Volume 48, Issue 3, 2018
The paper features some practical and theoretical achievements made by the federal level Scientific school of Living Systems (7510.2010.4) headquartered at the North-Caucasus Federal University. The article describes the principles of non-waste technology in milk whey production. The sustainable use of milk whey presupposes its conditioning before technological processing. Moreover, all components of milk whey are put into use: concentrates, high-quality lactose, and such derivatives as prebiotics, especially lactulose.
The present research features comparative data on the dynamics of meat production and consumption in the Republic of Buryatia. The analysis revealed stability and a slight increase in meat production and consumption per capita. The main sources of raw meat in Buryatia are cattle, sheep, and pigs, whereas goats, horses, and yaks make up a small part of farm animals in the region and serve as an additional source of valuable animal protein. The article contains a review of academic literature that showed a growing interest in yak meat studies, e.g. its nutritional value and use in meat products. The present research demonstrated that the nutritional and biological value of yak meat was similar to beef. However, yak meat proved to be tough, dark in color, and with a specific taste and smell. According to the experimental studies, the nutritional value of yak meat depends on the altitude of habitat. For instance, the higher the altitude, the larger the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The content of connective proteins, which can affect the consistency of the end product, was higher by 12.1% in yak meat than in beef. The experiment showed that the process of glycolysis in yak meat was 24 hours longer than in beef. The yak meat was tough due to the higher level of connective proteins, while its darker colour could be explained by the high content of myoglobin. These properties should be taken into account in the production of highquality meat products.
The most effective way to store microorganisms of different taxonomic groups is at low temperatures from minus 12°C to minus 150°C. The present research features the influence of low temperature (minus 12°C and 18°C) on the viability of collection strains of actinomycetes Streptomyces lucensis VKPM Ac-1743 and Streptomyces violaceus VKPM Ac-1734, producers of glycosidase inhibitors. The strains were stored without a cryoprotector in a 15% glycerol solution and 0.9% sodium chloride aqueous liquid. The research objective was to check their ability to keep their inhibitor activity against pancreatic amylase during corn starch hydrolysate fermentation. The experiment made it possible to determine the titer (CFU in 1 cm3 of the initial inoculum) and inhibitory activity against pancreatic α-amylase. It was revealed that Streptomyces lucensis and Streptomyces violaceus strains in cell initial concentrations of 107 and 108 CFU/cm3 maintained high viability level during four months conservation in 15% glycerol solution and 0.9% sodium chloride aqueous solution at the temperatures of minus 12 °C and minus 18 °C. Most cells survived at the conservation in a 15% glycerol solution at minus 18 °C. The inhibitor activity level in cultural liquid was higher in Streptomyces lucensis and Streptomyces violaceus strains kept in 15% glycerol solution at low the temperatures than in those kept in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The cultures kept in a 15% glycerol solution at minus 18 °C had higher inhibitor activity indicators 2600 ± 200 IU/cm3 . The research proved that low-temperature storage of Streptomyces produces no negative effect on the viability and biosynthetic activity of the cultures.
It is a modern trend to use various types of plant materials in food formulae. Such an approach improves the technological properties of meat and prolongs the shelf-life of finished products. Flaxseed flour is one of the most advantageous plant crops with antioxidant properties. The present research features the effect of flaxseed flour on the oxidative processes of combined minced poultry and the synergistic effect of flaxseed flour with antioxidant additives, including ascorbic acid (0.05%), sodium citrate (0.03%), and α-tocopherol (0.02%). The paper presents an experimental research on oxidation of lipid and protein fractions of minced meat in semi- smoked sausages according to the amount of flaxseed flour that was introduced in the formula alone or in combination with various additives of antioxidant action. When 5–10% of hydrated flaxseed flour was added into the minced meat, it resulted in an inhibition of lipid oxidation. In the combined minced meat at a storage temperature of 0–4°C, the content of secondary oxidation products remained within the acceptable limits defined by safety standards (2 mg MA/kg) up to 4 days. However, this level was exceeded after only 3 days of storage in the control sample. The experiment made it possible to define the indicators characterizing the development of oxidation processes of the color-forming proteins of minced meat with the addition of flaxseed flour, including the amount of common pigments,metpigments, nitric oxide pigments, and heme iron. The indicators proved the stabilizing effect of flax flour on the coloration of the combined minced meat systems. From the point of view of inhibiting the oxidation of the lipid and protein components, the maximum synergistic effect was provided by two combinations: 1) flaxseed flour and sodium citrate; 2) flaxseed flour, sodium citrate, and α-tocopherol.
In response to the current devaluation of the ruble, the Russian Government takes measures to support exporters. Thus, the most important factor of sustainable development of rural territories is their commitment to export, which explains the relevance of the present research that features the problems and top trends of grain export in the Omsk region. The theoretical part of the study develops the concept and properties of sustainable development of rural territories, its dependence on the efficiency of agricultural producers, and the situation in the Omsk region. The survey part of the paper investigates the grain export in 2015–2017: the share of the Omsk region in Russian grain export; the share of grain export in the total volume of export sales the dynamics of grain export and a review of factors of influence; a structural and dynamic analysis of various exports; assessment of wheat export structure by types and categories; a survey of channels of distribution of export grain (geography); an analysis of the logistic factors that limit export operations. The authors stress the positive influence of grain export on the uniform distribution of annual cash flows among the producers, which reduces the seasonal character of grain production. The trends can be explained by the specifics of grain crops, Russia’s foreign trade policy, and the logistic opportunities of the Omsk region. Sustainable development of the region requires a higher volume of grain export, which directly depends on the wellbeing of agricultural enterprises and farms. In general, the export potential of the Omsk region will contribute to the sustainable development of its rural territories. The research results can be used in various studies connected with grain export planning and sustainable development of rural territories.
According to the most progressive views on nutrition, the composition of food products should involve certain vital nutrients, hence the rapid development of functional, or fortified foods. An analysis of the diet of the Russian population showed a 33% lack of native proteins. Proteins serve as regulators of the genetic function of nucleic acids, participate as enzymes in all stages of the biosynthesis of polypeptides, store and transport oxygen, and perform an immunological function. The research objective was to develop a technology for producing jelly marmalade of high biological value by using milk protein. The studies were performed at the All-Russian Research Institute of the confectionery industry (a branch of V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems). The authors employed standard methods, e.g. physico-chemical, rheological, and organoleptic. The research featured jelly marmalade because it has a low nutritional value and a large amount of carbohydrates (70%). To fortify the product, the researchers used concentrated milk and whey proteins with a 80% protein content and a high biological value index (53%–170%). Gelatin served as the gelling agent. Its protein content was 87.2%. The experiment made it possible to establish the optimal ratio of sugar and molasses, the amount of gelling agent (8%), the amount of milk and whey protein concentrates (5%), and the influence of proteins on the viscosity of the jelly mass and its formation. The authors developed a method that makes it possible to introduce protein concentrates into the process of jelly boiling while preventing protein denaturation. The new technology produces jelly marmalade with milk protein content 11.2 g per 100 g, which means that the energy value of the product is 14.2%. According to regulatory documentation, such a product is deemed as a “source of protein”.
The existing methods of disinfection of containers for fermented milk products proved to be ineffective. The present research featured an antimicrobial preparation based on silver, copper, and zinc nanoparticles as a disinfectant solution. The authors studied the properties of the antimicrobial in order to prove its effectiveness in processing containers to increase the shelf-life of fermented milk products. The size of the silver nanoparticles ranged from 1 to 10 nm. The nanoscale particles of copper were obtained by the method of electric explosion. It was established that the mass fraction of the active substance (active metals) in the antimicrobial was 50.1%; the mass fraction of water was 11.2%; the mass fraction of hydrogen peroxide was 1.0%. To assess the ability of the antimicrobial to increase shelf-life of fermented milk products, the authors analyzed the microbiological properties of cottage cheese. The 50-gram samples were packed in pre-treated polyethylene containers that had been cleaned with the antimicrobial. After that the samples were left for storage at minus 4 ± 1°C. The quality and the microbiological state of the cottage cheese was evaluated on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13, which was justified by the experimental conditions and regulatory documentation. Eventually, it was established that the product contained no pathogenic bacteria, such as L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E. coli, staphylococci, yeast, molds or any viable microbial cells. It was proved that the test sample retained its consumer properties for 13 days, while the control sample was found unusable by day 7. Thus, by using the antimicrobial, it was possible to increase the shelf life of the dairy product by more than 5 days.
Influence of Various Technological Factors on the Composition of Anthocyanins in Black Currant Wine Production
Anthocyanins obtained from raw fruit have valuable biological and antioxidant properties, hence the relevance of any research aimed at the development of technological solutions for their maximum preservation in wine. The present research features the changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of anthocyanins found in black currant during wine production with the use of enzymatic maceration of the pulp. The authors determined the most effective ways of increasing the concentration of anthocyanins in the finished product. They used the method of pH-differential spectrophotometry to evaluate the total content of monomeric anthocyanins in the samples and the HPLC method to determine the concentration of individual anthocyanins. The DPPH and ABTS methods were used to measure the antioxidant activity. The pulp of black currant was treated according to four schemes: 1) heat maceration; 2) heat maceration with enzymatic treatment; 3) enzymatic maceration at the optimum temperature for enzyme activity; 4) enzymatic maceration at a low temperature. Eleven anthocyanins were identified in the black currant juice, most of which were glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin. The highest extraction of anthocyanins was observed when the pulp was processed with the help of Fructozim Kolor enzyme preparation at 22–23°C during four hours. As a result, the proportion of delphinidins decreased while the proportion of cianidins rose by 9%. When the pulp was heated to ≥ 45°C, it led to an intensification of the redox process and formation of insoluble complexes of anthocyanins with the nitrogenous compounds, which reduced the total concentration of anthocyanins. It was established that in the process of fermentation, the anthocyanin concentration decreased by 19–58%, depending on the race of yeast. For fermentation of blackcurrant wort, the authors recommend the following races of yeast: Moscow 30, Blackcurrant 7, and UWY SP1. The research revealed that the antioxidant properties of black currant wort and wine increased when the total concentration of anthocyanins was high.
Milk coagulation is one of the most important technological operations in the production of many dairy products, such as cheeses or yogurt. Recently, there has been a surge of interest for plant-based milk substitutes. Besides, under certain conditions, milk-like colloid systems are able to form curds. This quality makes it possible to obtain cheese-like and yoghurt-like products. This makes the issue of coagulation mechanisms in milk-like systems even more relevant. The authors conducted a review of the main physicochemical properties of milk and milk-like systems and proposed a model that describes the colloidal stability of cow milk proteins and plant proteins of milk-like systems. In both cases, it was the electric charge that provided colloidal stability of the systems. The charge was caused by dissociation of some functional groups of protein complexes. The authors believe that phosphorus-containing organic compounds help to maintain the colloidal stability of milk and plant-based milk-like systems. This explains the important role of calcium and magnesium in the coagulation of milk and plant-based milk-like systems. The paper describes the mechanism of rennet, acid, and acid-rennet milk coagulation. It contains an explanation for the coagulation of plant-based milk analogues under the action of acid and solutions of calcium and magnesium salts. The authors propose a hypothesis that explains the temperature dependence of the coagulation in milk and milk-like systems.
The development of new functional foods that contribute to the preservation and improvement of human health is one of the priorities in the food industry. In this regard, the production and sales of sugar confectionery products with low energy value and various enriching additives are gradually increasing, including those meant for diabetic therapeutic and dietary preventive nutrition. At the same time, the share of these products remains insignificant. The research prospective was to develop a technology for the production of marshmallow, which reduces the risk of obesity and type II diabetes. The study featured three samples of marshmallow: with granulated sugar, fructose, and inulin. The research determined the functional properties of the finished product. Three female volunteers (21, 32, and 45 years old) participated in the experiment. It was established that the replacement of granulated sugar with a natural sweetener, namely fructose and a mixture of fructose and inulin, led to a decrease in the body’s hyperglycemic response half an hour after consuming the analyzed sample, and resulted in a smooth sugar curve. Thus, natural additives and biologically active substances make sugar confectionery products functional, which is a priority for the development of the confectionery industry.
One of the current priorities of food supply for military personnel in the Far North and the Russian Arctic is to preserve its nutrition quality while maintaining the mass of food ration. To implement this task, the author proposes to produce soft wheat pasta with animal protein and high nutrient content (retinol, i.e. vitamin A, minerals, mineral nutrients, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids). Beef liver was added to the pasta as an enriching additive in the amount of 30% of the total dough. The composition of the ingredients, their quantity, and the effect on the amount of nutrients in the modified food product were calculated according to a specially designed program. Modernized equipment made it possible to use ultrasound and infrared radiation to intensify the technology of pasta production. A device for ultrasonic magnetostriction processing of flour reduced the contamination of wheat flour with pathogenic microorganisms and mold. An ultrasound press made it possible to use low gluten wheat flour. Modernization of the drying equipment by including sources of ultrasound and infrared radiation accelerated the process of drying. As a result, the pasta with a high content of animal protein did not lose in quality. The experimental studies revealed empirical dependency between the quality of the pasta and the ultrasound and infrared radiation. Intensification of the production of pasta with animal protein and a high nutrient content was 22–26%, while the strength of the finished product increased by 20–25%.
The research featured the development of formulae and technologies for the production of biologically active additives (BAA) for functional foods with potential adaptogenic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. Shilajit, a natural mineral-organic substrate, and various plant materials were used as sources of natural biologically active substances (BAS). The relevance of the study comes from the need for more efficient use of natural biologically active compounds, as well as from the need to expand the range of domestic dietary supplements with natural ingredients, which resulted from the current import substitution. Scientific data and experimental studies made it possible to choose advantageous raw materials with BAS and to assess their safety and potential properties. An experiment determined the content of BAS in the raw materials and in the control samples. A compatibility test wasconducted by mixing. As a result, five formulae with various combinations of natural components in the composition were scientifically substantiated. The authors defined the physicochemical and technological properties of the mixtures of dry extracts that determined the choice of technology and the quality of the finished product. The present paper also describes technology of obtaining encapsulated dietary supplements based on dry extracts of medicinal plants and shilajit. The advantage of the technology lies in the use of natural components and special processing methods of BAS preservation. The research included the method of water-activated granulation while 20% ethyl was used as a wetting agent. To obtain the granulate, lactose (Russia) and AEROSIL® 200 Pharma (Evonik Industries, Germany) were used as additive agents. As a result, capsules with a dosage of 700 mg were developed. The BAA can be produced on food and pharmaceutical plants.
The resources of natural solid fats that used in various branches of the food industry are limited. As a result, they are often substituted by chemically and physically modified fats. Until recently, hydrogenation was the main method of modification of fats. Modification allows for products with a high hardness and sufficient resilience to oxidation due to a large amount of trans-isomers. Since the legislation in the sphere of food industry is changing, producers have to look for new solutions for fat-containing products that would correspond with the new restrictions for trans-isomers of fatty acids. The present paper contains a review of modern methods of modified fats production with a reduced content of trans-isomers of fatty acids. It also features some theoretical and practical aspects of multistage fractionation of tropical oils. The authors describe the characteristic of the products of palm oil fractionation and give some recommendations on how various fractions can be applied in milk-containing products. The research included a comparative analysis of various ways of interesterification applied in world practice of jellied fats production. The experiment included interesterification of mixes of the fractioned solid and liquid vegetable oils that can be used in milk-containing products. A specific ratio of raw ingredients in the initial makes it possible to achieve the required technological properties of the final product, as well as to increase its biological efficiency due to linoleic acid. Plastic fats reduce or completely cut the consumption of hydrogenated fats in milk-containing products while increasing their nutrition value, shelf life, and trans-isomeric indicators.
Thermal Treatment in Milk Processing: Using a Complex Energy- Substitution Equipment during Preliminary Water Heating
Energy input affects the final cost of dairy products. The paper features energy cost optimization in dairy industry and, in particular, in the production of cultured milk foods. The present research studies the options for renewable energy sources in dairy industry: solar system is becoming a very promising means of energy saving in the southern regions. The authors proposed a complex energy substitution device, which can reduce the electricity costs by 60–70%, according to preliminary calculations. The results obtained in the theoretical underpinning of design parameters and operation modes were checked by experimental studies. For the experiment, the authors designed and manufactured a water heating system based on flat solar collectors. An instrument complex registered temperature values in eight different control points and transferred the signals to a PC hard disk. The article presents the parameters of the equipment in pasteurization and milk fermentation processes with the use of the complex energy substitution device for water heating. The equipment can be used by large-scale dairy enterprises, since the area of the collectors for the preliminary water heating is 2 m2, which provides 150 litters of water with a temperature of 45–60°C. As the normative parameters of the temperature during the milk fermentation process is 32–35°C, and the water temperature in the device is 45–60°C, it can be concluded that the thermal costs are fully covered.
Milk and dairy products play an important role in human diet due to their high nutritional and biological value, as well as to their easy digestibility. Milk powder makes it possible to improve the seasonal character of dairy foods. As a solvent in the production of reconstituted milk, water can significantly affect the quality of the finished product. In this regard, the problem of water quality and its preparation for the production of reconstituted milk is highly relevant. The method of separate freezing allows one to reduce the number of pre-treatment stages and energy costs. The research objectives were 1) to establish the effect of separate freezing on water quality indicators, 2) to determine the solubility index of milk powder in water prepared by the method in question, 3) to definethe energy costs. The research was carried out on the basis of the Department of Heat, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Equipment (Kemerovo State University). The study was conducted with the help of a tank crystallizer with a controlling and measuring complex for registration of temperatures at temperatures from minus 2 to minus 10 C. In defining the quality of water and reconstituted milk, the authors used standard methods for determining its organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters. The study made it possible to define the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters of water before and after separate freezing, the solubility index of dry milk, and the quality of reconstituted milk obtained by the method. The research revealed that it is energetically more advantageous to carry out the procedure at the temperature of minus 2 C. The present paper describes the numerous advantages of the method in that it reduces: 1) the dry residue content in tap water by 8 times, 2) the overall hardness of water by 2.5 times, 3) the content of chlorides and fluorides by 1.7 and 1.9 times, respectively, 4) the solubility index of milk powder from 0.35 to 0.1 cm3. All these factors improve the quality of reconstituted milk.
Organic food products are a complex object of technical regulation. It combines, on the one hand, the requirements to finished food products and the production processes, and, on the other hand, the principles of organic agriculture. In terms of organic products and features of its production, the Russian Federation is at the initial stage of legal framework formation, while the USA and EU countries have been involved in these issues for more than 20 years. However, the development of organic agriculture and the production of appropriate products have good prospects in Russia. The experience of countries with high growth rates of organic production showed that the key points for the successful formation of the organic food sector is the establishment of the legal framework and the development of state regulation and control. According to the law established in 2018, organic products are environmentally friendly agricultural products, raw materials, and food that meet the requirements of the Federal law of August 3, 2018, No. 280-FL: “On organic products and amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation”. The law will be the basis for legal self-determination of organic products and processes of their production. It might also serve as a stimulus for the formation and development of the organic sector of food products in Russia. The present review features a retrospective analysis of the formation of international regulatory norms in the sphere of organic products, the corresponding international laws, and the experience of advanced countries, as well as the current state of the legislation in some former Soviet republics and the Russian Federation.
The present research features the Russian flour-milling industry. Flour manufacturers are a key component of the bread- baking complex of Russia, which ensures the food security of the country in the conditions of import substitution. However, large flour mills have recently experienced a decrease in profitability indicators, and production of low-quality flour by illegal producers has increased. Hence, the quality management system of flour milling enterprises requires new methodological approaches to assess the effectiveness of quality control procedures and innovative ways to improve product quality management that would ensure the competitive advantage. Quality management should be based on representative information obtained by using differential or complex methods, with numerical values established by measuring various indicators of product quality, i.e. objective and subjective. The quality assessment system should be used to determine the quality level at each stage of the innovation process, which will allow for effective management decisions. The considered quality assessment methods were adapted to the sectoral specifics of the milling industry, since the efficiency of grain processing largely depends on the stability of regimes at all its stages. The paper introduces an economic and mathematical model that includes the calculation of three groups of assessment indicators: the quality of preparation of raw materials for grinding, the quality of the technological process, and the technical level of production. The performance indicators of their activities proved to be significantly affected by the quality characteristics of the processed raw materials, the efficiency of process control, and the use of the potential of the technical level of production. The analytical studies conducted by the authors revealed trends in the product quality management at sectoral enterprises and proved the need to use system-oriented innovative solutions at all stages of flour production.
Consumption of unprocessed meat products in the conditions of increasing and subsequent preservation of achieved meat production volumes in the Russian Federation is continue to increase. At present, semi-finished products occupied first in the overall structure of production and consumption meat products, having overtaken in aggregate all types of processed products. In the background of increasing competition between domestic producers, the requirements for the packaging of the main types of unprocessed products – cuts and lumpy semi-finished products – will be continue to increase as an important driver of sales. Research studies play an important role in the development of packaging solutions for industry. This review focuses on the main areas of scientists studying from different countries. Modern scientific achievement in the field of vacuum packaging for chilled meat and semi-finished products including heat-shrinkable materials and skin packaging are presented. Special attention was paid to the forming safety and quality indexes of meat products, as well as functionality and “barrier” of packaging materials. Basic aspects of modified atmosphere packaging with different gas mixture including monoxide carbon and high oxygen using to maintain the desirable bright red color meat are considered.The further directions for development of technology sous-vide are discussed, as well as active and intelligent packaging. The search for new ideas in the field of active and smart packaging will help for better controlling shelf life, regulating freshness and maintaining stable quality of meat products.