ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Starch Grain Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): Composition, Morphology and Physico-Chemical Properties

Introduction. The main component of quinoa grain is starch, the properties of which affect the quality of quinoa-based food products. There is no information about quinoa starch in the Russian scientific literature. Therefore, the review summarizes and presents foreign knowledge about the isolation, chemical composition, structure, and physicochemical properties of quinoa starch Study objects and methods. The research featured scientific articles and chapters of scientific books on the structure and chemical composition of quinoa published over the past 10 years. The work used empirical and theoretical methods of scientific research. Results and its discussion. Currently, starch from quinoa grain is produced only under laboratory conditions by various methods of grinding and soaking. Most studies point to up to 10% of amylose in quinoa starch. Amylopectin in quinoa starch has a high number of short single chains and a very low number of long single chains, and their ratio is higher than that in other starches. The granule size of quinoa starch is 0.4–2.0 microns, which is significantly smaller than that of most starches. Quinoa starch belongs to polymorphic type A. The gelatinization temperature and enthalpy of quinoa starch are lower than those of amaranth, corn, sorghum, millet, and wheat starch, which is probably due to the fine structure of amylopectin. With an increase in temperature for every 10°C, the swelling force and solubility of quinoa starch increase on average by 21.5–27%. As the temperature rises from 55 to 65°C, the solubility index of quinoa starch increases sharply by 5–10 times. The viscosity of quinoa starch is significantly higher than that of most known starches. It also is more sensitive to enzymes. Conclusion. The work presents the results of scientific research on various matters: methods of starch isolation from quinoa, its chemical composition, and methods of amylose determination; structure of starch grains, their shape, type, and degree of crystallization; physicochemical properties of starch, including gelatinization, swelling, solubility, rheological properties, retrogradation, changes in the transparency of starch gel, and susceptibility to enzymes. The latter determines the choice of technological parameters in the development of formulations and food technologies, including functional foods for people with gluten intolerance (celiac disease). Further studies of the chemical composition of quinoa can help to meet the growing demand for these products and expand the range of the domestic market for gluten-free foods.
Quinoa, starch, amylose, amylopectin, polymorphism, gelatinization, swelling, retrogradation, rheological properties
  1. Krupnov VA. Production of quinoa in Peru. Modern science success. 2017;2(5):147–150. (In Russ.).
  2. Kezimana P, Romanova EV, Gins MS, Marakhova AI, Vanyurikhina AF. Breeding perspectives of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) in the Moscow region. Theoretical and Applied Problems of Agro-industry. 2020;45(3):19–22.
  3. Nalivayko DS, Merkulova NYu. The study of the chemical composition of grain quinoa sold in the Ural region. Technology and Merchandising of the Innovative Foodstuff. 2015;31(2):63–65. (In Russ.).
  4. Betz YuA, Naumova NL. Pastry product development with application of wholegrain quinoa white flour. Bulletin of Kamchatka State Technical University. 2020;(51):35–39. (In Russ.).
  5. Ryazantseva AO, Kurchaeva EE, Kashirina NA. To a question of use of seeds of a kino in technology of meat products of the combined structure. Tekhnologii i tovarovedenie selʹskokhozyaystvennoy produktsii [Technology and commodity science of agricultural products]. 2017;9(2):80–87. (In Russ.).
  6. Eliseeva LG, Zhirkova EV, Kokorina DS. Formation of the quality indicators and nutritional value of wheat bread with application of flour quinoa. News of institutes of higher education. Food technology. 2019;368–369(2–3):35–38. (In Russ.).
  7. Shchekoldina TV. Innovatsii v tekhnologii proizvodstva bezglyutenovykh produktov pitaniya [Innovations in gluten-free food technology]. Ufa: Aehterna; 2019. 98 p. (In Russ.).
  8. Shchekoldina TV, Chernihovets EA, Hristenko AG. The study of biological value of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) to create specialized food products. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2016;42(3):90–97. (In Russ.).
  9. Araujo-Farro PC, Podadera G, Sobral PJA, Menegalli FC. Development of films based on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa: Willdenow) starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2010;81(4):839–848.
  10. Atwell WA, Patrick BM, Johnson LA, Glass RW. Characterization of quinoa starch. Cereal Chemistry. 1983;60(1):9–11.
  11. Srichuwong S, Curti D, Austin S, King R, Lamothe L, Gloria-Hernandez H. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents. Food Chemistry. 2017;233:1–10.
  12. Lim ST, Lee J, Shin D, Lim HS. Comparison of protein extraction solutions for rice starch isolation and effects of residual protein content on starch pasting properties. Starch/Stärke. 1999;51(4):120–125.<120::AID-STAR120>3.0.CO;2-A.
  13. Jan KN, Panesar PS, Rana JC, Singh S. Structural, thermal and rheological properties of starches isolated from Indian quinoa varieties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2017;102:315–322.
  14. Wright KH, Huber KC, Fairbanks DJ, Huber CS. Isolation and characterization of Atriplex hortensis and sweet Chenopodium quinoa starches. Cereal Chemistry. 2002;79(5):715–719.
  15. Li G, Zhu F. Quinoa starch: structure, properties, and applications. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2018;181:851–861.
  16. Tari TA, Annapure US, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR. Starch-based spherical aggregates: Screening of small granule sized starches for entrapment of a model flavouring compound vanillin. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2013;53(1):45–51.
  17. Praznik W, Mundigler N, Kogler A, Pelzl B, Huber A, Wollendorfer M. Molecular background of technological properties of selected starches. Starch/Stärke. 1999;51(6):197–211.<197::aidstar197>;2-b.
  18. Tang H, Watanabe K, Mitsunaga T. Characterization of storage starches from quinoa, barley and adzuki seeds. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2002;49(1):13–22.
  19. Ando H, Chen Y, Tang H, Shimizu M, Watanabe K, Mitsunaga T. Food components in fractions of quinoa seed. Food Science and Technology Research. 2002;8(1):80–84.
  20. Lindeboom N, Chang PR, Falk KC, Tyler RT. Characteristics of starch from eight quinoa lines. Cereal Chemistry. 2005;82(2):216–222.
  21. Li G, Wang S, Zhu F. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2016;137:328–338.
  22. Lorenz K. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) starch − physicochemical properties and functional characteristics. Starch/Stärke. 1990;42(3):81–86.
  23. Qian J, Kuhn M. Characterization of Amaranthus cruentus and Chenopodium quinoa starch. Starch/Stärke. 1999;51(4):116–120.<116::aid-star116>;2-i.
  24. Linsberger-Martin G, Lukasch B, Berghofer E. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the RS content of amaranth, quinoa and wheat starch. Starch/Stärke. 2012;64(2):157–165.
  25. Steffolani ME, León AE, Pérez GT. Study of the physicochemical and functional characterization of quinoa and kañiwa starches. Starch/Stärke. 2013;65(11–12):976–983.
  26. Nascimento AC, Mota C, Coelho I, Gueirao S, Santos M, Matos AS, et al. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: Proximates, minerals and trace elements. Food Chemistry. 2014;148:420–426.
  27. Li G, Zhu F. Molecular structure of quinoa starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2017;158:124–132.
  28. Lindeboom N, Chang PR, Tyler RT. Analytical, biochemical and physicochemical aspects of starch granule size, with emphasis on small granule starches: A review. Starch/Stärke. 2004;56(3–4):89–99.
  29. Watanabe K, Peng NL, Tang H, Mitsunaga T. Molecular structural characteristics of quinoa starch. Food Science and Technology Research. 2007;13(1):73–76.
  30. Li G, Zhu F. Amylopectin molecular structure in relation to physicochemical properties of quinoa starch. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2017;164:396–402.
  31. Ruales J, Nair BM. Properties of starch and dietary fibre in raw and processed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1994;45(3):223–246.
  32. Bertoft E, Piyachomkwan K, Chatakanonda P, Sriroth K. Internal unit chain composition in amylopectins. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2008;74(3):527–543.
  33. Bertoft E. On the nature of categories of chains in amylopectin and their connection to the super helix model. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2004;57(2):211–224.
  34. Srichuwong S, Jane JL. Physicochemical properties of starch affrcted by molecular composition and structures: a review. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2007;16(5):663–674.
  35. Lindeboom N, Chang PR, Tyler RT, Chibbar RN. Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and its relationship to amylose content. Cereal Chemistry. 2005;82(3):246–250.
  36. Li G, Zhu F. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions. Food Chemistry. 2017;221:1560–1568.
  37. Debet MR, Gidley MJ. Why do gelatinized starch granules not dissolve completely? Roles for amylose, protein, and lipid in granule “ghost” integrity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55(12):4752–4760.
  38. Li G, Zhu F. Effect of high pressure on rheological and thermal properties of quinoa and maize starches. Food Chemistry. 2018;241:380–386.
  39. Vamadevan V, Bertoft E. Structure-function relationships of starch components. Starch/Stärke. 2015;67(1–2):55–68.
  40. Zhu F. Isolation, composition, structure, properties, modifications, and uses of yam starch. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2015;14(4):357–386.
  41. Wang S, Li C, Copeland L, Niu Q, Wang S. Starch retrogradation: A comprehensive review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2015;14(5):568–585.
  42. Ahamed NT, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR, Kale DD, Pal M. Studies on Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus paniculatas starch as biodegradable fillers in LDPE films. Carbohydrate Polymers. 1996;31(3):157–160.
How to quote?
Orlova TV, Aider M. Starch Grain Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): Composition, Morphology and PhysicoChemical Properties. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2021;51(1):98–112. (In Russ.). 9414-2021-1-98-112.
About journal