ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Volume 35, Issue 4, 2014

1398
Abstract
The system approach, the direction of the methodology specialized scientific knowledge and social practice, which is based on the study of objects as systems. Systematic approach facilitates adequate formulation of problems in specific science and the development of an effective strategy for their study. The system approach is determined by the fact that it focuses on the study of disclosure of the object's integrity and ensure its mechanisms, to identify diverse types of connections of a complex object and bringing them into a unified theoretical picture.The purpose of the article - to reveal and analyze the effect of a complex system arising under the influence of various system factors, when combined into a single unit producing and processing agricultural technologies in Russia.The paper discusses the features of the structure of the complex system and design principles, the dialectics of development. Explored issues of creating complex system "Agro - food technology."Overcoming methodological crisis in Russian agriculture is possible when creating a complex system, which leads to a positive effect. To achieve these objectives it is necessary: by combining universities agricultural and food profiles to organize the training of scientific and engineering personnel; modern technology to analyze the Russian agricultural sector and technical support; develop a long-term program of prospecting, basic, applied and development work on a state budget financing of cross-cutting technology system complex for the period until the second half of the XXI century and beyond.
1627
Abstract
Market analysis of encapsulated drugs and biologically active additives (BAA) indicates the close attention of companies - manufacturers of caps to look for alternatives traditionally used in the art of gelatin. This trend is based on the laws of the development of the global consumer market: economic viability due to cheaper raw materials, consumer demand for encapsulated drugs and dietary supplements with new and diverse characteristics that meet a wide range of consumers, including those who do not use animal products for religious and / or behavioral (vegetarians ) reasons. All the above factors lead to the urgency of developing the technology of the capsules on the basis of non-conventional raw materials, shall include the composition of hydrocolloids of plant origin. Studies of the thermodynamic characteristics of the process of gelatinization raw materials and components for the production of solutions of pharmaceutical gelatin, vegetable analogues by differential scanning calorimetry to identify the most suitable model for the creation of new functional gel systems based on polysaccharides. It is proved that water analogs of plant components behave like solutions of low molecular weight compounds. Higher temperatures lead to breaking of non-convertible molecules vegetable analogues of pharmaceutical gelatin. Defined that aqueous vegetable analogues pharmaceutical gelatin ready to gel under ambient conditions at moderate temperatures, and recommended for use as gelling agents in the manufacture of capsules. It is proved that the process parameters used in the manufacture of capsules in pharmacological purposes, can also affect the rheological properties of the mixtures. Thus, when incorporated into the composition of mixtures of significant amounts of starch have to pay particular attention to the timing during the execution of the basic technological operations.
1417
Abstract
The surface of the kernel of grain oats after peeling covered trichomes (hairs). After grinding abrasive wheels with the surface of the nucleus removed not only the hair down and flower films, but the aleurone layer. So when increased 500 times on the surface after polishing distinct starch grains endosperm.After grinding felt circles erases down and rest flower films. Milder impact felt you can maintain the integrity of the aleurone layer and reduce mechanical effect on the kernel. This increases the integrity of the kernel and its sohrannost the surface of the nucleus (the aleurone layer) distinguishable slight superficial damage is burrs. These fins are located along the length of the kernel, and their width is 20 - 50 microns.
1439
Abstract
The protein deficiency primarily in human and animal nutrition is an acute problem all over the world. In this article we consider the process of obtaining collagen hydrolysates of protein-containing broth from bone meal production using enzymatic agents: trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatin, papain, protosubtilin, Protex 51FP, Protex 40E, Protex 6L, Protex 7L. It was shown that the most effective enzyme preparations are trypsin, pancreatin and Protex 40 E. They provide yield more than 10.5 g / l of low molecular weight fraction. Optimal modes of hydrolysis by pancreatin and Protex 40E selected. We established that the sequential hydrolysis by pancreatin and Protex 40E increases the yield of low molecular weight fraction from 55% to 80%. It was found that purification of the protein hydrolyzate from toxic impurities should be carried out by ultrafiltration on a membrane 20 kDa. The degree of purification of unhydrolyzed protein fraction was 30%, and from suspended impurities - 97%, and the loss of components of the hydrolyzate did not exceed 10% and the permeate had no toxicity. The process of obtaining the dry form of the protein hydrolyzate was investigated. It was established that the spray-drying at an air temperature 160 ° C, feed rate 30% and the slurry flow rate 90% of the drying agent does not affect the quality of the hydrolyzate, does not lead to degradation of peptides and amino acids, in particular, hydroxyproline, does not lead to formation of toxic impurities does not reduce the nitrogen solubility (NSI). Obtained hydrolyzate is not inferior to the famous industrial designs, thus its cost is significantly lower.
2240
Abstract
Relevance of the work to substantiate the necessity of the research plant raw materials to enrich foods with biologically active substances contained in such materials. The paper reflects the relevance of the research because of the need food fortification with biologically active substances, which are contained in the fruits of mountain ash. the need to study the chemical composition of the fruits of mountain ash, growing in the Kemerovo region, in connection with the previous studies were not conducted for this region is substantiated.Object of study: the fruits of mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) cultivars "Red" and "Nevezhinskaja", collected in 2010, 2011 and 2012 in the city of Kemerovo and Kemerovo region Promyshlennovsky area presented. Standard methods of research and analysis of experimental data usedfor research.Data on the study of chemicals in the fruits of mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), which grows in the wild in the Kemerovo region were obtained. A solids content, vitamins, carotenoids, tannins, pectin, flavonoids, anthocyanins and sugars in the fruits of mountain ash yields in 2010 ÷ 2012, the varieties of "Red" and "Nevezhinskaja", depending on the area of harvest was determined as the difference content of test substances depending on the area of collecting have been substantiated. Dynamics of change agents, depending on the year of harvest was justified. The data obtained are compared with the available in the periodical literature. Recommendations on the choice of area for collection mountain ash containing the largest number of biologically active substances with the aim of recyclingaregiven.
1564
Abstract
In the confectionery industry is increasingly used to replacing traditional raw materials for cheaper technological powdered raw materials and food additives that may increase the nutritional value and enrich the food functional ingredients and reduce caloricity. To make optimal use of new raw materials and food additives one should have knowledge of their functional and technological properties (FTP), which allowto predict the behavior of the powdered raw materials and food additives in confectionery masses during processing and storage of finished products.Comparative characteristics of the FTP of traditional and new types of powdered raw materials and food additives used in the confectionery manufactureare reported. The investigation results have been presented for water-holding, fat-holding, fat-emulsifying abilities, swelling, emulsion stability and viscosity of suspensions of raw materials and food additives that should be considered when developing new formulations and technologies with their use.It has been found that the addition of citrus fibers «Herbacel AQ Plus, type N» in confectionery formulations will improve water retention properties of semi-finished products and their viscosity, increase moisture and output of finished products and reduce their caloricity. The results obtained allow to recommend the citrus fiber «Herbacel AQ Plus, type N», citrus fiber «Citri-fi», guar and xanthan gum, carrageenan, fat-free dry milk, fat-free dry curd, dried yolk as the components with the ability to emulsify fats and improve the stability of food systems containing water and fat phases. These types of raw materials and food additives are proposed to use when developing formulations and confectionery technologies to increase their viscosity, water-holding, fat-holding, fat-emulsifying, stabilizing abilities.
1608
Abstract
Production of foods on the basis of a combination of plant and animal raw materials is of the greatest interest as it allows to receive more balanced chemical composition and to expand their properties. In this regard, development of a whey-plant product for functional nutrition is urgent. In the article the molecular structure of dihydroquercetin and arabinogalactan, developed from the wood of the Daurskaya larch is represented, their organoleptic, physical and chemical indicators are described, safety indices of «Lavitol-dihydroquercetin» and «Lavitol-arabinogalactan» food additives developed on their basis are also reflected. Results of the research on functional properties of the plant components obtained from fruits of pears and the Daurskaya larch, growing on the territory of the Amur region, for the purpose of using as functional components in developing new technology, are presented. The description of curd whey prototypes containing various plant additives, justification of the quantity of components, and also the technique of carrying out experiment on laboratory animals are given. The analysis of changes of the main biochemical indices of blood plasma of test animals fed on the curd whey enriched with vegetable components is reflected in the article. Technological process of the production of the functional purpose whey-plant product enriched with natural antioxidants and food fibers, based on the Far East vegetable raw materials is briefly described. On the basis of experimental data it is established that the combination of various vegetable components promotes more effective decrease in glucose and cholesterol level ofblood plasma that allows to predict obtaining a whey-plant product of the functional purpose.
1361
Abstract
Different ways were used to produce wines from early varieties of grapes cultivated in the Altai territory. The peculiarity of wine production was the use of ultrasonic and enzymatic treatment of the grape pulp. Dry wines had significant visual differences. The color intensity of wine was increased by enzymatic treatment of pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using Rapidase CR preparation. Ultrasonic treatment of pulp contributed to accumulation of polyphenols and anthocyanins. Ultrasonic treatment of pulp before fermentation considerably influenced the quantity of monomeric fraction of anthocyanins. To carry out ultrasonic treatment the apparatus with the frequency of generated ultrasonic vibrations of 22000 ± 1650 Hz and the radiation intensity of 150000 W/m 2 was used. Two variants of ultrasonic treatment of original pulp were studied. The sample produced by a blend of grapes, with a low content of phenol and coloring substances, had high color intensity. The taste evaluation of dry wines was done. The proportion of coloring substances in wines was found. The basic anthocyanin of grape was identified. The anthocyanin was isolated with one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The mobile phase used was n-butanol: acetic acid: water (40:12:29). The chromatogram had six areas, but one of them was dominant. The chromatogram had two areas with significantly different Rf when carrying acid hydrolysis of anthocyanin. The mass spectrum showed the ion 493 m/z [M] corresponding to the molecular weight of malvidin-3-O-glucoside. Ion 509 m/z, formed by pseudobase of malvidin monoglucoside was found in the negative region of the mass spectrum. When recording NMR for substance discolving CH 3OD + CF 3COOH was used. NMR spectrum of the medium coincided with the literature data for malvidin-3-O-glucoside.
1997
Abstract
The effect of a lipid complex of fats and oils on a human organism and their role in physiology of nutrition are reviewed in the paper. Aspects of impairment of the nutritional status upon fat consumption, in particular, the excess consumption of saturated fats, trans-isomers of fatty acids, and cholesterol as well as the deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids, are discussed. The data on oil and fat in modern structure of nutrition are described. Aspects of the development of balanced fat compositions, taking into account norms of physiological requirements of modern people in lipids and their structural components, are reviewed. The comparative analysis of fatty-acid composition of milk fat, and of natural oils that belong to different fatty-acid groups and the modified fats is carried out. The combination of milk fat with vegetable oils and fats belonging to different fatty-acid groups made it possible to create a product with fatty-acid composition very close to «hypothetically ideal fat». The content of poly-non-saturated fatty acids in the developed compositions corresponds to a formula of «hypothetically ideal fat» and makes 10-15%, thus, the ratio between ω6/ω3 fatty acids makes 10:1 that meets a standard requirement of a healthy person. When correcting an optimum milk fat/ vegetable oilratio, we considered not only medical and biological requirements for consumption of this or that essential acid, but also texture and rheological characteristics of the developed product. The data on the construction of fat bases from milk fat, natural, and modified vegetable oils and fats that provide predetermined consumer properties of functional dairy fat products are presented.
1398
Abstract
About half of sown areas of barley is concentrated in the North Caucasus. Its production here, historically, has specialized in fodder storage. For brewing, however, it is the quality of barley grain as raw material for this branch that is important, but not only the quantity. This paper is devoted to the comparison of parameters of grain sowing density with different levels of mineral nutrition dependending on its size, with due account of their influence on brewing quality of barley grains, malt and beer wort in the foothill zone of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. The investigations allowed to establish that both in winter and spring varieties the increasing of sowing density led to insignificant decrease in the grain size. Extractivity is noticeably high against the background of NPK in both varieties of barley. As the density of sowing increased, the solubility of malt’s protein was decreasing. It is correlated negatively with the protein content in malt, i.e. with increasing the sowing density the protein content in malt is growing, but the degree of protein wort transition decreased. It is stated that the best quality of brewing barley grain and wort is marked with the stem-standing density of 500 grains per m 2 against the background of NPK.
1455
Abstract
The topicality of the research was lack of data in literature that was render impossible stability of color prediction by heat treatment in contact with oxygen of air the specials wine drinks and applicability separate of grape cultivated in Altai territory for production. The aim of the work was studied influence of temperature on the change of color characteristics of red wine drinks produced from grape Zagadka Sharova and Zilga. In work at the accelerated aging in the presence of air oxygen at four various temperatures of the wine drinks making by several ways were determined color characteristics by UV-visible spectroscopy. According to the obtained values ​​the models are constructed that allow us to estimate the subsequent change of the contents anthocyanins and other characteristics. The content of monomeric anthocyanins obtained by calculation on the basis of spectral data, to make the assumption that the concentration is decreased of equation first order reactions. From the comparison of experimental and calculated data shows that the lower the temperature during the observation, the greater the discrepancy between experimental and calculated values of the kinetic model. These differences are stored for each of the three drinks. At elevated temperatures and exposure time is greater than 14 weeks, the decrease of the percentage of the color attributable to the polymeric form, that the may be due to either the loss of their to with sediments, and oxidative degradation, leading to loss of color. For the mathematical description of the patterns of change in hue of the proposed of kinetic model zero order dT/dτ = k (t). Changes in the intensity of color at 520 nm from the exposure time at temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C and 55 °C is for samples the wine drinks is quite similar. Experiments showed that the color of wine drinks changes towards brown tones by accelerated aging. The long aging at the high temperatures in production of wine drinks from early variety of grapes of the Altai territory is inadmissible.
1505
Abstract
Kangaroo meat appears in the meat markets of different countries, including Russia. It is recommended to be used for preparation of various meat products. Kangaroo meat is environmentally friendly raw material, as in the nature the animal feeds on various plant foods free from chemicals. Kangaroo meat is high in protein and fat. However, the absence of extensive and reliable information about the quality of kangaroo meat and meat products based on it often leads Russian consumers to distrust in them. A comparative study of kangaroo meat and that of other animals for slaughtering has been carried out. It is found that in terms of security kangaroo meat supplied to the Russian market in the Far East region, is consistent with the requirements of TR CU 034/2013 «On the safety of meat and meat products» and TR CU 021/2011 «On the safety of food products». Nutritionally, kangaroo meat is close to veal, with its protein content being 22,1-23,4 %, fat content - 1,8-3,4%. Kangaroo meat proteins are complete, their amino acid composition corresponds to the FAO / WHO. Unsaturated fatty acids dominated the samples in the lipid composition. Kangaroo meat was used to prepare low-calorie canned meat. Kangaroo meat, vegetable oil, onion, salt and spices were introduced in the formulation of a new kind of canned food. Ready- made canned kangaroo meat was characterized by high consumer properties, low calorie and high values ​​of the relative biological value that allows attributing it to the group of dietetic foods. The cost of the new kind of canned meat is 22-26 % lower than that of products made on the basis of farm animal meat.
1306
Abstract
The authors analyzed the scientific literature on the existing methods of dehydration of water-alcohol solutions with a view to their future use as fuel ethanol, and presented examples of requirements for the bioethanol composition of the world standards. The paper demonstrates using dehydrated ethanol as a gasoline additive to the advantage of the environment. For the first time the distillate of fermentation mixture as a source of dehydrated ethanol is proposed. The authors studied the process of dehydrating distillate of fermentation mixture by natural mineral zeolite - mordenite, and proposed a two-stage method of absorbing water from the vapor by adsorbent. The paper demonstrates that major groups of impurities in alcohol are absorbed by mordenite in parallel with water sorption.The authors designed the apparatus technological scheme of the stepwise dehydration of the fermentation mixture distillate, which allows to obtain not only ethyl alcohol with concentration of 99.8 % wt (weight percents), but also industrial alcohol of «B» category. In the paper the authors described principles of the plant operation and proposed methods for regenerating mordenite when producing fuel ethanol and industrial alcohol of «B» category. The paper also makes assumption of probability to use other zeolites for absorbing water from water-alcohol solutions.
1856
Abstract
Convective drying in the fluidized layer is a promising method for canning of fruit raw materials into long-keeping products. The efficiency of this process depends on several parameters, one of which is air speed necessary for fluidization. This research aims at determining the allowable air speed in convection drying of sea buckthorn. The objects of the researches are the following sea-buckthorn varieties: «Olive», «Gift of Katun», «Chuyskaya», «the Gold Ear», «Panteleevskaya». Critical air speeds for fresh berry at various temperatures have been calculated. It is established that for sea-buckthorn the speed at the beginning of fluidization is 1,66- 2 m/s, and the speed at which ablation of a product is possible is 15,1÷18,1 m/s for different varieties at 50 - 80 °C. The change of the berry size in the course of convection drying is experimentally established. Dependences of critical air speeds during dehydration at air temperatures of 50-80 °Care defined. By research results, it is established that during convection drying of sea-buckthorn critical air speeds decrease on the average by 17÷28 % of initial value. Based on the conducted researches, the admissible range of air speeds during convection drying of sea-buckthornis recommended. Generally, guaranteed values of air speeds at which fluidization without product ablation at 50 - 80 °C will be observed are 3÷8 m/s for all studied sea-buckthorn varieties.
1418
Abstract
The linear growth of microorganisms is insufficiently studied by microbiology. The main characteristic sign of linear growth is considered constancy (immutability) of growth rate of culture during several hours. Such a characteristic of linear growth is lopsided, insufficient and inaccurate and should be reviewed. The purpose of the paper is to give an objective, detailed and comprehensive description of the linear growth of microorganisms. The results of our theoretical and experimental investigations show that a regime of linear growth is a natural but not anomalous one; microorganism growth in lag-phase period is proceeding in the regime of linear growth; the rate of the culture linear growth is changed stepwise during cultivation; after stepped (bound) changes of growth rate up to the new invariable level it again remains invariable in the frames of a new step up to the next stepped change of the growth rate; duration of every following step of the linear growth (with new constant growth rate) is as a rule shorter than the previous one and can make up several minutes but not hours. In addition, it is found that linear growth mode is really a mode of stepped growth, the growth of culture remains linear (constant growth rate) only within the borders of each individual stage of growth. The mechanism of active cells growth and passivation of culture growing in linear growth regime as well as a new mechanism of passive cells activation of the same culture have been theoretically substantiated. A new method of active (growing) cells concentration of lactobacillus cells determination in cultural medium according to the culture acid forming rate has been proposed. For the first time gradually changing concentrations of active and passive (latent) Lac.lactis cells in cultural medium at all stages of cultivation have been analyzed in detail.
2063
Abstract
The existing requirements in functional foods and health-care preparations make it possible to create production enterprises focused on complex processing of farm animals blood. Membrane techniques are effective in a number of processes associated with concentration, purification and fractionation of liquid foods. The use of membrane techniques enables to create a highly efficient and economical low-waste technology for processing of raw materials of animal origin, contributes to the improvement of foodsquality, their biological value and more complete processing and use. In the present paper, physical and chemical properties of blood of cattle and pigs have been studied. The blood density and viscosity, the chemical composition of animal blood have been determined. High protein content has been revealed. To filter blood a membrane unit consisting of a cylinder shaped body is used. There is a semi-permeable membrane inside the body. The membrane has an insert. There are holes that are equidistant from each other on the side surface of the insert to release the feed solution into the membrane channel. Each hole creates a directed flow and increases the turbulence within the membrane channel. A new approach to the insert modeling has been proposed. A program based on the analytical model to study a required number of holes at minimum pressure loss has been created. The input data for modeling are geometrical parameters of the insert, the number of holes, the medium rate, the inlet pressure, the medium density and viscosity. It has been established that the pressure loss increases with the number of holes. Thus, seven holes in a conical insert are proved the most rational number.
1242
Abstract
Modern technology of agricultural crop cultivation based on the maximum intensification of agriculture entails a sharp environmental deterioration and the suppression of its regulation mechanisms. Further build-up of chemical fertilizer doses, intensive tillage and land reclamation leads to the inhibition of plants, reduces the sustainability of agricultural lands to abiotic and biotic stresses. The purpose of work was studying the problems of adaptation of modern agriculture to adverse natural stress while introducing environmental-adaptive (antistress) agronanotechnologies in case of the production process in case of the Smolensk region. The object of the research was the Smolensk region agriculture over the recent thirty years, with reference to the dynamics of climatic stress changes under the intensification of agriculture and the application of agronanotechnologies. Long-term data analysis of natural stress occurred in the Smolensk region, shows that on this territory there are various hazardous and adverse natural events which have a negative impact on agricultural production of the Smolensk region, the damage being more than 40 million rubles a year. On this basis it is proposed to apply adaptive agronanotechnologies, which are based on the mechanism of proton barrier formation under adverse conditions on the plasma membrane of root cells and its destruction by weak electromagnetic fields, which allows to regulate coming of water, nutritional elements, solar energy, toxic substances, etc into plants in adverse weather conditions. Complex application of the above technologies in the crop rotation system of Non-Black Earth Belt and other zones of Central Federal Region, especially under conditions of global climatic change and rising natural stress, can be a means of adaptation of agriculture and obtain sufficient food of good quality
1260
Abstract
To develop and to ensure the quality and safety of healthy foods is one of the priority directions of a state policy in the field of alimentary diseasesprevention, preservation and promotion of health. Thus the development and introduction of the systems of management at enterprises is considered from a position of ensuring the stability of qualitative characteristics, and consequently the competitiveness of specialized products in Russian and international markets. Special attention is paid to management of risks and their assessment from the point of view of safety. The complex assessment of technological risks of productionby the example of probiotic enriched candies is carried out. The causes of defects are established, their factors of ponderability are defined by means of an expert assessment. The matrix model of technological risks for defects when producing foodsis developed. To assess the importance of defectcauses the method of expert evaluations enabling to describe the effect of factors on defects is used. The system of measures to decrease the level of technological risks and to prevent defects is offered. The obtained materials provide solutions of one of the problems of the enterprise management viz. achievement of optimum controllability of the organization, acceptance of the effective preventive measures in relation to possible negative causes and consequences. Thus, the analysis of uncertainty and probabilities of future events or circumstances leading to realization of risks and their prevention is the basis. The technique of risks assessment and probability of their emergency can be used as basic model for the development of quality management systems at the enterprises of food processing industry taking into account their specificity.
2370
Abstract
Quark and quark products manufactured by means of membrane technologies are characterized by high content of valuable whey protein and are successfully used in dietetic nutrition but they are not recommended for people suffering from different extentsof milk protein allergy and areoften excluded from the diet. Usage of biocatalytic conversion of milk polypeptides and additional introduction of vegetable proteins with low allergenic properties will tackle the problem of hypoallergenic quark product development. The program of research trials involved the standardized and adapted test methods of quark product samples. The enzyme composition consisting of Protamex and Alcalase enzyme preparations in the ratio of 3,5 and 0,5 %, respectively, of protein content in the mixture, providing reduction of residual antigenicity of whey proteins has been chosen. The composition structure has been determined and qualitative ratios of peptide and fat fractions of milk-vegetable system with reference to residual antigenicity reduction and the product nutritional value improvement have been optimized. Peptide composition of the phase is as follows: native milk protein - 47 %, hydrolyzed protein of milk whey - 33 %, isolated soya potein - 20 %; Fat phase composition is: butterfat - 60 %, milk fat replacer (MFR) «SolPro717» - 40 %. Three-species starter for fermentation of milk-vegetable mixture LTT-1 introduced in the amount of 5 % providing acceptable technological parameters within ripening process has been selected. It has been stated that assimilation of essential amino acids of the developed product makes up 87,2%, relative biological value compared to quark control sample is 122,7%, residual antigenicity by β-lactoglobulin content compared to quark enriched with CRS and natural quark is reduced to 17,5 % and 32,6 %, respectively. Residual antigenicity stipulated by the amount of casein fractions and α-lactalbumin is reduced to 62,2 and 52,6 % relative to the corresponding control samples. The set of SD for quark product for dietary preventive nutrition has been developed and industrial implementation has been carried out.
1722
Abstract
The article presents marketing research of semi-smoked sausage consumer preferences, studies consumers' attitude to non-conventional raw materials, namely to elk's meat. It is established that when buying sausage the consumer pays special attention to colour, composition, food value, sell-by date. The polling showed that semi-smoked sausage belongs to the group of mass consumption products, revealed the frequency of purchase, consumers' attitude to the product's price characteristics and their readiness to increase spending with quality improvement. A new product - elk meat semi-smoked sausage - is introduced. Main technical characteristics of the new produce having the major influence on the above features and the buyers' needs correspondence, are defined. To compare the elk meat semi-smoked sausage with the «Govyagia» semi-smoked sausage nowextensively brought to the market and popular with consumers, evaluation of sensory indices, food value and expiry date was carried out. Target values of technical characteristics entitled to correction in developing elk meat semi-smoked sausage areexposed. The necessity is established to improve such sensory indices of the product developed, as colour and texture, its composition and shelf life being entitled to correction. The fitness functionexplication method via 'The House of Quality' figurate matrix was used to work the consumer'spreferences into the process's technical and technological characteristics. «The House of Quality» was made up for the target value adjustment of sensory indices, food values and expiry dates of the newly developed produce.
1288
Abstract
Socio-economic reforms carried out at the moment, are in conflict with the Russian national culture norms, representing not just a replacement of the economic mechanism of management, but also denial lifestyle of most of the population, which leads to the rejection of market relations. In recent years, at the stage of intensive formation of market mechanisms, apparently growing problem of work motivation, work behavior and the labor market. The subject of this study is a theoretical rationale for the consideration of the modern work behavior and organizational culture. Obvious need for using the accumulated cultural capital appropriate to the economic situation. When writing an article used the methods of comparison, monographic, a literature review on the subject of research. In the article, as the question, the features of Russian national culture in terms of features of business turnover. The analysis of the organizational culture revealed a lack of correlation of the national organizational culture and work behavior (work motivation).
1437
Abstract
In the conditions of globalization there is a rapid growth of the global companies strengthening influence on the counterparties and economic policy. The detection of functioning specifics and mechanisms of influence of the global companies is base for development of the decisions on increase of competitiveness of the largest domestic companies and increase of Russian role in the world economy. In the article the features of the functioning of the global food companies as types of the global companies which abruptly strengthened influence on the development of the world economy in the last two decades are considered; the influence mechanisms of the global companies from the Central countries on economic space based on both economic and noneconomic methods are revealed. The expansion of an influence sphere of the multinational corporation from initial control over resale of certain products before hard domination in the global value chains created by these companies is considered through a evolution prism of the multinational corporation functioning in the food markets. The data of Fortune Global 500-2014 illustrating the scales of the global food companies on sales volume and profit and the merges' scales for 2007-2013 in the food industry are given; the impact of these processes on development of the global food companies is estimated. The special attention is given to questions about penetration and functioning of the global food companies in the Russian food markets which both control many traditionally Russian brands and promote new brands. In the article positive and negative consequences of the impact of the global food companies on the companies from developing countries and the country in general, and also quite feeble attempts of the regulating impact on these companies from the international organizations, in particular, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations are analyzed. In the article the actual problem of the economic sanctions in the conditions of an aggravation of the political relations between the USA, the EU countries and Russia which concerned a number of food products is risen.
1512
Abstract
The importance of the considered questions connected with formation and development of the territorial clusters in the food industry is caused by necessity of the expansion of small and medium entrepreneurship sector (SME-sector) in the regions of the Russian Federation and ensuring food security in the country. Along with other effective instruments of the SME-development such as mechanisms of methodical, information and consulting, financial, legal, educational support of the small and medium entrepreneurship in the agro-industrial sphere, the expediency of economic clusterization in the food industry is proved, the necessity for obligatory inclusion of the clusterization principle as a key principle for forming new economic policy at the regional and national levels is proved. In the article in an evolutionary context the prerequisites of SME-integration and SME-clusterization in the agro-industrial sphere in Russia taking into account an aggravation of food security in the country, WTO membership and restriction of the state support for agricultural producers, and also import substitution and introduction of the economic sanctions at the international level are revealed. As a result of the comparative analysis of the federal programs for cluster development of the regions in the Russian Federation the insufficiency of the state support for clusters in the food industry is determinate, the necessity of the using new tools of the cluster policy such as the regional cluster development centers is proved. The analysis of the positive effects from SME-clusterization made in the research in relation to agro-industrial sector allows to expand forms of the state support to agriculture limited to WTO sanctions in the present context. The practical significance of the research consists in possibility for the expansion of financial SME-support in a cluster from different sources. It promotes production improvement, innovation burst, increase of SME-competitiveness in the regional, national and world markets.
1621
Abstract
The world economic crisis and complex geopolitical situation formed a qualitatively new threat for almost all States by defining achievement of economic self-sufficiency of countries, including Russia, among the most important priorities of development. Particularly relevant in this regard is to ensure food security as an objective condition of economic sovereignty. This article discusses the State and problems of food security of the country and the region at the present stage. The study praised the ability to achieve self-sufficiency in food in Russia and Kemerovo region in connection with the imposition of restrictions on the importation of products. Investigated the factors that influence the development of Agriculture of the Russian Federation. There was considerable public support to agriculture, its technological lag behind the world level in the precarious financial state of agricultural enterprises, the lack of economic motivations of the labour force in agriculture. The duality nature of food security related to its biological content and economic content, which complicates the process of learning and management. Drawn attention to the need to modernize food safety monitoring systems in connection with changes in the volume and quality of threats. Focuses on the existing structure of the agricultural sector, in which a large proportion of the products are produced in the private farms, which slows the transition to the intensive nature of production and limited creditworthiness of agriculture. It is therefore proposed in the methodology for evaluating the level of food security, enter the parameter describing the structure of the production base, to determine the necessary control actions to change it. As an additional criterion in the evaluation system of food security can be a parameter reflecting the technological level of production that would characterize the level of production efficiency. Raises the issue of the need to define thresholds criteria, to better reflect contemporary threats.
1358
Abstract
In modern conditions when buyers become more and more selective in the preferences, and the competition in the market increases, the quantitative assessment of a commodity range condition is an important problem of the administrative personnel of any retail trading enterprise. It enables to reveal in due time the commodity range management problems and to discover their causes. Therefore, the relevance of the subject of this publication is obvious. The administrative personnel of retail trading enterprises have to perceive an assortment portfolio management as strategic possibility of growth of competitiveness when complying witha number of principles. Considering the activity of a particular shop realizing nonfoods (ware from glass, crystal, porcelain, ceramics, kitchen utensils, souvenir products, mirrors, vases, clocks, household chemicals, gardening toolsetc.), the article provides its general characteristic, and key characteristics of the commodity range. The first analysis stage made it possible to draw a conclusion that the system of the commodity range formation at this enterprise was not formalized. At the second assessment stage, the method of the portfolio strategic analysis by means of a matrix of the Boston consulting group was used. Using the settlement data on volumes of revenue and size of profit of each commodity group, the positions on decrease of size of a share of each name in total sales were ranged, and shares with accumulation of result on indications of revenue and profit were calculated at the third stage. The final stage of the assessment was devoted to the collation of the data obtained at the previous stages that enabledto designate the commodity range management problems and to make recommendations on their elimination. It was recommended to pay more attention to application of rules of merchandising for more rational use of floor spaces. The concrete schemes of placement of goods in a trading floor taking into account the possibility of zoning and allocation of a specialized zone for sale of products from the Czech glass were offered.
2753
Abstract
Institutional policy of the state in regard to small business is not adequate to the task of strategy and tactics of further socio-economic development of the country, which confirms the reproduction of the small business sector virtually has unchanged in terms of scale and quality in the last decade. The article examines the institutional impact of the state on the small business sector through the prism of components such as: government programs to support small businesses; legislative support for the operation of small businesses; public authorities supervising a small business. Were revealed system weaknesses in terms of their primary purpose inherent in federal programs to support small businesses; were identified problems associated with small businesses regulatory support through aspects such as: proper legislative base of small business, the consistency of federal and regional laws on small business with the norms of «branch» legislation, adoption laws technology. The reasons of the destructive effect of the legal environment on the activities of small businesses were revealed. On the basis of analysis of the macro-institutional small businesses was revealed a contradiction between the formal interest of the state in the development of small business and the lack of a real subject interested in creating an enabling institutional environment for the development of the sector in the economy. Ways to overcome dysfunctions’ of the institutional environment of the Russian small business by optimizing the systematic nature of the institutional environment and modernization of legislation technology were substantiated; optimization of the existing regulatory framework of the sector in the economy and technology upgrade of lawmaking. The attention is drawn to the fact that the macro-institutional optimization of small business can only be based on the improvement of the institutional organization of the Russian economy as a whole.
1725
Abstract
Modern economic development requires new approaches to emerging weaknesses, among which a special place is occupied by the problems of managing primary branches of the national economy. They are associated with the various components of management, including planning. The dependence of the quality of the food industry planning on a variety of factors gives evidence of the complexity of choosing the optimal direction of corporate planning. This leads to the need to consider the theory of planning as a way to predict future problems and opportunities of the company. The article describes the basics of the planning system as one of the main functions of the enterprise management, as well as the ways to improve production management at a particular company. Measure effectiveness assessment forimproving the governance structure was carried out in several stages. Not only implementation of company’s activities planning was considered but also systematical and purposefulproblem solving, that is, in the planning system all the plans are linked into a single unit with reference to both performers, resources, deadlines, and achievable goals. It resulted in the proposition of new approaches to the management and implementation of tools that will create favorable conditions for the production team to achieve its goals in the optimum time with the highest quantitative and qualitative indicators and the necessary resource expenditures. The new solutions will clarify the increasing complex economic problems of the organization and help take steps to identify bottlenecks at the enterprise with a focus on the future.