ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Volume 39, Issue 4, 2015

3124
Abstract
A new technique for producing fermented ice cream with functional properties was developed, the solution being partial replacement of sucrose for lactulose and a stabilizer - for inulin. The obtained data showed that to improve organoleptic and microbiological characteristics of fermented ice-cream technology lactulose and inulin have to be used for the survival of LAT CW L mesophilic lactococcus. Regularities in the changes of ice cream mixture properties in fermenting with different kinds of starter culture are determined. The choice of the BK-Uglich-AV ( L. acidophilus ) starter culture is substantiated, which allows to carry out ice-cream mixture fermentation up to the titratable acidity of 70-90 °T during 4-6 hours, with the number of starter living cells reaching 10 8 CFU/g that is necessary for providing standardized microbial attributes of fermented ice cream, in order to provide fermented ice cream mixtures with high antioxidant activity and good organoleptic properties. Regularities in the influence of the sucrose weight fraction on the starter culture development in ice-cream mixtures were determined. The influence of lactulose and inulin on the process of production and quality characteristics of fermented ice cream produced by L. acidophilus was studied. Mathematical relationship fit to the influence of lactulose on the survival of the lactic microorganisms of L. acidophilus during long term storage of the fermented ice cream was obtained. It was found that the addition of 2% inulin had a positive effect on the overrun and melting resistance of the ice cream. The combined use of inulin and lactulose in the fermented ice cream technology can improve the texture and taste, as well as increase the ferment microflora survival rate during storage and extend shelf life of the ice cream.
2810
Abstract
The work deals with regularities and physical and chemical nature of the phase transition of water to ice and the condition of bound water when freezing semi-hard cheeses in the range of ultra-low temperatures from -20 deg. C to -50° deg. C, as well as the factors of cheese resistance to freezing and low temperature storage. The authors investigated three main subclasses of semi-hard cheeses with high and low temperatures of the second heating, which belong to high-fat or semi-fat chesses in terms of the mass fraction of fat in total solids. Studies on the experimental stand to obtain the basic laws of quick freezing at different modes of the air environment were conducted. The intensity of heat removing was determined by airflow rate in the cooling zone that was regulated up to 10 m/s. Samples of finely packaged cheese with the weight of 0.2 kg were frozen up to the specified temperature of -20 deg. C and -12 deg. C. The results of stage-by-stage phase turning of water to ice, depending on the values of low temperatures have been obtained. Analysis of the kinetics of the process showed a gradual transition of differently bound water into ice in accordance with its binding energy in descending order. Based on the analysis of the experimental data, phase diagrams of water condition depending on the final average temperature of frozen cheeses have been drawn and the data on the degree of hydration of the protein complex in the temperature range from -20 deg. C to -70 deg. C have been obtained.
3080
Abstract
The composition of adipose tissue is very important in the technology of meat and meat products. It affects the functional and technological properties of raw materials, food and biological value, stability in storage and production figures. The composition and properties of adipose tissue are determined not only by the type of raw meat, but also by a place of localization, genetic features, feeding conditions and other factors. Analysis of the scientific and technical information indicates that the data on the chemical composition, physical and chemical properties of pork adipose depending on the category of fatness is very limited. However, these indices allow us to develop sound recommendations for the rational use of raw materials. The article presents the results of studying the physical and chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of adipose tissue extracted from pork of the second and fourth categories of fatness. The data have been obtained for raw materials derived from parts of carcasses with different nutritional value and technological purposes. Experimental data suggest a high degree of unsaturation of adipose tissue of pork of the fourth category that should be considered in the development of technological recommendations on the use of this raw material.
3180
Abstract
Antioxidants can serve as a factor reducing the oxidative stress environment caused by free radicals depleting cellular system of the body. The article considers the effect of the extractant used on the extract properties. The selection of the optimal solvent (50% aqueous ethanol, 98% ethyl alcohol, water, n-hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform) for mixture cherries as raw material is described, it being widespread in the Samara region for producing an extract having the most active antioxidants. For the study the extracts were obtained at 37 deg. C for 2 hours. In this paper, various methods for determining the antioxidant activity level are used: the content of total amount of phenolic compounds, content of gallic acid, catechin, the content of flavonoids, anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glycoside, antiradical capacity using free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-pikrilgidrazila), the restoring force by the method of FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid. A significant number of methods to assess the antioxidant activity of the compounds are classified quantitatively according to the method of recording the parameters on the basis of which the antioxidant activity is determined. It is shown that the use of ethanol, mixtures of water and alcohol-water extracts results in good antioxidant performance. In contrast, extracts prepared from n -hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate and chloroform, have low antioxidant activity.
3757
Abstract
Proteolysis is the main process among those occurring during cheese ripening. In cheese ripening process proteolysis takes place under the influence of specific enzymatic systems known as proteinases, milk-curdling enzymes and those synthesized by various microflora which is presented in cheese. Due to proteolytic reactions cheeses are enriched with an ammonia solution, the density of cheeses being reduced and their consistency being improved by becoming firmer. The catalytic activity of the enzyme systems of mold fungi Penicillium caseicolum has been studied . The research results revealed that acidic protease has the highest proteolytic activity, its value reaching 1.20 ± 0.07 uM (substrate) / mg (protein) ch. Acidic carboxypeptidase has the same catalytic activity as the alkaline aminopeptidase. The activity of these enzymes in the mycelium of mold fungi Penicillium caseicolum is 1.17 ± 0.07 uM (substrate) / mg (protein) ch, while metalloprotease has catalytic activity 1.14 ± 0.06 uM (substrate) / mg (protein) ch. The research results revealed that the combined use of mold fungi Penicillium caseicolum and rennet accelerates proteolytic processes when ripening of soft cheeses occurs. Electrophoretic analysis of cheese peptide profiles study demonstrates that mold fungi Penicillium caseicolum are the carriers of the proteolytic system of high activity. Thus, after 12 hours of protein substance hydrolysis their mass fraction lowed by 9-13%, and the mass fraction of free amino acids and peptides of different molecular weight increased. It has been established that the additional introduction of rennet into the sample accelerates the proteolytic processes. According to the presented peptide profiles the rate of accumulation of organic nitrogenous compounds increases.
2759
Abstract
Beans have a high nutritional value and are well digested in a human body. The Kyrgyz Republic is producing more than 20 varieties of beans, 90% of the produce being exported. Despite this export potential nutritional value and technological properties of some local varieties of beans have been insufficiently studied yet. In this paper, such geometric figures as length, width, thickness, the arithmetic mean diameter, the geometric average diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio of beans before and after hydrothermal treatment have been defined. These data play an important role in the production of food from beans, determine the ways of transportation and are taken into account when describing their quality.
3712
Abstract
The quality of caviar products produced from frozen salmon unscreened roe decreases rapidly during storage due to oxidation, hydrolytic and microbial processes. Antiseptic additives used only delay the development of microorganisms in foods, but do not affect the intensity of the hydrolysis and oxidation of lipids. To preserve the quality and enhance the stability of caviar products cinnamon oil extracts having antimicrobial and antioxidant action have been used. Extract samples obtained by infusion of ground cinnamon in a vegetable oil in the amount of 2.0-10.0%, and the further separating of a liquid portion from a thick sediment. The content of spicy oil extracts in the formula of the caviar product is 25.0% of the total weight. Studies of caviar products with added cinnamon oil extracts during storage showed inhibition of microorganisms and reduction of intensity of oxidative and hydrolytic processes in all samples. The best organoleptic properties had the products with added extracts obtained by extraction of cinnamon in amounts of 2.0-5.0%. The use of spicy cinnamon oil extracts in the caviar product technology excluding the addition of antiseptics can save their high quality and increase their shelf life up do 4-5 months.
2840
Abstract
The relatively high gross oat grain yeild significantly reduced its government procurement. Poor equipment and technical base of farms, large financial costs do not allow to organize proper post-harvest grain processing for stabilization and improving its quality. Grain is often stored in the producer farms in anticipation of the subsequent sale in unsuitable and primitive places not adapted for this storage. The grain without post-harvest handling and drying may develop structural-mechanical and physical-chemical changes that have a significant effect on the processing properties and its suitability for the finished item production. The use of such grain for processing may lead to the development of non-standard or low-quality products. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of humidity on the technological properties of oat grain. Coryphaeus oat varieties of different moisture collected in the foothills of the Altai Territory in 2014 were selected for the tests. The definition of bushel weight has shown that with 2.3 times increase of moisture, the oat bushel weight grain is decreased 1.5 times. The study of the morphology and structural-mechanical properties of the oat kernel suggests structural and mechanical changes of grain. Results of thermo-mechanical studies showed that with the 2.3 times increasing of oat kernel humidity its deformation increased 8.6 times. 3.5 times increasing moisture reduces the density by 6.5%. The studies suggests that grain moisture greatly affects the technological properties of oat grain.
2862
Abstract
One of the drawbacks of flour confectionery products is their low physiological value, almost complete absence of vitamins, macro-and microelements. Creating confectionery fortified with essential micronutrients is one of the most urgent tasks of technologist-engineers. The aim of research was to study the preservation of enriching components, namely selenium and a number of vitamins, in the production and storage of gingerbread model samples. As an object of preservation “Yarmarochnye” gingerbreads were used, the production of which was carried out at the “First bakery” (Chelyabinsk city). To enrich the gingerbread the selenium supplement “Celexa” manufactured by “Medbiopharm” (Obninsk city, Kaluga region) was used, for vitamin enrichment - the 991/9 vitamin premix producted by “DSM Nutritional Products Europe Ltd” (Switzerland). Standards addition of enriching additives to the gingerbread formulation was calculated per 100 kcal of products. The studies established relatively high preservation of selenium and B vitamins in the dough kneading and gingerbread molding, with the exception of riboflavin and cyanocobalamin losses. Main vitamin destruction takes place when baking the cakes, which significantly reduces the preservation of pantothenic acid (to 39.5%) of thiamine (to 50.0%), of folic acid (to 60.0%) of cyanocobalamin (to 68.0%) and selenium up to 65.3%; the niacin content being almost unchanged. In 45 days of storage enriched samples greater loss (21.6%) was typical of vitamin E, the loss of other micronutrients was less than 10.0%.
3093
Abstract
The article presents the results of the development of technology of instant soup preparation, making it possible to correct the energy value of food quickly without changing the volume of portions, the original component composition and organoleptic properties. The methodological basis of the study is theoretical and empirical methods, which are to build a mathematical model of the object based on the method of dimensional analysis of the similarity theory and the study of its properties on the basis of the built model. This allows us to investigate the properties of the objects of research under natural and extreme conditions. The authors have described in detail the method for preparing instant soups. According to the method, the components are steamed and frozen separately and then individual portioned soup semis are composed. The mathematical modeling of soup preparation (cooking of a multicomponent mixture) in terms of total caloric value of food is given. The scientific basis of the developed technology is proved using qualimetric, measuring techniques and consumer evaluation.
3001
Abstract
Improvement of food quality and developing nutritious food by adopting new technologies and methods is one of the key factors in designing new formulations of food products. In this paper the amino acid composition of the pate, including the red deer meat (maral meat), protein enricher and beans, was determined. The protein enricher and beans were added to the total mass of the product in 15% and 20% ratio for Formulation 2 and in 25% and 10% ratio - for Formulation 3, Formulation 1 being without any additives. Amino acid composition was analyzed by the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From the results, it was observed that the pate with the formulation 3 (25% of protein enricher and 10% of beans) had a high content of both essential and non-essential amino acids comparing with the pate of Formulations 2 and 1. Calculation of the amino acid score indicated that Formulation 3 complied with the requirements of FAO/WHO scale, the fact bringing about its advantages. The limiting amino acid in the pates of Formulations 1 and 2 was tryptophan. High content of isoleucine, lysine and phenylalanine+tyrosine was observed. The Rc protein amino acid composition rationality index for Formulation 1 was Rc = 0.704, for Formulation 2- Rc =0.738, for Formulation 3- Rc =0.796; the protein qualitative indicator (PQI) for Formulation 1 was 3.19, for Formulation 2 was 3.83 and for Formulation 3 3.74.
3828
Abstract
World nutritional science recognizes cheese as a nutritious, biologically wholesome, an easily digestible product. It is an indispensable and essential component of the human diet. In recent years the market of cheeses has changed. Instead of planned deliveries to the industrial centers and the regions of the North and the Far East, shipments of cheese for export and laying it for long-term storage the industry turned to the sales of products under direct contracts with consumers. The changes occurred in the relationship between milk producers, dairy industry and trade, as well as the need for a sharp increase in production of cheeses put forward the task of finding sound technologies, the range of schemes and the organization of cheese production. The main ones are smoothing the seasonality in the production of cheese and the creation of technologies to reduce production cycles. The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics and prospects for the production of soft cheese. Depending on the features of production and technological parameters soft cheeses can be divided into several independent groups with different types of milk clotting, applicable bacterial preparations, ripening conditions, temperature and time regimes generation, use of raw materials of non-dairy origin and fungi of the genus of Penicillium and some other factors. The basis of the production of soft rennet cheeses is the clotting of milk. It comes under the influence of two agents (milk-clotting enzyme and bacterial starter). The work presents characteristics of individual groups of soft cheeses. The influence of the quantity of bacterial starter on the duration of milk coagulation, using different doses of milk coagulating enzymes at different temperature has been investigated. The comparative evaluation of the organoleptic and physico-chemical indices in individual groups of soft cheeses is given. The dynamics of microflora in the development of mild acid-rennet cheese has been studied.
4761
Abstract
The article is devoted to the actual theme aimed at solving the problem of widening the assortment of gluten-free foods. The main share in the market of gluten-free foods in Russia belongs to imported products that are much more expensive than similar wheat flour confectionery. So in some areas of Russia measures of social support for people suffering from celiac disease are provided. This dictates the need to provide patients suffering from celiac with quality and inexpensive specialized products produced in Russia. The article reports about the possibility of replacing solid fats with liquid vegetable oils to save expensive and deficient raw materials, as well as to limit the content of trans-isomers of fatty acids in pastry. Generally accepted methods of research were used during the study. As a result, a recipe of gluten free cookies based on a mixture of dry ingredients with corn flour and liquid vegetable oil has been developed. The optimum moisture content of the dough and citrus dosage of dietary fiber that are introduced for stabilization of dough consistency and structure of cookies have been established. The technology for preparation of dough from corn flour by means of scalding a dry mixture of components with the subsequent molding of dough pieces by jigging has been proposed. It is shown, that scalding of a dry mixture of components positively affects the taste and quality of cookies, and the use of citrus fibers can improve the shape holding ability of the dough. The cost and nutritional value of gluten-free cookies based on a mixture of dry ingredients with corn flour and liquid vegetable oil have been calculated. The results obtained prove that the developed cookies are gluten free, have higher nutritional value and lower cost in comparison with traditional biscuits from wheat flour of the highest grade.
2780
Abstract
Nowadays the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are used, in ophthalmic preparations for the prevention of age-related degeneration of the retina and cataracts. It is known that the carotenoids enter the body with plant foods or food additives derived from plant or microbial raw materials. They can be also obtained by means of chemical synthesis. Lutein is used in food industry as a colorant. Its source are the flowers of marigold ( Tageteserecta L.), which is are a common plant. Zeaxanthin is less available than lutein, so the search for new sources with a high content of xanthophyll is relevant. The plants, accumulating zeaxanthin and its esters are the fruits of Goji ( Lycium Barbarum L.), known in Chinese medicine as the Goji berry. In the berries zeaxanthin is present mostly in the esterified form, in the form of zeaxanthin dipalmitate. Water- and oil-soluble extracts of dried Goji berries (fruit of Wolfberry, Lycium Barbarum L.) have been obtained as a result of the experiment. The conditions of the chromatographic analysis were described with a thin layer chromatography (TLC) method and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, and with the preparative separation of zeaxanthin with the method of column chromatography on aluminium oxide. Ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the samples obtained show that the absorption maximum of zeaxanthin standard and that of the sample obtained from the berries of Goji are the same. The optimum conditions to carry out saponification have been established. The content of xanthophyll in extracts is 13.5 mg/100 before saponification, 62 mg/100 g after saponification, 44 mg/100 g in purified ones. An aqueous extract of the berries can be used as a raw material for obtaining biologically active substances (BAS) or can be used as biologically active additives (BAA). It can be used to create a balanced xanthophyll drugs as well.
3209
Abstract
Nowadays, the range diversification of functional whey-based beverages has lots of interest. The use of plant extracts or their compositions in the formulation of such beverages is relevant as it increases concentrations of biologically active substances including those having an antioxidant effect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was the development a technology of functional whey-based beverages and compositions of plant extracts from the Far East region and mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.). The extraction of biologically active substances from hips, cranberries, black chokeberry berries, Amur grapes, actinidia kolomikta berries is optimized with the method of mathematical modeling; the synergetic antioxidant effect of the extracts’ compositions with an extract of mangosteen has been established. The recipes and technological process of beverages “ACTIVE” have been developed; the concentrations of stabilizers and fillers, providing a stable gel-like structure of the beverage have been determined. Using the complex of parameters the quality evaluation of whey-based beverages compared to the analogue has been done. The proposed technology allows us to obtain gelled whey-based beverages, which are natural food products. They have higher organoleptic characteristics, significant concentrations of functional antioxidant ingredients (flavonoids, xanthones, and vitamin C) and storage time compared to the analogue.
3070
Abstract
In the course of drying of foodstuffs, a number of physical and chemical, biological, structural and mechanical transformations take place. They should be considered when developing appropriate technologies of dehydration that causes a need for the analysis of forms of moisture links in the material. This work is devoted to research on forms of moisture links in foodstuffs. As the object of the research, semihard cheeses of the following brands were chosen: «Gollandsky», «Kostromskoy» and «Poshekhonsky». To analyze the forms of moisture links the method of the differential thermal analysis was used. By means of thermogravimetry the graphs of dependence of weight change and rate of weight change on the temperature of heating of the studied samples in the course of heat treatment were obtained. A derivatogram of semihard cheeses enabled to find characteristic temperature sites of dehydration steps, intervals of stability of intermediate compounds, and steps of substance destruction, which are defined by peaks of endothermic reactions which are characterized by intensive moisture evaporation and extraction of gaseous compounds. Basing on the obtained data the dependence of extent of substance transformation on heating temperature has been calculated. The kinetics of dehydration of semihard cheeses has been analyzed. The temperature intervals corresponding to the steps of substance dehydration and destruction have been established. It has been revealed that the greatest part of moisture in the studied cheeses: from 60.3% («Poshekhonsky») to 69.7% («Kostromskoy») is free moisture. For «Gollandsky» cheese the most moisture is extracted at 73÷172 deg. C. For «Kostromskoy» and «Poshekhonsky» cheeses, the temperature ranges are within 78÷196°C and 94÷242 deg. C respectively. Destruction of substances begins at 178 deg. C, 192 deg. C and 211 deg. C for «Gollandsky», «Kostromskoy» and «Poshekhonsky» cheeses respectively. The presented research results can be useful to food industry experts and researchers.
2907
Abstract
Now demand for the cooled turkey meat grew considerably as it possesses the increased power value, balance of protein composition, availability of biologically active agents, high bioavailability, it is also considered dietary. Turkey meat retains its useful properties during chilled storage, but the term of its storage is small which imposes certain restrictions when sold. For increasing fowl storage periods the scientists consider a perspective way in which the product is in direct contact with carbon dioxide. Cooling treatment is made by the impact of the cold gas and liquid environment on the product or creating the mixture from gas and the firm CO2 dispersed in it. The plant allowing the supply of snow-like carbon dioxide both onto the surface and into the internal cavity of bird carcasses before their transportation is developed at the HVAC department of the Kemerovo institute of food science and technology (university). It allows cooling and transportation of the product at the same time. The nature of changes in temperature field and heat-removal kinetics in cooling treatment of bird carcasses is investigated. Consumption and time of various option carbon dioxide treatment of turkey carcass surface when cooling are defined. It is established that introduction of the snow-like carbon dioxide into a turkey carcass is justified, since the carbon dioxide placed in the internal cavity of a carcass sublimates substantially due to the warmth which is taken away from the carcass. The snow-like CO2 on the turkey surface takes heat away from the environment as well, that leads to considerable reduction of the sublimation period and the raised carbon dioxide consumption. Thus, carbon dioxide suppresses the action of many microorganisms, and its placement in the internal cavity of a turkey carcass will lead to the increase in term of storage.
3193
Abstract
High demand for dry fermented milk products determines the relevance of the modernization of drying methods. The existing designs of spray dryers having the highest efficiency are not suitable for drying of fermented milk products because of strict limitations on allowable product temperature (commonly 40 - 45 deg. C) enabling to preserve the viability of microorganisms. The considered in the paper approach to the implementation of a low-temperature spray drying of fermented milk products is characterized by the use of ultrasonic treatment for spraying of raw materials and the interaction between the droplets formed by spraying and the stream of drying agent (air). Ultrasonic spraying of raw materials makes it possible to form an almost monodispersed spray jet (with an average droplet diameter equal to 31 μm), which prevents the entrainment of the product due to the absence of fine fraction and increases the productivity of the process at low temperatures. In turn, the application of ultrasonic vibrations at the stage of interaction between droplets and air intensifies the process of moisture evaporation (by increasing the diffusion coefficient), which makes it possible to reduce the drying temperature to a value not affecting the survival of the bacteria. A result of experimental studies have shown that ultrasonic exposure at spray drying of fermented milk products, both at the stage of spraying and at the stage of interaction of droplets with a stream of the drying agent, does not ensure the survival of microorganisms. Ultrasonic spraying of raw materials in the drying chamber reduces the number of bacteria by more than 10 times because of cavitation. Ultrasonic vibration exposure during evaporation of moisture from the droplets formed by spraying reduces the number of bacteria up to 180 times. The results obtained showed that ultrasonic treatment is not applicable to the spray drying of fermented milk products, but it may be recommended for the drying of thermolabile plant extracts and medicines to remove contaminating microorganisms.
3049
Abstract
Health preservation and increase of the population performance capability is the priority direction of the healthy food state policy till 2020. Occupational disease is one of the cluster elements of socially significant diseases. The refore introduction of specialized food to the canteens of industrial enterprises as the factor directed to health preservation of workers is necessary for a solution of the health preservation problem. In this work the market research directed to consumer preference identification for workers of PLC KOKS, Kemerovo, concerning the dishes presented in the enterprise canteen is conducted. The market research allowed to establish the attitude of respondents to the enriched food. On the basis of the obtained data the compounding of a specialized meat dish - The cutlet “Poleznaya”, is developed. A functional ingredient (pectin) and carrot puree are introduced in the dish compounding, their quantity being 1.5% and 10.0% respectively. Organoleptic and physical - chemical quality indices, in particular, moisture-retaining quality, a solid mass fraction, weight losses at thermal treatment are defined for the developed dish. According to the obtained data, when pectin and carrot puree are added to a meat product moisture-relating quality increases by 7.0%, and weight losses at thermal treatment decrease by 3.0% that allows to exclude white bread from the compounding and raise the product nutrition value by satisfying the adult daily need for pectin by 80.0%. Results of the work allow to draw a conclusion that the developed dish possesses a number of useful properties and has a preventive and social focus.
2970
Abstract
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the normal functioning of the intestine and maintaining the health of the organism. Microorganisms from intestinal tracts of healthy people and cancer patients were isolated and identified. The culture and the morphological properties of microorganisms were studied on solid medium. During the study the diameter of the colonies in millimeters, color, shape, texture, structure, surface, edge contour character were determined. The nature of the bacterial growth in the liquid media (bottom, parietal or surface, with uniform medium turbidity) was analyzed. The main method of studying the morphology of the bacteria was microscopy of fixed stained preparations. It is shown that the intestinal tract of healthy people and cancer patients contains bacteria of the following genera: Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Peptococcus, Sarcina, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, Neisseria, Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Clostridium, Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Leptotrichia, Prevotella. Also the following fungi were isolated from human intestinal tract: Candida and Cryptococcus. The results indicate that the following microorganisms show the maximum antimicrobial activity: Bifidobacterium bifidum (the diameter of test culture growth inhibition zones is from 28.9 mm to 37.0 mm), Bifidobacterium breve (the diameter of inhibition zones - from 26.8mm to 35.6 mm), Lactobacillus spp . (the diameter of inhibition zones - from 24.9 mm to 38.2 mm), Micrococcus spp . (the diameter of inhibition zones - from 25.2 mm to 36.7 mm), Streptococcus agalactiae (the diameter of inhibition zones - from 27.6 mm up to 38.4 mm).
3842
Abstract
Mushrooms have the ability to accumulate pesticides, toxic and radioactive isotopes of elements from the environment, wherein the concentration of toxicant in mushrooms is higher than the substrate on which they grow. The article presents the results of the research of organoleptic characteristics, safety performance of fresh oyster mushroom, cultivated at the enterprises of the Chelyabinsk region. It was found that fresh oyster mushrooms from “Mushroom court” have obvious signs of maturity, and the highest percentage of mechanical damage; as a result, after boiling the mushrooms did not produce clear enough broth, mushroom flavor and aroma being unexpressed, which eventually led to a relatively low score for organoleptic characteristics. The study of safety factors (the content of toxic elements, pesticides, radionuclides) indicate low concentrations of xenobiotics in the fungi by producers analyzed; such as “Camellia” (Chelyabinsk region, Etkulsky district, Belonosovo village), “Crystal” (Chelyabinsk region, Chesmensky district, Scesma village), “Mushroom court” (Chelyabinsk Region, Kopeysk). As a result it was found that the quality of oyster mushrooms grown at the enterprises of “Camellia” and “Crystal”, complies with the national regulatory documentation and the requirements of international standards, which confirms the possibility of a smooth implementation in the trade network. The mushrooms cultivated by “Mushroom court”, in spite of their high quality and safety, should be directed to further sorting or sold at a reduced price.
2838
Abstract
The selection of alcoholic beverages by consumers is closely connected with the success of the manufacturer or distributor to form a certain image of the brand. The taste, the aroma and other characteristics of the brands of different manufacturers often do not have significant differences. It is impossible to evaluate them at the time of purchasing. Preference is given to distinguished drinks. Brand image is an important component of competition. Under restrictions on advertising the establishments of hospitality industry like hotels, restaurants and cafes (HoReCa) become the place where one can not only spread information, but also create certain associations and cause confidence to the brand. The results of the promotion of alcoholic beverage in HoReCa sector will definitely increase sales in this channel and, in addition, subsequently have a direct impact on consumer demand in all retail distribution channels. This article highlights the main benefits of alcoholic beverage promoting in the HoReCa chain. Among these benefits is the peculiar situation of consumption, limited presentation of competing brands in the place of promotion, the ability to segment the audience, the conduction of integrated campaigns and implementation of creative ideas. According to the results of observation and a series of personal interviews, the authors systematized the main ways of image formation of the brand in this channel. Such ways are advertising materials, branding, consumer promotion, employee motivation, events (event marketing). The instruments that are used within each way are described. Their peculiarities and specific features are reflected. The role of the promo-personnel engaged in conducting PR events is considered.
3275
Abstract
Marketing investigation is a powerful tool for creating unique knowledge needed for solving of many major regional problems. Agriculture and food processing industry represent a strategic sector of economy of the Altai territory, aiming at ensuring a sustainable supply of population with adequite quantity of quality foods. Meat industry occupies a special place among the branches of the food industry of the Altai. In trading networks of cities in the region a wide range of meat products is presented. The marketing study conducted in November 2014 in the city of Barnaul of the Altai territory, had the following specific tasks to: identify known meat-processing enterprises of Barnaul and the Altai territory; to determine the factors influencing the awareness of meat-processing enterprises; to determine the level of loyalty and commitment of consumers to a particular manufacturer. However, basing on the obtained in the course of the study data, it is possible to draw conclusions not only on individual specific indicators of the market of meat and meat products in the city of Barnaul, but on very important global economic and social parameters of the region as well the estimates which can be described as the solution of important economic problems. These include: assessment of reproductive processes in the meat industry of agro-industrial complex in Barnaul and the Altai territory; assessment of the prospects of development of the reproductive processes in the region and dynamics of food security in the Altai territory. The method of collecting data was the questionnaire of 750 residents of Barnaul. Our studies allow us to estimate the preferences of consumers of the Altai territory in the field of meat products on the basis of a questionnaire and can be used in marketing activities of the organization as producers of the products and in distribution channels.
4530
Abstract
At present, milk processing enterprises’ urgent task is the production of competitive goods. It is known that competitiveness is influenced by a variety of factors, the systematization of which is the aim of this study. The factors influencing competitiveness of food products have been studied and generalized. The factors influencing competitiveness of dairy products have been identified and structured from the factors studied. The most significant of them are safety, quality and price. Such factors as trademark, advertizing, behavior of competitors, packing, sales promotion, functionality, etc have been also considered. It have been established that in total all factors are a system of competitiveness of dairy products at a separately taken dairy enterprise, and each separate factor depends on some other indicators. Having impact on competitiveness of production, the factors change each other. Thus, the producer has to take into account an optimum ratio of competitiveness factors of production.
3266
Abstract
This article deals with the problem of food security as an element of economic security of Russia in the light of weakening of world economic relations. The necessity to adjust the economic security monitoring systems is grounded. The peculiarities of the process of import substitution in Russia and their impact on the economic and national security under sanctions are analyzed. It is noted that import substitution should not be understood as a complete ban on the import and as a solution to all economic problems, but as conditions for the creation of efficient production and competitive products of high quality. The need to enhance the innovation process in agriculture as one of the main conditions of import substitution, and the achievement of competitiveness and productivity is underlined.
3387
Abstract
A distinctive feature of the domestic catering market is the lack of its saturation, while the main factors determining its development are directly linked to the regional characteristics of this sphere. The aim of the work was to study the status and trends of catering in the Kemerovo region. The factors justifying the regional peculiarities of catering; condition of the public catering market in districts and in the region; the main trends in this field over the 2004-2014 periods are shown. To fulfill the set tasks the conventional and special methods of collecting, processing and analyzing information were used. It is shown that the region is characterized by a large number of companies with the institutional network for the workers and employees of industrial enterprises, the catering network open to public is mostly developed in the cities of Novokuznetsk and Kemerovo. During the period of 2005-2014 catering turnover increased nearly twice, reaching its peak in 2008. In 2014, catering turnover fell, but the fall was not so severe as in 2009 and 2010. As of 01.01.2015, the most common establishment format is the cafe; restaurants are least of all presented. In general, it is noted that the raw-material oriented economy of the region, its geographical position, as well as unfavorable environmental situation do not contribute to the development of public catering. The low level of employment and training of specialists remains a serious problem. A high level of urban population, the development of tourism are factors increasing the rate of growth in the industry.