ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Oxidation Processes of Combined Meat Systems with Poultry Meat and Flaxseed Flour

It is a modern trend to use various types of plant materials in food formulae. Such an approach improves the technological properties of meat and prolongs the shelf-life of finished products. Flaxseed flour is one of the most advantageous plant crops with antioxidant properties. The present research features the effect of flaxseed flour on the oxidative processes of combined minced poultry and the synergistic effect of flaxseed flour with antioxidant additives, including ascorbic acid (0.05%), sodium citrate (0.03%), and α-tocopherol (0.02%). The paper presents an experimental research on oxidation of lipid and protein fractions of minced meat in semi- smoked sausages according to the amount of flaxseed flour that was introduced in the formula alone or in combination with various additives of antioxidant action. When 5–10% of hydrated flaxseed flour was added into the minced meat, it resulted in an inhibition of lipid oxidation. In the combined minced meat at a storage temperature of 0–4°C, the content of secondary oxidation products remained within the acceptable limits defined by safety standards (2 mg MA/kg) up to 4 days. However, this level was exceeded after only 3 days of storage in the control sample. The experiment made it possible to define the indicators characterizing the development of oxidation processes of the color-forming proteins of minced meat with the addition of flaxseed flour, including the amount of common pigments,metpigments, nitric oxide pigments, and heme iron. The indicators proved the stabilizing effect of flax flour on the coloration of the combined minced meat systems. From the point of view of inhibiting the oxidation of the lipid and protein components, the maximum synergistic effect was provided by two combinations: 1) flaxseed flour and sodium citrate; 2) flaxseed flour, sodium citrate, and α-tocopherol.
Flaxseed flour, poultry meat, oxidation, lipids, pigments, color characteristics
  1. Belyavskaya I.G., Bogatyreva T.G., Yudina T.A., et al. Flax floura Source of Antioxidants in Bakery Products for a HealthyDiet. Food processing industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 32–34. (In Russ.).
  2. Gonotskiy V.A. and Fedina L.P. Dinamika kachestvennykh kharakteristik myasa ptitsy pri khranenii [Dynamics of qualitative characteristics of poultry meat during storage]. Meat Industry, 2004, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 25–28. (In Russ.).
  3. State Standart 55810-2013. Meat and meat products. Method for determination of tiobarbituric acid reactive assay. Moscow: Standartinform Publ., 2014. 8 p.
  4. Zhuravskaya N.K., Alekhina L.T., and Otryashenkova L.M. Issledovanie i kontrolʹ kachestva myasa i myasoproduktov [Research and quality control of meat and meat products]. Moscow: Agropromizdat Publ., 1985. 296 p. (In Russ.).
  5. Makhonina V.N. Biological value comparative assessement of meat raw material from slaughtered animals and poultry. Poultry and Poultry Processing, 2015, no. 3, pp. 26–28. (In Russ.).
  6. Rudnitskaya Y.I. and Berezovikova I.P. Nutritional Quality of Minced Meat Products with “Flax Flour” Addition. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology, 2010, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 42–45. (In Russ.).
  7. Karre E.A. An overview of some natural antioxidants used in meat and poultry products. Master of Science, Kansas, 2009. 71 p.
  8. Kim H.-W., Choi Y.-S., Choi J.-H., et al. Antioxidant effects of soy sauce on color stability and lipid oxidation of raw beef patties during cold storage. Meat Science, 2013, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 641–646. DOI:
  9. Clark E.M., Mahoney A.W., and Carpenter C.E. Haem and Total Iron in Ready-to-Eat Chicken. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1997, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 124–126. DOI:
  10. Falowo B.A., Fayemi P.O., and Muchenje V. Review natural antioxidants against lipid–protein oxidative deterioration in meat and meat products. Food Research International, 2014, vol. 64, pp. 171–181. DOI:
  11. Anjum F.M., Haider M.F., Khan M.I., Sohaib M., and Arshad M.S. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products. Lipids in Health and Disease, 2013, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 13. DOI:
  12. Adolphe J.L., Whiting S.J., Juurlink B.H.J., Thorpe L.U., and Alcorn J. Health effects with consumption of the flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. British Journal of Nutrition, 2010, vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 929–938. DOI: S0007114509992753.
  13. Kasote D.M. Flaxseed phenolics as natural antioxidants. International Food Research Journal, 2013, vol 20, no. 1, pp. 27–34.
  14. Krzywicki K. The determination of haem pigment in meat. Meat Science, 1982, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 29–36. DOI: https://doi. org/10.1016/0309-1740(82)90095-X.
  15. Lee B.J., Hendricks D.G., and Cornforth D.P. A comparison of carnosine and ascorbic acid on color and lipid stability in a ground beef patties model system. Meat Science, 1999, vol. 51, no 3, pp. 245–253. DOI:
  16. Lindsay R.C. Flavors. In: Damodaran S., Pakrin K., and Fennema O.R. (eds) Fennema’s Food Chemistry. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Publ., 2007, pp. 639–687.
  17. Faustman C., Sun Q., Mancini R., and Suman S.P. Myoglobin and lipid oxidation interactions: Mechanistic bases and control. Meat Science, 2010, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 86–94. DOI:
  18. Ozer O. and Saricoban C. The effects of butylated hydroxyanisole, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on some quality characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken patty during freeze storage. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 2010, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 150–160.
  19. Imran M., Ahmad N., Anjum F., et al. Potential protective properties of flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.Nutrition Journal, 2015, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 7. DOI:
  20. Sahoo J. and Anjaneyuld A.S.R. Effect of Natural Antioxidants and Vacuum Packaging on the Quality of Buffalo Meat Nuggets during Refrigerated Storage. Meat Science, 1997, vol. 47, no. 3–4, pp. 223–230. DOI: 1740(97)00053-3.
  21. Moraes E.A., Dantas M., Morais D., et al. Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of cakes prepared with whole flaxseed flour. Food Science and Technology, 2010, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 974–979. DOI:
  22. Gheisari H.R., Moller J.K.S., Adamsen C.E., and Skibsted L.H. Sodium chloride or heme protein induced lipid oxidation in raw, minced chicken meat and beef. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 2010, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 364–375.
  23. Vaclavkova E., Volek Z., Belkova J., et al. Effect of linseed and the combination of conjugated linoleic acid and linseed on the quality and oxidative stability of pig meat and subcutaneous fat. Veterinarni Medicina, 2016, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 428–435. DOI:
  24. Waszkowiak K. and Rudzinska M. Effect of Flaxseed Meals and Extracts on Lipid Stability in a Stored Meat Product.Journal American Oil Chemistry Society, 2014, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 979–987. DOI:
  25. Zanwar A.A., Hegde M.V., and Bodhankar S.L. In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Linum usitatissimum. Pharmacologyonline, 2010, vol. 1, pp. 683–696.
How to quote?
About journal