ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Transformation of Apple Composition during Cider Production

Cider is obtained by fermenting mashed apples of special cider varieties. The Russian State Register of Selection Achievements includes 476 varieties of apples, some of which can be used in commercial cider production. To identify potential cider cultivars, food scientists study the transformation of chemicals in apple mash during fermentation.
The research involved 16 samples of apple mash and cider obtained from apples of foreign and domestic selection. Their physicochemical, biochemical, and sensory parameters were identified using standard methods, as well as the methods of high-performance capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography.
The samples revealed a wide range of concentrations of titratable acids, phenolic substances, ascorbic acids, and phenolcarboxylic acids, depending on the cultivar. After fermentation, the content of ascorbic acid decreased by an average of 76%. The content of phenolcarboxylic acids in the cider samples increased by an average of 51% compared with the apple mash samples. The ciders contained succinic, oxalic, lactic, and acetic acids, which were not registered in the apple mash, and the concentration of amino acids doubled. The cider from the Virginia variety had the best sensory profile, and it also had the highest concentration of phenolic substances (1121.6 mg/dm3).
In this research, the best characteristics belonged to the ciders from apple varieties with a complex interspecific origin, obtained by a complex of polyploidy and distant hybridization methods, and with high concentrations of sugars and phenolic substances in the apple mash. Further research will test varieties of other origins and physicochemical properties for their potential use in cider, vodka, and calvados production.
Apples, selection, varieties, fermentation, cider, must, chemical substances
All the authors contributed equally to the study and bear equal responsibility for information published in this article.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.
The authors express their gratitude to Yu.F. Yakuba, Dr.Sci.(Chem.), Assistant Professor and Head of Information and Analytical Sector of the Shared Access Center of the North-Caucasian Federal Scientific Center of Horticulture, Viticulture, and Winemaking.
The research was supported by the Kuban Science Foundation as part of scientific project No. MFI-20.1/100.
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How to quote?
Shirshova AA, Ageyeva NM, Ulyanovskaya EV, Сhernutskaya EA. Transformation of Apple Composition during Cider Production. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2023;53(1):159–167. (In Russ.).
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