final step. At present a set of documents for "Konditer" LLC in quality management system and safety system has been prepared. The implementation is in process.
2960
Abstract
Labeling is one of the sources of information about the product for consumers. Labeling requirements are set by actual regulatory documents, but they apply only to the information content and the quality of labeling is not considered. Consumer knowledge of the product begins with the examining of the label. If the consumer is satisfied with the information content of the label, its accessibility and complete description of all characteristics, he makes a choice in favor of the product, otherwise no purchase is made. It should be noted that quality of the information content does not always coincide with its accessibility and preservation capacity during the product distribution and realization. As a general rule, labels themselves are also regulated by legal acts in terms of materials, their qualitative characteristics and coloring, as well as the position of information about a product, but at the same time there is no common approach to the assessment of the marking on the label, its security, accessibility and preservation capacity during the transportation from the producer to the consumer. In this situation a comprehensive approach is significant for the assessment of information on the label that will identify not only informational inconsistencies but also violations of safety, preservation and accessibility. The criteria development for labeling quality assessment regarding not only the content but also the quality of the label is a relevant task, the solution of which will enable to satisfy the informational needs of consumers. It will also allow the manufacturer to increase the competitiveness of goods and trade enterprises to avoid the costs of transportation. As a result of the research, the organoleptic, physical and chemical indices of the label quality enabling to identify its inconsistencies have been distinguished and grouped, Determination methods of such indices have also been developed.
2407
Abstract
Methods of formalizing material flows created in certain knots of structure-and-functional diagram of the mixture producing aggregate are considered, that are founded on transforming one-dimensional initial flow signals into multi-dimensional ones. The approach developed and described is targeted to create the computer-aided system for controlling a technological plant within a so-called wavelet medium. Dosing processes in mixture producing aggregates for receiving dry dispersed compositions of various kinds are considered as a research plant. The subject research field includes digital methods for controlling a technological plant based on the so-called quadratic feedbacks. The latter are formed on the basis of wavelet transforms and time-frequency distributions. The vector computer-aided system for controlling a mixture producing aggregate in a wavelet medium is worked out. As the basic information factors giving the possibility to efficiently analyze current performance regimes of mixture producing equipment (the latter is considered as the example to demonstrate the above method of computer-aided controlling the plants of various type in a wavelet medium) Cohen's class time-frequency distributions are used. The feedbacks based on those distributions are also presented here. The results of digital simulation of the multi-component block dosing processes in the system with feedbacks over multi-dimensional localized variables that are introduced in the form of time-frequency distributions are presented. The Wigner time-frequency distribution is chosen as the main instrument to analyze in a wavelet medium processes of monitoring and identifying performance dosing regimes in the mixture producing aggregate. The distribution is able to present in the most optimal form different singularities of multidosing processes and with its help to control their dynamics. It should be noted that the optimal form of this distribution is determined with further steps as to a received Wigner image processing procedure - here we mean the so-called FMS-map, i.e. the flow modified signal map. All this enables to simultaneously realize both control functions and continuous visual monitoring the current aggregate performance regimes which, in turn, make the semantic base of the control procedure more informative.
2198
Abstract
Specific and proven management instruments such as budgeting are necessary in the modern conditions of the development of the Russian economy. Its application is needed and approved at any enterprise to increase its efficiency. In this article the historical aspect of the formation and development of budgeting in the Russian economy has been systematized. The historical research method as a kind of the genetic one has been applied. The chronological pereodisation of the genesis of budgeting has been identified, as well as the basic distinctive features of budgeting in these chronological boundaries. Theoretical foundations of budgeting with the necessity to study the identified economic phenomenon during its development have been analysed. Based on European and Russian experience two directions of budgeting development have been identified and the description of their distinctive features has been given. The role and the place of budgeting in the modern business management at Russian enterprises have been outlined. The results of this study will help top-managers of various enterprises of all economic sectors to understand the efficiency of budgeting as an instrument of the strategic and short-term management of the enterprise. Without budgeting, the achievement of competitive power in the market is contingent on coincidence. Dynamically developing enterprises may themselves master the technology of budgeting and develop corresponding documentation.
2814
Abstract
The growth of the Russian market of public catering in 2012 was 12.8% and was ahead of the world averages in terms of monetary value. However, the development of Russian catering market is still not sufficient, especially in regions situated far from Moscow and St. Petersburg. In this article, the main trends in the market of catering in regions are presented. At various stages of the research the objects of study were the data of statistical reports (2007-2013), the catering market in Kemerovo (2013). In the analysis of theoretical positions, the methods of organization, classification, modeling, comparison and generalization have been applied. It has been established that there are no objective prerequisites for the rapid development of the industry in Kemerovo: the population and its consumer ability over the years have not changed significantly. However, the turnover of public catering has increased by 35%. Workplace provision in catering for the given period has increased by 55%, and by 2013 it was 90.5% of the average norm of 40 seats per 1,000 inhabitants. This fact indicates that in Kemerovo the competition in the catering market is high, which encourages companies to implement strategic management and modern management systems and to literally fight for every client. As a result, it has been determined that the purpose of catering market in the region is to meet the needs of population and visitors in quality food services on the basis of modern standards of attendance, availability of price and location for all categories of citizens.
3693
Abstract
Modern bakery industry predominantly consists of small and medium enterprises, which are supported by the state. It is a serious infrastructure that needs constant development and improvement. Resources of small and medium business are limited, which hinders the development of the entire industry. The current state of the baking industry in the region and the role of small and medium-sized enterprises in the development of the baking industry have been investigated. The geographical distribution of small bakeries and their quantity in the cities of the Kemerovo region have been presented. The structure of bakery products produced by small enterprises of the region and disadvantages of the use of the simplified production technology using baking powder instead of yeast has been analyzed. The main trends in the development of small business in the region and the perspective directions of governmental support have been described. Providing a significant increase in the quantity and quality of the produce of small manufacturing and export-oriented enterprises is one of the priorities of the regional policy in the development of small and medium business in the Kemerovo region.
2677
Abstract
Modern and civilized consumption of foods should include the freedom to choose quality goods. At the heart of the buyer choice is a complete access to information about the foods which is provided by the manufacturer or a seller. Therefore, it is extremely important to ensure comprehensibility, adequacy and reliability of the labeling of goods as a source of important information about them, their properties and packaging. A reliable, accessible and readable label should be an inherent part of a product. A label is the main source of information about the product, both for the end consumer and for various trade organizations. To identify consumer preference regarding the quality of food labels in the market of foods and the degree of importance of the information rendered on the label, as well as to establish the feasibility of the quality assessment of the label, the market study has been performed using the method of questioning. The answers of 500 respondents have been analyzed and appropriate conclusions have been made. The incomprehensibility of the label has been identified as the main reason for ignoring the food product. The basic causes of violation of labeling norms have been established. The importance of clarity, accessibility and readability of the label for consumers has been underlined. The feasibility of quality assessment of the label as a constituent part of the final product has been confirmed. Based on the analysis of the survey results the label quality characteristics have been formulated and methods of their assessment have been developed.