ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Investigation of the immobilization of probiotics as a method for their protection and delivery to the human gastrointestinal tract

The relevance of research is the experimental and analytical justification of the effectiveness of the joint use of biopolymers of animal and plant origin as a substrate in the process of immobilization of the association of probiotic cultures. Researches are executed in specialized laboratories of universities: Omsk GAU, Saratov GAU, SKFU. In the form of a substrate were used: gelatin, χ-carrageenan, low-esterified pectin, modified starch; as bioobjects are selected: L. acidophilus, B. Lactis, S. thermophilus. To obtain reliable and complete characteristics, a set of research methods was used in the work: physicochemical, sensory, and microbiological. Investigation of immobilization allowed to determine the optimal ratio of biopolymers as a carrier (substrate): pectin and gelatin, as 2:1; the total concentration of solids of the carrier solution (20.0 ± 0.5)% by weight. The total number of viable cells of probiotic microorganisms in membranes (plates) is an average of lg (11.0 ± 0.55). In order to extend the shelf life, the membranes were dried in a freeze dryer, with parameters: the temperature of the frozen product (–25 °C) and the residual pressure in the sublimate 0.013–0.133 kPa. Immobilization by microencapsulation of the association of probiotic cultures of L. acidophilus, B. Lactis and S. thermophilus into a gel of biopolymers: gelatin food, pectin gene LM 106 AS-YA, starch in a ratio of 5:1:1 was studied by microencapsulation. The obtained microcapsules were studied in imitated gastric and intestinal conditions, while the number of viable probiotic cells was determined at different times of their degradation. It was established that 20–25% of viable cells of probiotics were released from capsules in the "artificial stomach" phase, 75–80% in the "artificial bowel" phase. Innovative biotechnologies of milk based products for specialized nutrition are presented.
Immobilization, probiotics, strains of microorganisms, enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro, biotechnology, specialized nutrition
  1. Gavrilova N.B., Gladilova O.A., and N.L. Chernopolʹskaya. Nauchnye i prakticheskie osnovy biotekhnologii molochnykh i molokosoderzhashchikh produktov s ispolʹzova-niem immobilizatsii kletok mikroorganizmov: monografiya [Scientific and Practical Bases for the Biotechnology of Milk and Dairy Products by Immobilization of Cells: Monograph]. Omsk: Option–Omsk Publ., 2011, 184 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Gavrilova N.B., Petrova E.I., and Chernopolskaya N.L. Specialized Product for Sports Nutrition. Food Industry Publ., 2013, no. 10, pp. 84–85. (In Russ.).
  3. Ganina, V.I., Sonieva M.M., and Solovyova A.N. Povyshenie zhiznesposobnosti kletok probioticheskikh bakteriy v protsesse sublimatsionnogo vysushivani [Raising the Viability of Probiotic Cells during Sublimation]. Materialy mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii «Biotekhnologiya. Voda i pishchevye produkty» [Conference Proceedings “Biotechnology. Water and Food Products”]. Moscow, 2008, 77 p. (In Russ.).
  4. Globalʹnye tekhnologicheskie trendy. Trendler № 15, 2015 [Global Trends in Technology. Trendler № 15, 2015]. Available at: (accessed 15 June 2017).
  5. Holt, J. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology in 2 Vol. Moscow: Mir Publ., 1997, 800 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Kryakunova E.V. and Kanarsii A.V. Immobilizatsiya mikroorganizmov i fermentov [Immobilization of microorganisms and ferments]. Herald of Kazan Technological University, 2012, vol. 15, no. 17, pp. 189–194. Available at: (accessed 15 June 2017).
  7. Khavkin A.I. Microflora and the development of the immune system. Current pediatrics, 2012, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 86 – 89. (In Russ.). DOI:
  8. Aslim B. and Alp G. The effect of immobilization on some probiotic properties of Streptococcus thermophilus strains. Annals of Microbioljgy, 2009, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 127–132.
  9. Bannikova A., Paramita V.D., and Kasapis S. Preservation of oleic acid entrapped in a condensed matrix of high-methoxy pectin with glucose syrup. Food Hydrocolloids, 2016, vol. 53, pp. 284–292.
  10. Beshay U., El-Enshasy H., Ismail I.M.K. et al. β-glucanase productivity improvement via cell immobilization of recombinant Escherichia coli cells in different matrices. Polish Journal of Microbiology, 2011, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 133–138. Available at: (accessed 15 June 2017).
  11. Burgain J., Gaiani C., Linder M., et al. Encapsulation of probiotic living cells: From laboratory scale to industrial applications. Journal of Food Engineering, 2011, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 467–483.
  12. Cavalheiro C.P., Etchepare M. de A., Silveira M.F., et al. Encapsulation: an alternative for application of probiotic microorganisms in thermally processed foods. Journal of the Center for Natural and Exact Sciences, 2015, vol. 37, pp. 65–74.
  13. Das A., Ray S., Raychaudhuri U., et al. Microencapsulation of Probiotic Bacteria and its Potential Application in Food Technology. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology, 2014, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47–53.
  14. Gauri A. and Shiwangi M. Immobilization and microencapsulation. Journal of Advanced Research in Biotechnology, 2017, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1–4.
  15. Jalili H., Razavi H., Safari M., et al. Kinetic analysis and effect of culture medium and coating materials during free and immobilized cell cultures of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis Bb 12. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 2010, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1–10.
  16. Maryam Y., Fooladi J., and Motlagh M.A.K. Microencapsulation and Fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12. Applied Food Biotechnology, 2015, vol. 2, no, 4, pp. 27–32.
  17. Mendoza-Madrigal A.G., Duran-Paramo E., and Valencia del Toro G. Viability kinetics of free and immobilized bifidobacterium bifidum in presence of food samples under gastroin-testinal in vitro conditions. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniera Quimica, 2017, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 159–168. Available at: (accessed 15 June 2017).
  18. Mitropoulou G., Nedovic V., Goya A., et al. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2013, vol. 2013, 15 p.
  19. Mozzetti V., Grattepanche F., Moine D., et al. New method for selection of hydrogen peroxide adapted bifidobacteria cells using continuous culture and immobilized cell technology. Microbial Cell Factories, 2010, vol. 9, no. 60.
  20. Ozyurt V.H. and Ötles S. Properties of probiotics and encapsulated probiotics in food. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria, 2014, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 413–424.
How to quote?
About journal