Volume 46, Issue 3, 2017
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND INDICES OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY FOR ENZYME HYDROLYSATES OF FEATHER WASTE
Full-fledged provision of animals, including poultry, with high-protein feed is necessary for the production of livestock products of such volumes that would ensure the country's food security. One of the ways to solve this problem is the use of raw materials for the recovery of useful components from the waste of the poultry processing industry. The right method chosen for utilization of such waste will ensure the production of components used for further enrichment of feed and mixed fodders. In the course of our research, enzymatic hydrolysates from wastes of evisceration of chickens of different breeds have been obtained using a multienzyme composition selected as a result of studying the peptide and amino acid composition of evisceration waste. The multienzyme composition included strains of microorganisms: Bacillus endophyticus 2102, Bacillus safensis sp., Bacillus pumilus SAFR032, Bacillus licheniformis B-2986, Streptomycesparvus sp. In the ratio 1: 1: 3: 3: 2. The physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates obtained have been studied. The maximum content of calcium in terms of the mass fraction of moisture is 11.2%, that of phosphorus - 9.2%. The mass fraction of fat in terms of the mass fraction of moisture does not exceed 2.3%; the mass fraction of crude fiber does not exceed 0.9%. Thus, according to these indices, all enzymatic hydrolysates of the gut evisceration products correspond to necessary parameters. Only a 24-hour fermentative hydrolysate corresponds to the mass fraction of calcium and phosphorus in terms of the mass fraction of moisture. As for the mass fraction of protein (81.4%), recalculated for the mass fraction of moisture, none of the tested hydrolysates corresponds to the necessary norm for the production of feed additives, which indicates the need for cleaning and degreasing enzymatic hydrolysates of gut evaporation waste in order to increase the mass fraction of protein. The content of toxic elements, radionuclides, bacterial organisms in the tested enzymatic hydrolysates of evisceration of poultry does not exceed the normalized values in accordance with GOST 17536-82 "Animal feed fodder. Specifications».
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY OF TALGAN PRODUCTION AS A COMPONENT OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT NATIONAL TRADITIONS OF NUTRITION
Priority directions in the food production sphere are the development of new types of high quality food products, their production methods, storage and transportation. The objects of study are barley grain and wheat grain of 2016 harvest grown on the territory of the Tashtypsky district of the Republic of Khakassia. Rational parameters and technological modes for the production of improved talgan have been established. The influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of wheat and barley grain has been studied. Kinetics of the change in moisture content of crushed grain fractions has been investigated. The regression model has been obtained which enables us to predict the product quality. The system of apparatuses of the talgan production line has been developed using the improved method on the basis of the data obtained. The characteristic of the proposed technological scheme is its easy integration into modern grain processing enterprises. Talgan production with the innovative method is carried out as follows:grain in shell is subjected to cleaning from foreign impurities on a vibrating screen with magnetic catcher. Then, the grain base is ground in a roller machine to a particle size of 0.35- 0.65 mm. Free from shells ground grain cultures are sent by portions to the cereal fryer for 2-3 minutes, at the temperature of 110 °C. Since the ground grain is subjected to heat treatment (3-4 times), the time in the cereal fryer is halved, leaving all the valuable components in the finished product. Further, the product and the ground compositions of the additional components are fed to a mixer in which they are mixed to a homogeneous dry mass. The finished grain product is fed to the filling machine. Talgan is intended for use in recipes of new or traditional foods. It will enable to change the chemical composition of combined food products and increase the content of a number of essential nutrients, such as protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.
Currently, an urgent task is the development of biodegradable formulations for production of edible, non-polluting, coating and packaging materials for food raw materials and food products. Edible films and coatings derived from polysaccharides, proteins and lipids have several advantages such as biodegradability, edibility, biocompatibility, esthetic appearance, and barrier properties against oxygen. Pectin is widely used as a component of edible films since it has a number of positive properties: availability, easy processing, low cost. The aim of this work is to assess the organoleptic properties, structure, water absorption, mechanical characteristics of edible double-ply films obtained on the basis of apple puree. The first layer contains pectin as the plasticizer. Six samples with different film types and content of plasticizers have been prepared. All films have a dark golden hue, characteristic for apple puree. The texture of all film samples is homogeneous and spongy. All the films have a flavor of the apple puree. Edible films with added fiber in the second layer have the densest texture with the smallest number of bubbles. A similar texture is observed for edible film based on apple puree with added pectin in the first and second layers. High rates of water absorption of the films with xanthan gum and gelatin in the second layer provide the ability for their chewing. Films containing pectin, agar-agar and carrageenan have sufficiently high values of tensile strength (6.48, 6.07 and 6.87 MPa). Based on the results of the conducted research it can be stated that double-ply edible films are a promising direction for the development of technology of edible films production.
It is shown that the main reason for lowering the quality of sausages in natural casings is the damage of their surfaces by fungi, yeasts, saprophytic staphylococci and putrefactive aerobic bacteria. Analytic data on the application of food organic acids and compositions based on them in sausage casing technologies are given. General requirements for components and antimicrobial compositions based on them are quoted. Safety and efficiency are the principle ones in terms of pathogenic microbes of sausage deterioration. Study results on the development of antimicrobial compositions as processing aids in natural casing treatment are presented. The following compositions have been tested: those with lactic, acetic, propionic, formic, sulphamic, oxalic and ascorbic acids; sodium lactate, acetate, propionate and citrate; sodium metabisulphite; polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride. Physical and chemical parameters (density, surface tension, titratable and active acidity) and antagonistic activity of antimicrobial compositions have been identified. Synergistic effect for decrease of surface tension for aqueous solutions of the compositions has been found. A composition with buffer solutions of sodium lactate and food acids along with polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride has been chosen in the result of antagonistic activity assessment. A minimum effective concentration of 0.6% for the composition aqueous solution in reference to pathogenic microbes in test cultures has been determined. It is shown that the new composition is effective as a processing aid for natural sausage casing treatment to enhance product safety and storability.
SOME ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF THE DISTILLATE FROM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS. Part 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISTILLATE
Results of the research on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fresh Jerusalem artichoke fruit distillate are presented in this work. It has been found that the volume of absolute alcohol produced from 1 ton of raw material is ranging from 8.5 to 11.1 dal. The largest volume of ethanol equivalent to 1 ton of raw materials’ inuline (potentially fermentable carbohydrates) is produced from the wort sample prepared using the two-step method and 3 days of fermentation period (63.9 dal) that is equal to the volume of ethanol produced from the grain. It is shown that cutting the time of fermentation period leads to decrease in the yield of ethanol. Analysis of the composition of volatile compounds of the Jerusalem artichoke distillate with consideration for the threshold concentration allows us to conclude that the main higher alcohols (1- propanol, isobutanol, isoamylol) and acetaldehyde are the main flavor components, the rest are background flavor components. To find a correlation between the content of volatile compounds and the distinctive tones present in taste and aroma of Jerusalem artichoke distillate sensory profiles have been developed using the results of degustation. The descriptor words which were further taken as a basis of the sensory profiles have been developed during the degustation evaluation. The analysis of Jerusalem artichoke distillate’s sensory profiles has shown that the best organoleptic characteristics belong to the sample produced from the fresh Jerusalem artichoke fruit, prepared using the two-step method and 2 days fermentation period. Basing on obtained results requirements for quality parameters of the distillate from Jerusalem artichokefresh tubers have been formulated. Results of research make it possible to state the perspective of distillate from Jerusalem artichoke fresh fruit, and find the optimum method of raw material preparation and operating conditions of wort fermentation for production of distillate with appropriate organoleptic characteristics.
INVESTIGATION OF THE PROCESS OF MELTING OF COTTAGE CHEESE RAW MATERIAL WHEN MANUFACTURING PROCESSED CHEESES
Theoretical data on the process of rennet cheese melting and characteristics of cheese-melting salts used in the industry are given. It is shown that the process of melting of cottage cheese raw material differs from melting of rennet cheese that is connected with different forms of protein micelles of raw materials. The hypothesis of our research is the assumption that to melt cottage cheese raw material it is possible to use reagents, which influence active acidity of the environment, and also stabilize texture, connect moisture and improve the consistence of the finished product. The influence of cheese-melting salt (disodium phosphate Е339 ii), the acidity regulator (disubstituted sodium phosphate Е 500 ii) and "Stabilan CM1" and "Genulakt LRA-50" texture stabilizers on the melting ability of cottage cheese raw materials has been studied. Fat-free cottage cheese obtained with the method of acidity is used as dairy raw material. By results of a complete four-factorial experiment at two levels, the equations of regression have been obtained and graphic dependences of active acidity (рН) and an organoleptic assessment of the melted curds (melting ability) from the specified factors have been constructed. Cheese-melting salt and the regulator of acidity have the most essential impact on the change of specified parameters. The linear effect of influence of the regulator of acidity factor on рН is 1.5 times higher and that on the factor of melting ability is 13 times higher than for the factor of cheese-melting salt. When manufacturing processed cheeses based on cottage cheese raw material obtained with the method of acid coagulation it is possible to recommend the following composition of stabilization mix: 1.0% of sodium hydrogen carbonate and 0.5% "Genulakt LRA-50" texture stabilizer (in the ratio of 2:1). The developed protein and structural complex can be recommended for obtaining paste-like processed cheese with soft, easily spreadconsistency. Strict observance of the protein part to food additives ratio influencing the product texture will allow avoiding such defects as a non-uniform consistence, unmelted protein particles, and alkaline flavor. The use of cottage cheese raw material when manufacturing processed cheeses allow us to use dairy raw material rationally, to lower the cost of protein raw material production, to widen the assortment of processed cheeses and to smooth production seasonality.
The development of new types of marmalade products using non-traditional types of plant raw materials containing an increased amount of vitamins, macro and microelements, and dietary fiber is promising and actual. A method for producing jelly- fruit marmalade on agar and fructose with the addition of sand buckthorn juice formed with the method of "syringing" into the barrier film has been proposed. A unified marmalade recipe "Jelly-fruit" has been taken as a control sample, in which apple puree has been replaced by sand buckthorn juice, sugar and molasses to fructose in terms of dry matter. The influence of formulation components on the quality indices of jelly masses has been evaluated. When adding fructose and sand buckthorn juice the elastic strength decreases by 9 kPa. Samples on fructose have lower effective viscosity than samples on sugar which positively affect the process of molding with the method of "syringing". According to the organoleptic characteristics this marmalade has pleasant taste, smell, original color, gelatinous consistency. The content of antioxidant activity in finished products has been determined. This index is 9 times higher than that in the control sample. Fruit jelly is packed in three kinds of films: metalized, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride. The products stored in the metalized film for 6 months have the best microbiological indices. Marmalade has an increased nutritional value concerning the content of minerals: potassium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron and vitamins: A, C, E, PP and B group.
This article describes the installation of «Termoscan». This device allows us to study fats of different origin on thermal effects (in the temperature range from minus 9 °C to plus 60 °C) during their heating and cooling. Differential thermograms of heating and cooling of milk fat, pork fat and SOYUZ 71E fat mixture have been obtained. Two sections with extreme points in the heating and cooling processes have been determined. Exact data on the extrema obtained have been tabulated. The tables show the results of studies on temperature and temperature effect obtained from extremum No. 1 and extremum No. 2 (the mean, deviation from the mean and deviation from the mean in percentage). The data obtained are also presented graphically. Comparison of the data of the results in the study of the tested samples has been made. The reliability factor as the ratio of the difference in the temperatures of the two fats to the sum of the deviations in the measurements has been calculated. The results obtained during the series of experiments make it possible to judge the correctness and reliability of the research done. The advantage of the proposed technique has been revealed in contrast to the widespread methods of differential thermal analysis (DTA). Minor differences in the results are noted when repeating «heating-cooling» cycle of the same sample many times, but the general character is retained. Characteristic peaks are observed in repetitions. The ratio between the extremum values changes insignificantly. The preliminary conclusion has been made that the developed device and the method of thermoscanning can be used in laboratory studies of fats and fatty compositions on the fact that one type of fat can replace another one.
THE STUDY OF COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PORK OF THE FOURTH GRADE INTENDED FOR COMMERCIAL PROCESSING
At a meat processing plant along with raw materials from young animals intended for fattening and meat processing there moves raw material from animals being at the end of the period of their main productive activities. Pork of the fourth grade is such raw material. It is obtained from pigs used to produce offspring over several reproductive cycles. Pork of the fourth grade is used exclusively for commercial processing of meat products, therefore, the properties of raw materials influence the quality of the finished product. Available data on the properties of pork of this grade is very limited and does not allow us to fully assess its quality and to provide recommendations for use. The article describes research on chemical composition of pork of the fourth grade and physico-chemical parameters characterizing its functional and technological properties. The research has been performed on samples isolated from the inner part of the hip cut of chilled pork with the maturation period of 3 days. Similar samples were isolated from pork of the second grade. It has been found that the mass fraction of protein in pork the fourth grade is higher than in the pork of the second grade by 2.77%, while the mass fraction of moisture is less by 3.55%. No statistically significant differences in the mass fraction of minerals and intramuscular fat have been found for the pork of studied grades. Differences in chemical composition affectphysico-chemical characteristics of raw materials. Water binding capacity (WBC) of pork of the fourth grade is 3.5% higher than that of the pork of the second grade. High WBC of pork of the fourth grade helps reduce moisture loss during thawing, at the same time, the mass loss during heat treatment is slightly higher. The value of the index of lightness (55.00) and chromatic coordinates of "red" (18.17) and "blue" (15.33) suggests that the intensity and quality of paint in the fourth grade pork exceed those of the second grade pork. This is consistent with the data of organoleptic evaluation. The smell, taste and texture of pork of the fourth grade as well as the broth are not worse than those of pork of the second grade. The obtained data allow us to appreciate the technological potential of the pork of the fourth grade and recommend it for products subjected to fermentation and drying in the production process.
The given paper deals with the research results of studying the antioxidant properties of essential oils of sage and rosemary and their combinations in minced semi-smoked and boiled-smoked sausages. Basing on the data of organoleptic analysis of semi- smoked sausage the choice and the maximum permissible level of essential oils of sage and rosemary, which is now not more than 20 g per 100 kg of meat raw materials, has been established. The additives introduced largely take part in the formation of flavor and aroma; they slightly affect the taste and color of products on the cut. Due to the mixing of sage and rosemary oils a bitter taste and medicinal camphor smell are softened. The accelerated oxidation method is used to compare the efficiency of antioxidant properties of essential oils of sage and rosemary added to fats and oils. Induction oxidation periods of pork fat have been determined depending on the type of essential oils introduced. The maximum inhibitory effect is achieved by the joint usage of sage and rosemary oils. The introduction into oxidation systems of the combination of essential oils of sage and rosemary solved in vegetable oils in concentrations from 0.005 to 0.02% reduces the rate of lipid oxidation regardless of the solvent. Samples of pork fat in the presence of cedar oil and essential oils of sage and rosemary have high concentration of antioxidants possessing the antiradical activity with significant induction period; they have higher stability to oxidation changes when heating in comparison with sunflower oil. It has been proved that essential oils of sage and rosemary enable us to stop oxidation of heme pigments of maral meat and create conditions for restoring metmyoglobin.
Currently, duckweed is considered to be a cheap and effective way to treat wastewater from farm bioreactors. In addition to the environmental benefits, the productive duckweed biomass of the produced during wastewater treatment contains a high content of nutrients, especially protein that positions it as an additional ingredient in the feed of farm animals, poultry and fish. The influence of cultivation conditions of Lemna minor on protein synthesis taking into account the variation of nutrient concentration in wastewater are studied. The cultivation system combining an anaerobic bioreactor as well as the system of growing duckweed is used. Specific growth rate of duckweed, which was 2.68; 3.85 and 4.61 g/(m2/day) of the substrate concentration of 20, 40 and 60% respectively, is determined. The maximum growth density has been obtained (g/m2): 67.4 for 20% of the substrate on the 30th day;63.0 for 40% of the substrate and 66.0 for 60% of the substrate on the 27th day of cultivation. The dynamics of total Kjeldahl nitrogen content in duckweed has been studied. The greatest content of total nitrogen in duckweed grown on nutrient medium with 20% substrate concentration is observed on the 15th day with a maximum accumulation rate of 0.16 g/m2/day. On the 21st day ofcultivation in a substrate with 40% concentration a maximum total nitrogen is recorded at a storage rate of 0.20 g/m2/day; with a 60% wastewater content - at a rate of 0.24 g/m2/day. The dynamics of protein synthesis in the duckweed has been studied. In the course of the experiment it has been found that on the 16th day of cultivation the maximum percentage of protein content in the duckweed for 20% substrate is observed as 27.62%, while for 40% it is 28.13% and for 60% - of 29.14% to the 19-th day of cultivation. Based on the results of the studies, a mathematical model has been calculated, which can be considered adequate, and can be used to predict the protein content of the duckweed species Lemna minor depending on the nutrient concentration in the substrate and the duration of cultivation.
ADVANTAGES OF USING REGIONAL RAW MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF CHOPPED SEMIFINISHED PRODUCTS IN CASING
The article is devoted to the problem of widening the assortment of chopped semifinished products. According to the principles of food combinatorics and nutritsitology, the recipe and technology of production of fried sausages have been developed which include regional vegetable raw materials - pumpkin pulp and hip powder. The influence of herbal ingredients on the technological process, the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics, as well as the safety indices of the chopped semifinished products in casing are considered. The positive effect of using the pumpkin pulp and hip powder in the recipe of the fried sausages has been proved experimentally. Adding pumpkin pulp to the recipe helps to increase the juiciness of the product, create a pattern on the cut, and increase food and biological value. The introduction of hip powder into the composition of semifinished products in casing helps us to enrich the product with vitamin C. Ascorbic acid has a beneficial effect on the human body regulating blood clotting and providing anti-inflammatory action, and being a strong antioxidant, it affects the technological process. Formulations ofthe fried sausages allows us to produce a product with good organoleptic characteristics and enriched with ascorbic acid. Thus, a functional product of good quality and with improved food and biological value that meets all consumer requirements has been obtained.
The use of milled red lentil seeds as a component of composite flour mixes from wheat baker's flour of increased nutritional and biological value is theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed. The most important role of nutrition components belongs to proteins, the main function of which is to supply the human body with amino acids necessary for the synthesis of the body's own proteins. Besides proteins, dietary fibers and minerals are important. Lentil seeds are chosen as a component of composite flour mixes due to high nutritional and biological value. Lentil seeds are characterized by high protein content balanced by amino acid composition, mineral substances, vitamins (β-carotene, PP, В1, В2, В6) and dietary fibers. The results of chemical analysis of milled red lentil seeds, including the amino acid composition of proteins, are presented. Comparative analysis of chemical composition of graded flour and milled red lentil seeds shows the significant superiority of lentils by the content of protein, dietary fibers and mineral substances, including calcium and magnesium. Doses of milled red lentil seeds which make possible to obtain composite flour mixes with high biological value of protein have been determined through computer modeling. The data of chemical analysis of composite flour mixes from wheat flour of various types and milled red lentil seeds are presented. It has been established that the selected doses of milled red lentil seeds allow us to create composite flour mixes with high content of protein (18.9-17.0%), dietary fibers (11.32-8.6%), and mineral substances (2.21-1.9%) including calcium and magnesium. Proteins of the developed composite flour mixes have a high value of rationality index of the amino acid composition (0.87-0.86) and a low value of “comparable redundancy” (5.4-5.9).
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF NONALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONCENTRATE TABLET
The high and stable demand for dry concentrates of nonalcoholic beverages prepared on the basis of extracts of fruit raw materials is primarily due to the simplicity and convenience of storage, transportation and use. As a result of monitoring of trade proposals, it has been found that unlike tablets, powdered and granulated concentrates are the most widely distributed in this segment of the food market. The formulation and technology of the concentrate of non-alcoholic thirst-quenching beverage in the form of tablets has been developed, the distinguishing feature of which is the use, as a flavor component, of the dry extract of cowberry berries obtained by vacuum-pulse extraction. The influence of the ratio of components in the concentrate on organoleptic characteristics of the product has studied and their optimum ratio has been determined, g/10 g of the composition: fruit-berry extract - 3.5, fructose - 4.4, citric acid - 1.0, sodium carbonate - 0.5, magnesium carbonate - 0.2, calcium carbonate - 0.4. It is shown that the introduction of 3% of starch from the weight of the composition helps reduce adhesion properties, reduce dissolution time, increase strength and improve the appearance of the tablets, while maintaining a constant taste level of the product. To obtain aconcentrate of non-alcoholic beverage in the form of tablets with given dimensional-mass characteristics: diameter 20 mm, height 5 mm, weight 2 g the optimum parameters of the tablet preparing process have been established: pressing force 10 MPa; Holding the tablet under load for 30 seconds. The best method of obtaining feedstock compositions is mixing the original components of the composition in a mixer of loose components, followed by granulation, while the dissolution time of the concentrate in 200 cm3 of room temperature water is 70 seconds.
A large number of dust collectors differing in their design (geometric) parameters are currently used for purifying process air from dust. Centrifugal dust collectors - cyclones, such as U-38, UCM-38, 4BTSH, OTI, CN, etc., have been widely used for air dedusting in pneumatic transport systems and aspiration systems at grain processing enterprises and at the enterprises of food industry and agriculture. The efficiency of gas purification achievable in these apparatuses is often insignificant in practice. Therefore, a lot of centrifugal gas purification apparatuses are mainly used as the first stage before using more efficient dust and ash collectors. The aero- screw cyclone - separator, whose construction is protected by the patents (1, 2) and based on the screw insert placed between a conic shell and a cylindrical exhaust pipe, enables to achieve the purification degree of process air up to 99.9% on the grain processing products. High efficiency of the aero-screw cyclone is caused by the creation of the swirled helical aero-dispersed flow inside the apparatus with an increasing centrifugal effect due to the variable geometry of the flow-restricting walls. To introduce the aero-screw cyclone at grain processing enterprises, coal industry, power engineering, etc., it is necessary to provide acceptable energy indices during the operation of the given apparatus. The main element which determines the aerodynamic drag of the entire cyclone design is a screw channel. A model is proposed for calculating the aerodynamic drag of the screw channel in the aero-screw cyclone; the influence of the geometric cyclone parameters and of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the air flow is analyzed.
ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS INFLUENCING PERIOD OF VEGETABLE SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS FREEZING WITH COMBINED METHOD
The combined method of freezing combines the product convectional freezing and subsequent contact storage on a cooled metal plate. This method is used to freeze vegetable semi-finished products that have been pre-packed in a vacuum package. Advantages of the combined method are the absence of product shrinkage, loss of aromatic properties, and reduction of temperature fluctuations during the process, sparing operating conditions in the packing area. Freezing period is an important characteristic of the process. The prediction of the freezing period is the most difficult task in thermophysics, since there are many parameters affecting the freezing process. The article presents the results of the research revealing the degree of temperature influence inside the freezing chamber, the rate of air movement and the layer thickness of the product to be frozen in the package. It has been proved that the freezing period of the vegetable mix is more influenced by the temperature in the chamber t, the thickness of the frozen product δ and the joint influence of t-δ. Using the Statistica program for processing the experimental data on the freezing period a mathematical regression model has been obtained, which can predict the freezing period with high accuracy. The relative error between the experimentally obtained data and the predicted ones is less than 5%.
The article is devoted to the development of a method for cleaning of amaranth seeds from impurities to prepare them for grinding into food grade flour. The method of air-sieve cleaning amaranth grain takes into account the size and content of individual fractions that differ in size but not in color, which worsens the quality of the grinding products. In order to improve this process the amaranth grain has been subjected to a complex step-by-step cleaning, including pneumo classification and photo separation. The object of the study is the grain mass of "Ultra", "Har'kovskij", "Shuntuk", "Lider", "Valentin", " Fakel", " Karakula " amaranth varieties of seed quality with deviations from the baseline conditions of contamination (i.e., from impurities not more than 98.0%) for admission to flour production. Separation of grain mass of amaranth into the components: grain, boxes, fruit shells, and wild amaranth seeds has been carried out using a pneumatic classifier with a closed H3CB air cycle for aerodynamic properties. Photo separation of amaranth grain has been done using an industrial OPTIMA separator of the "SiSort (CSort TM)"company. The results show that complex cleaning of amaranth seeds from impurities with the introduction of photo separation at the secondary grain mass treatment section, calibrated to size before its surface processing allow us to improve grain quality (with a purification degree more than 99.8%) from inoculums to commercial, i.e. suitable for processing into food flour.
Specialized food products including biologically active additives (BAA) are becoming increasingly in demand in the consumer market taking into account their importance for improving people’s nutrition and health. The aim of the research is to develop probiotic confectionery of "Bifidopan" and "Laktopan" enriched with bifidobacteria (bifidobacterium adolescentis), lactobacilli (lactobacillus plantarum and lactobacillus acidophilus) and ascorbic acid in the following amount: bifidogum (1 * 1010 CFU, g / 100g) - 0.5; lactogum (1 * 1010 CFU, g / 100 g) and acidodum (1 * 1010 CFU, g / 100 g) - 0.25. The introduction reflects relevance of our research and the development of dietary supplements. To achieve this goal we used generally accepted and special research methods determined by technical regulations . The article reflects the prescription composition, organoleptic indices, and nutritional value of the developed products. The results of the research on safety indices for candies are given as well as recommendations for doses of their consumption have been developed. We studied organoleptic, physical-chemical, sanitary-hygienic, sanitary and toxicology factors of quality and safety that allowed us to establish nutritional value of the developed products. The mass fraction of ascorbic acid mg / 100 g is 900; bifidobacteria (bifidobacterium adolescentis) (for sweets "Bifidopan") CFU / 100g is at least 5.0 * 109; lactic acid bacteria (lactobacillus plantarum and lactobacillus acidophilus) (for sweets "Laktopan") CFU / 100 g is at least 5.0 * 108; fats g / 100 g (averaged data) is 20.5; carbohydrates g / 100 g (averaged data) is 67.3. The energy value is 454 kcal. These indices as well as the analysis of probiotics participation in the regulation of metabolic processes determine the functional character of specialized confectionery products. Evidence of their effectiveness is provided by including them in the children diet as a comprehensive therapy for chronic gastroenteritis and gastrointestinal diseases. Normalization of intestinal microflora and clinical symptoms of the disease has been established against the background of improving self-awareness and general state of the body. High stability of BAA has been demonstrated by the example of the most labile component - ascorbic acid, which is explained by using gentle production process parameters that provide a slight level of humidity and aeration preventing undesired oxidation processes. Recommendations on the norms of consumption of the developed products are given. Based on the materials obtained, the conclusion on the possibility of using probiotic sweets as a source of functionally active bifido-, lactobacilli and ascorbic acid has been made. Specialized products have been tested under production conditions certified within the requirements of international standards ISO 9001, 22000 series and GMP rules, which ensures the stability of their quality characteristics and competitiveness.
The aim of this research is to study the effect of low temperature (cold) argon plasma on inactivation of microorganisms and the potential use of plasma treatment of plant products with the purpose to increase storage time. Non-equilibrium plasma source based on plasma jets in a low-current spark discharge at atmospheric pressure has been developed as an experimental setup to generate low temperature (cold) argon plasma. Series of experiments have been conducted to select optimum parameters for inactivation of microorganisms. The results show a sterilizing ability of low-temperature plasma for different types of microorganisms. The reduction of the number of bacteria is observed for E. coli exposed within 60 seconds, and for B. subtilis, Aspergillus оryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed within 300 sec. Products of plant origin processed with plasma demonstrate their integrity during storage without creating a specific climate (low temperature) up to 10 days for tuber and root crops and up to 2 days for leafy greens ensuring microbiological safety. These results allow us to conclude that the method of plant product processing with low-temperature plasma is effective for storage time increasing.
In the process of organizing food production, there is a constant need to control the quality and safety of products, control technological and organizational and managerial processes. The solution of this task is the internal audit of the integrated management system that operates at the enterprise, which allows identifying and timely eliminating inconsistencies. When carrying out internal checks, a large amount of data is generated about the operation of the enterprise, including positive and negative observations, information on identified observations, analysis of causes of inconsistencies, corrective and preventive actions. With the current level of information technology development, organizations can optimize the process of data collecting, accounting and analyzing. The proposed software product is designed to ensure the passage of audit within the organization, using a systematic approach to evaluate and improve the efficiency of processes through the use of computer technology and statistical methods. To develop the program the requirements of the standards for management systems and audit have been analyzed; classification of inconsistencies and statistical data on the elimination of comments at the enterprise has been applied. Based on the obtained data a program has been developed in the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 for data processing and generating automated reports for the selected period. The result of the research is the development of recommendations "Audit of an integrated management system" for optimizing the process by the example ofconfectionery production. Forms for accounting inconsistencies, containing data on inconsistencies, its classification in terms of significance, in terms of ensuring the safety of manufactured products, planned corrective actions, as well as the form of notification of deadlines for remedial measures have been developed. The "Analysis of audit data" sub-process has been automated. To approbate the software product a list of inconsistencies based on the results of external and internal audits for 2016 has been designed and ranked.
The article shows the socio-economic importance of meat of different types of livestock as the staple food product for the population of Mongolia. Meat of five species of pasture animals has special value and safety. They are camels, horses, cattle, goats, and sheep. Despite a persistent tendency to increase the number of sheep and goats, about 1/10 of meat is processed. Considering the fact that a significant part of the country's population prefers healthy food products, there is an urgent need to produce high-quality meat products of guaranteed safety. The results of the research on consumer preferences of the residents of Darkhan-Uul city (the second largest city of Mongolia) to chopped semifinished goods from Mongolian sheep meat - lyulya-kebab - characterized by unique recipe, technology of mincing and cooking are given. To determine the value of the quality indices the pairwise comparison method is used. To calculate the value of the lyulya-kebab indices the main indices of consumer preferences have been determined. They are appearance, taste, smell, consistency, utility, safety, and price. Based on the results of the survey of the members of the expert group a set of indices has been estimated. The assessment of the value coefficients of the product's quality indices shows that the most significant indices for consumers are food safety (value coefficient of 0.254), healthiness (value coefficient of 0.194) and taste (value coefficient of 0.159), which indicates the need to take into account these characteristics when developing an innovative food product - lyulya-kebab from Mongolian sheep meat. At the same time, it is necessary to link high nutritional value of meat of Mongolian pasture animals with its health benefits.
THE STUDY OF PREFERENCES OF INABITANTS OF THE CITY OF KEMEROVO AS FAR AS CONSUMER PROPERTIES OF PRODUCTS OF PUBLIC CATERING IS CONCERNED
The scope of the enterprises of the food service industry in Russia today is represented by a wide range of organizations with different levels of quality and product range, as well as the variety of services offered. Catering is one of the promising business of the consumer market. Under conditions of strong competition it is necessary to realize your customers’ needs, and what properties of products sold by the enterprises of public catering are of paramount importance to ensure the successful operation of the enterprises of the food service industry. The aim of our research is identification of key consumer properties of products produced by public catering enterprises of different types (by the example of the inhabitants of the city of Kemerovo). The objects of study are consumer characteristics of products of commercial catering (restaurants, cafes, fast-food restaurants, etc.) and those of social sectors (cafeterias in educational institutions and hospitals etc.). The study of consumer preferences was conducted using questionnaires. The survey of inhabitants of Kemerovo was carried out in the streets of the city by personal interview lasting 10-15 min. Using the method of the survey 23 basic consumer properties of products have been identified. It has been established that during the year 60% of the inhabitants regularly visit enterprises of the food service industry. According to the results of the survey it has been revealed that the products ordered by a customer (a guest) at the enterprise of the food service industry in the commercial sector should have, in the first place, the following features: beautiful design, flavour and overall quality. Products selected at the foodservice enterprise of the social sphere should be tasty and fresh and have reasonable prices.
MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF MEMBRANE CONCENTRATION IN APPARATUSES WITH THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE POLARIZATION LAYER
A mathematical model of membrane concentration using the Automation Control theory is proposed . The model can be used for describing membrane processes in different kinds of apparatuses that withdraw polarization layer. The model considers technical, constructive and conditional parameters of the membrane apparatus itself and those of the withdraw device. The information scheme of the described model is presented, consisting of two conventional elements - the membrane module and the withdrawal device, which is a basic representation of apparatuses that withdraw polarization layer. Also, the information schema contains information relations. In addition, to connect the membrane module and the withdrawal device, the scheme has been modified with intermediate parameters which are output for the membrane module and input for the withdrawal device. A technique for calculating the transfer function of a system is described. Comparative evaluation of the values obtained using the given model and the experimental values of the industrial pilot membrane apparatus have been done. The difference between experimental data and observational studies with different parameters of the process does not exceed 10%. Based on the evaluation results, it has been concluded that the proposed mathematical model describes the modeling object adequately and has sufficient predictive power to be used in the calculation of industrial installations. Based on the results of experimental studies of the industrial pilot plant, theregression equation has been obtained. The regression equation connects the concentration of the withdrawn polarization layer with technological parameters, whose rational values have been obtained.