AbstractEnzymatic treatment is a common method of fruit juice production that facilitates juice extraction from plant cells. The choice of enzyme depends on the fruit composition. Pectinase and cellulase are the most popular enzymes while amylase remains less wide-spread. For some raw materials, enzymatic procedures are more efficient than mechanical comminution or thermal processing. The fruit juice industry uses enzymes for streamlining. Enzymes maximize juice extraction from raw materials and improve such processes as pressing, solid settling, and solid removal. Juices that underwent enzymatic treatment are clear and, as a result, more aesthetically appealing to consumers.
The review covered the most recent and influential publications on the enzyme treatment of fruit juices (2000–2021). The list of enzymes included pectinase, cellulase, and amylase. The research included the factors that affect the juice fermentation process, i.e., hydromodule, enzyme concentration, incubation time, temperature, and enzyme combination. The methods included data extraction, data analysis, and data compilation, as well as literature search and screening.
The review focuses on the effects that individual parameters have on specific responses, e.g., yield, viscosity, total soluble solids, acidity, turbidity, clarity, pigment concentration, phenolic content, color, and solids. A greater enzyme concentration, incubation time, and temperature decrease the viscosity of juice and turbidity but cause color changes. If used in different combinations and at different concentrations, enzymes boost the production of bael pulp, banana, sapodilla, durian, pawpaw, grape, white pitaya, and water melon juices. A longer incubation period improves the production of bael pulp, citron, date, and pawpaw juices. However, higher incubation temperatures seem to have no positive effect on the juice yield. Cellulases, pectinases, amylases, and their combinations are able to produce more fruit juice of higher quality with a more favorable time-temperature combination of incubation.
The optimal enzyme concentration, incubation time, and temperature can increase the juice yield. Therefore, enzymatic treatment is an effective method that ensures favorable properties of the finished product.
KeywordsEnzyme, fruit juice, incubation time, incubation temperature, viscosity, color
ContributionL.P. Pui reviewed scientific publications, designed the research, and wrote the manuscript. L.A.K. Saleena processed and analyzed the data, reviewed scientific publications, and edited the manuscript.
CONFLICTS OF INTERESTThe authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article
- Bhat MK. Cellulases and related enzymes in biotechnology. Biotechnology Advances. 2000;18(5):355–383. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0734-9750(00)00041-0
- Chauhan SK, Tyagi SM, Singh D. Pectinolytic liquefaction of apricot, plum, and mango pulps for juice extraction. International Journal of Food Properties. 2001;4(1):103–109. https://doi.org/10.1081/JFP-100002190
- Raveendran S, Parameswaran B, Ummalyma SB, Abraham A, Mathew AK, Madhavan A, et al. Applications of microbial enzymes in food industry. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2018;56(1):16–30. https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.56.01.18.5491
- Ramadan MF. Enzymes in fruit juice processing. In: Kuddus M, editor. Enzymes in food biotechnology. Production, applications, and future prospects. Academic Press; 2029. pp. 45–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813280-7.00004-9
- Michele V. Enzymes in the production of juices and beverages. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;9(3):504–517.
- Panda G, Vivek K, Mishra S, Pradhan RC. Characterization and optimization of process parameters for enzyme assisted extraction of kendu (Diospyros Melanoxylon Roxb.) fruit juice. International Journal of Fruit Science. 2021;21(1):299–311. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2021.1873220
- Santin MM, Treichel H, Valduga E, Cabral LMC, Di Luccio M. Evaluation of enzymatic treatment of peach juice using response surface methodology. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2008;88(3):507–512. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3114
- Schweiggert U, Hofmann S, Reichel M, Schiever A, Carle R. Enzyme-assisted liquefaction of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for the production of spray-dried and paste-like ginger condiments. Journal of Food Engineering. 2008;84(1):28–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.04.013
- Al-Hooti SN, Sidhu JS, Al-Saqer JM, Al-Othman A. Chemical composition and quality of date syrup as affected by pectinase/cellulase enzyme treatment. Food Chemistry. 2002;79(2):215–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00134-6
- Chen X, Xu F, Qin W, Ma L, Zheng Y. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of green asparagus juice using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science. 2012;77(6):C665–C670. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02738.x
- Cesar LT, de Freitas Cabral M, Maia GA, de Figueiredo RW, de Miranda MRA, de Sousa PHM, et al. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;51(11):3293–3300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0809-6
- Sandri IG, Lorenzoni CMT, Fontana RC, da Silveira MM. Use of pectinases produced by a new strain of Aspergillus niger for the enzymatic treatment of apple and blueberry juice. LWT. 2013;51(2):469–475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.10.015
- Singh A, Kumar S, Sharma HK. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the juice yield from bael fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa) pulp. American Journal of Food Technology. 2012;7(2):62–72. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2012.62.72
- Barman S, Sit N, Badwaik LS, Deka SC. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(6):3579–3589. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1413-8
- Abdullah AGL, Sulaiman NM, Aroua MK, Megat Mohd Noor MJ. Response surface optimization of condition for clarification of carambola fruit juice using a commercial enzyme. Journal of Food Engineering. 2007;81(1):65–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.10.013
- Mieszczakowska-Frac M, Markowski J, Zbrzezniak M, Plocharski W. Impact of enzyme on quality of blackcurrant and plum juices. LWT. 2012;49(2):251–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.12.034
- Pinelo M, Zeuner B, Meyer AS. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2010;88(2–3):259–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2009.03.005
- Abbès F, Bouaziz MA, Blecker C, Masmoudi M, Attia H, Besbesa S. Date syrup: Effect of hydrolytic enzymes (pectinase/cellulase) on physicochemical characteristics, sensory and functional properties. LWT. 2011;44(8):1827–1834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.03.020
- Norjana I, Noor Aziah AA. Quality attributes of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) juice after pectinase enzyme treatment. International Food Research Journal. 2011;18(3):1117–1122.
- Lima MS, Dutra MCP, Toaldo IM, Corrêa LC, Pereira GE, Oliveira D, et al. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration. Food Chemistry. 2015;188:384–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.014
- Wilkins MR, Widmer WW, Grohmann K, Cameron RG. Hydrolysis of grapefruit peel waste with cellulase and pectinase enzymes. Bioresource Technology. 2007;98(8):1596–1601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.06.022
- Nguyen VT. Effect of binder and sweeteners on the production of effervescent artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) tea tablets. Journal of Food Process and Preservation. 2013;37(6):1078–1083. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2012.00808.x
- Maktouf S, Neifar M, Drira SJ, Baklouti S, Fendri M, Châabouni SE. Lemon juice clarification using fungal pectinolytic enzymes coupled to membrane ultrafiltration. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2014;92(1):14–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2013.07.003
- Vijayanand P, Kulkarni SG, Prathibha GV. Effect of pectinase treatment and concentration of litchi juice on quality characteristics of litchi juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2010;47(2):235–239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0023-3
- Rai P, Majumdar GC, Jayanti VK, Dasgupta S, De S. Alternative pretreatment methods to enzymatic treatment for clarification of mosambi juice using ultrafiltration. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2006;29(2):202–218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4530.2006.00058.x
- Domingues RCC, Junior SBF, Silva RB, Madrona GS, Cardoso VL, Reis MHM. Evaluation of enzymatic pretreatment of passion fruit juice. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 2011;24:517–522. https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1124087
- Kumar S, Sharma HK. Comparative effect of crude and commercial enzyme on the juice recovery from pineapple (Ananas comosus) using principal component analysis (PCA). Food Science and Biotechnology. 2012;21(4):959–967. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-012-0126-x
- Pal A, Khanum F. Efficacy of xylanase purified from Aspergillus niger DFR-5 alone and in combination with pectinase and cellulose to improve yield and clarity of pineapple juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;48(5):560–568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0175-1
- Rinaldi M, Caligiani A, Borgese R, Palla G, Barbanti D, Massini R. The effect of fruit processing and enzymatic treatments on pomegranate juice composition, antioxidant activity and polyphenols content. LWT. 2013;53(1):355–359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.02.015
- Nur’Aliaa AR, Siti Mazlina MK, Taip FS. Effects of commercial pectinases application on selected properties of red pitaya juice. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2011;34(5):1523–1534. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4530.2009.00388.x
- Sin HN, Yusof S, Sheik Abdul Hamid N, Rahman RA. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of sapodilla juice using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering. 2006;73(4):313–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.01.031
- Saxena A, Maity T, Raju PS, Bawa AS. Degradation kinetics of colour and total carotenoids in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) bulb slices during hot air drying. Food Bioprocess and Technology. 2012;5(2):672–679. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0409-2
- Nur’Aliaa AR, Siti Mazlina MK, Taip FS, Liew Abdullah AG. Response surface optimization for clarification of white pittaya juice using a commercial enzyme. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2010;33(2):333–347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4530.2008.00277.x
- Jayani RS, Saxena S, Gupta R. Microbial pectinolytic enzymes: A review. Process Biochemistry. 2005;40(9):2931–2944. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2005.03.026
- Saxena S. Microbial enzymes and their industrial applications. In: Saxena S, editor. Applied microbiology. New Delhi: Springer; 2015. pp. 121–154. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2259-0_9
- Kashyap DR, Vohra PK, Chopra S, Tewari R. Applications of pectinases in the commercial sector: A review. Bioresource Technology. 2001;77(3):215–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(00)00118-8
- Essa HA, Salama MF. Effect of macerate enzymes on the yield, quality, volatile compounds and rheological property of prickly pear juice. Nahrung. 2002;46(4):245–250. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20020701)46:4<245::AID-FOOD245>3.0.CO;2-I
- Ejaz U, Sohail M, Ghanemi A. Cellulases: From bioactivity to a variety of industrial applications. Biomimetics. 2021;6(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6030044
- Abdullah S, Pradhan RC, Mishra S. Effect of cellulase and tannase on yield, ascorbic acid and other physicochemical properties of cashew apple juice. Fruits. 2021;76(2):51–60. https://doi.org/10.17660/th2021/76.2.1
- Samira B, Mehrdad A, Chamani M, Gerami A. Optimization of enzymatic extraction of sugars from Kabkab date fruit. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2011;7(2):211–216.
- Soy S, Nigam VK, Sharma SR. Enhanced production and biochemical characterization of a thermostable amylase from thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus icigianus BITSNS038. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2021;15(1):730–745. https://doi.org/10.1080/16583655.2021.2002549
- Lee WC, Yusof S, Hamid NSA, Baharin BS. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic clarification of banana juice using response surface methodology (RSM). Journal of Food Engineering. 2006;73(1):55–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.01.005
- Will F, Schulz K, Ludwig M, Otto K, Dietrich H. The influence of enzymatic treatment of mash on the analytical composition of apple juice. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2002;37(6):653–660. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.2002.00597.x
- Padma PN, Sravani P, Misha P, Sneha N, Anuradha K. Synergistic effect of multiple enzymes on apple juice clarification. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;10(10):1–5. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i10/107716
- Borchani M, Masmoudi M, Amira AB, Abbès F, Yaich H, Besbes S, et al. Effect of enzymatic treatment and concentration method on chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of prickly pear syrup. LWT. 2019;113(6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108314
- Handique J, Bora SJ, Sit N. Optimization of banana juice extraction using combination of enzymes. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019;56(6):3732–3743. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03845-z
- Heffels P, Bührle F, Schieber A, Weber F. Influence of common and excessive enzymatic treatment on juice yield and anthocyanin content and profile during bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juice production. European Food Research and Technology. 2017;243(1):59–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-016-2722-0
- Mohanty S, Mishra S, Pradhan RC. Optimization of enzymatic extraction and characterization of palm (Borassus flabellifer) juice. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2018;12(5):2644–2656. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-018-9882-5
- Ji Y-J, Im M-H. Optimization of blue berry extraction for beverage production using enzyme treatment. Korean Journal of Food Preservation. 2017;24(1):60–67. https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2017.24.1.60
- Navarrete-Solis A, Hengl N, Ragazzo-Sánchez JA, Baup S, Calderón-Santoyo M, Pignon F, et al. Rheological and physicochemical stability of hydrolyzed jackfruit juice (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) processed by spray drying. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019;57(2):663–672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04098-6
- Chang LS, Karim R, Mohammed AS, Ghazali HM. Characterization of enzyme-liquefied soursop (Annona muricata L.) puree. LWT. 2018;94(8):40–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.04.027
- Bora SJ, Handique J, Sit N. Effect of ultrasound and enzymatic pre-treatment on yield and properties of banana juice. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2017;37(5):445–451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.01.039
- Ninga KA, Carly Desobgo ZS, De S, Jong Nso E. Pectinase hydrolysis of guava pulp: Effect on the physicochemical characteristics of its juice. Heliyon. 2021;7(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08141
- Lim LBL, Chieng HI, Wimmer FL. Nutrient composition of Artocarpus champeden and its hybrid (Nanchem) in Negara Brunei Darussalam. ASEAN Journal of Science and Technology for Development. 2011;28(2):122–138. https://doi.org/10.29037/ajstd.39
- Ferri M, Bin S, Vallini V, Fava F, Michelini E, Roda A, et al. Recovery of polyphenols from red grape pomace and assessment of their antioxidant and anti-cholesterol activities. New Biotechnology. 2016;33(3):338–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2015.12.004
- Tze NL, Han CP, Yusof YA, Ling CN, Talib RA, Taip FS, et al. Physicochemical and nutritional properties of spray-dried pitaya fruit powder as natural colorant. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2012;21(3):675–682. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-012-0088-z
- Tadakittisarn S, Haruthaithanasan V, Chompreeda P, Suwonsichon T. Optimization of pectinase enzyme liquefaction of banana “Gros Michel” for banana syrup production”, Kasetsart Journal – Natural Science. 2007;41(4):740–750.
- Kaur S, Sarkar BC, Sharma HK, Singh C. Response surface optimization of conditions for the clarification of guava fruit juice using commercial enzyme. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2011;34(4):1298–1318. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4530.2009.00414.x
- Djokoto D, Dzogbefia VP, Oldham JH. Rapid extraction of pawpaw juice with the application of locally produced pectic enzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 51712. Food Biotechnology. 2006;20(1):31–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/08905430500523970
- Neifar M, Ellouze-Ghorbe R, Kamoun A, Baklouti S, Mokni A, Jaouani A, et al. Effective clarification of pomegranate juice using laccase treatment optimized by response surface methodology followed by ultrafiltration. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2011;34(4):1199–1219. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4530.2009.00523.x
- Sagu ST, Nso EJ, Karmakar S, De S. Optimisation of low temperature extraction of banana juice using commercial pectinase. Food Chemistry. 2014;151:182–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.031
- Lim JY, Yoon H-S, Kim K-Y, Kim K-S, Noh J-G, Song IG. Optimum conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of citron waste juice using response surface methodology (RSM). Food Science and Biotechnology. 2010;19(5):1135–1142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-010-0162-3
- Çinar I. Effects of cellulase and pectinase concentrations on the colour yield of enzyme extracted plant carotenoids. Process Biochemistry. 2005;40(2):945–949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2004.02.022
- Umsza-Guez MA, Rinaldi R, Silva Lago-Vanzela E, Martin N, da Silva R, Gomes E, et al. Effect of pectinolytic enzymes on the physical properties of caja-manga (Spondias cytherea Sonn.) pulp. Food Science and Technology. 2011;31(2):517–526. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612011000200037