ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Influence of Various Technological Factors on the Composition of Anthocyanins in Black Currant Wine Production

Anthocyanins obtained from raw fruit have valuable biological and antioxidant properties, hence the relevance of any research aimed at the development of technological solutions for their maximum preservation in wine. The present research features the changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of anthocyanins found in black currant during wine production with the use of enzymatic maceration of the pulp. The authors determined the most effective ways of increasing the concentration of anthocyanins in the finished product. They used the method of pH-differential spectrophotometry to evaluate the total content of monomeric anthocyanins in the samples and the HPLC method to determine the concentration of individual anthocyanins. The DPPH and ABTS methods were used to measure the antioxidant activity. The pulp of black currant was treated according to four schemes: 1) heat maceration; 2) heat maceration with enzymatic treatment; 3) enzymatic maceration at the optimum temperature for enzyme activity; 4) enzymatic maceration at a low temperature. Eleven anthocyanins were identified in the black currant juice, most of which were glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin. The highest extraction of anthocyanins was observed when the pulp was processed with the help of Fructozim Kolor enzyme preparation at 22–23°C during four hours. As a result, the proportion of delphinidins decreased while the proportion of cianidins rose by 9%. When the pulp was heated to ≥ 45°C, it led to an intensification of the redox process and formation of insoluble complexes of anthocyanins with the nitrogenous compounds, which reduced the total concentration of anthocyanins. It was established that in the process of fermentation, the anthocyanin concentration decreased by 19–58%, depending on the race of yeast. For fermentation of blackcurrant wort, the authors recommend the following races of yeast: Moscow 30, Blackcurrant 7, and UWY SP1. The research revealed that the antioxidant properties of black currant wort and wine increased when the total concentration of anthocyanins was high.
Qualitative and quantitative composition of anthocyanins, enzymatic maceration, fermentation, antioxidant activity
  1. Prichko T.G. and Germanova M.G. Khimicheskiy sostav yagod chernoy smorodiny, proizrastayushchey na yuge Rossii [The chemical composition of black currant from the South of Russia]. Selʹskokhozyaystvennye nauki i agropromyshlennyy kompleks na rubezhe vekov [Agricultural Sciences and the Agro-Industrial Complex at the Turn of the Century], 2014, no. 5, pp. 93–96. (In Russ.).
  2. Zhbanova E.V. Variability of Chemical Composition of Black Currant Fruit in Various Regions. Agrarian Russia, 2012, no. 1, pp. 10–13. (In Russ.).
  3. Dejneka L.A., Shaposhnik E.I., Gostishhev D.A., et al. VEHZHKH v kontrole antotsianovogo sostava plodov chernoy smorodiny [High-efficiency liquid chromatography in controlling the anthocyanin composition of black currant]. Sorption and Chromatographic Processes, 2009, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 529–536. (In Russ.).
  4. Gavrilova V., Kajdžanoska M., Gjamovski V., and Stefova M. Separation, Characterization and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds in Blueberries and Red and Black Currants by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2011, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 4009–4018. DOI:
  5. Czyzowska A. and Pogorzelski E. Canges to polyphenols in the production of must and wines from blackcurrants and cherries. Part II. Anthocyanins and flavanols. European Food Research and Technology, 2004, vol. 218, no. 4, pp. 355–359. DOI:
  6. Panasyuk A.L., Kuzmina E.I., Rozina L.I., and Letfullina D.R. Anthocyanins of Coloured Fruits and Berries as Well as Prepared from them Fruit Wine Materials. Winemaking and viticulture, 2016, no. 5, pp. 15–19. (In Russ.).
  7. Wang H., Cao G., and Prior R.L. Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacity of Anthocyanins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1997, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 304–309. DOI:
  8. Clifford M.N. Anthocyanins – nature, occurrence and dietary burden. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2000, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1063–1072. DOI:<1063::AID-JSFA605>3.0.CO;2-Q.
  9. Kong J.M., Chia L.S., Goh N.K., Chia T.F., and Brouillard R. Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins. Phytochemistry, 2003, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 923–933. DOI:
  10. Hou D.X. Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins. Current Molecular Medicine, 2003, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 149–159. DOI:
  11. Lila M.A. Anthocyanins and human health: an in vitro investigative approach. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2004, vol. 2004, no. 5, pp. 306–313. DOI:
  12. Makarevich A.M., Shutova A.G., Spiridovich E.V., and Reshetnikov V.N. Funktsii i svoystva antotsianov rastitelʹnogo syrʹya [Functions and properties of anthocyanins in plant raw materials]. Vestnik BSU, 2009, vol. 4, part 2, pp. 147–157. (In Russ.).
  13. Koponen J.M., Buchert J., Poutanen K.S., and Törrönen A.R. Effect of pectinolytic juice production on the extractability and fate of bilberry and black currant anthocyanins. European Food Research and Technology. 2008, vol. 227, no. 2, pp. 485–494. DOI:
  14. Panasyuk A.L, Linetskaya A.E., Rozina L.I., Pelih L.A., and Shur I.M. Efficiency of polycanescine at manufacture of plum fermented and spirit wine-materials. Winemaking and viticulture, 2007, no. 5, pp. 12–15. (In Russ.).
  15. Gnetko L.V., Beljavtseva T.A., and Ageeva N.M. Fermental preparations of Fruktotsim group. Winemaking and viticulture, 2010, no. 3, pp. 7–9. (In Russ.).
  16. Panasjuk A.L., Kuzmina E.I., Slavskaja S.L., Harlamova L.N., and Egorova O.S. Tekhnologicheskie aspekty polucheniya vysokokachestvennykh plodovykh vin s vysokoy antioksidantnoy aktivnostʹyu [Technological aspects of obtaining high-quality fruit wines with high antioxidant activity]. Novatsii i ehffektivnostʹ proizvodstvennykh protsessov v vinogradarstve i vinodelii : sbornik trudov konferentsii [Innovations and efficiency of production processes in viticulture and winemaking: conference proceedings]. Krasnodar, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 151–154. (In Russ.).
  17. Panasuk A.L., Kuzmina E.I., Slavskaja S.L., Harlamova L.N., and Egorova O.S. Modes of pulp processing for preparation of wines from aronia melanocarpa. Winemaking and viticulture, 2006, no. 2, pp. 14–15. (In Russ.).
  18. Perova I.B., Zhogova A.A., Cherkashin A.V., et al. Biologically Active Substances from European Guelder Berry Fruits. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 2014, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 32–39. (In Russ.).
  19. Bondent V., Brand-Williams W., and Berset C. Kinetics and mechanisms of antioxidant activity using the DPPH● free radical method. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1997, no. 30, pp. 609–615.
  20. Re R., Pellegrini N., Proteggente A., et al. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 1999, vol. 26, no. 9–10, pp. 1231–1237. DOI:
  21. Vilanova M., Masneuf-Pomarede I., and Dobourdieu D. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on general composition and sensorial properties of white wines made from Vitis vinifera cv. “Alb-arino”. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 2005, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 79–83.
  22. Vilaño D., Fernández-Pachón M.S., Troncoso A.M., and García-Parrilla M.C. Influence of enological practices on the antioxidant activity of wines. Food Chemistry, 2006, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 394–404. DOI:
How to quote?
About journal