ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Volume 52, Issue 3, 2022

The development of the technology of whipped yeast-free bread made from whole wheat flour is an urgent task of baking. To implement this technology, it is necessary to properly manage the foaming process of whipped yeast-free dough while preserving the highly porous structure of the crumb of whipped dough blanks and thin-walled bread crust during baking. The purpose of the work is to study the quality changes and establish the modes of preparation of churned yeast-free dough, as well as churned dough blanks with their combined microwave-convective heating.
In the work, samples of churned yeast-free dough obtained on a mixing-churning-forming plant and churned test blanks after pre-microwave heating with a finely porous crumb formed were studied. For an objective assessment of the porosity of bread crumb, a method of optical quantitative analysis of the structure of air bubbles has been developed.
It was found that, taking into account the restriction on the maximum size of air bubbles in the crumb, churned yeast-free test blanks with a density of 0.40 ± 0.03 g/cm3 with finely dispersed air bubbles were preliminarily obtained, in order to form a stable highly porous structure, they were previously subjected to microwave heating at a temperature of 65 ± 1°C in the center of the crumb, and then convective heating at at a temperature of 99 ± 1°C in the center of the crumb to form a thin-walled crust of bread. The conducted studies have shown the dependence of changes in the porosity of the crumb, the formation of its structure on the duration of microwave heating of churned dough blanks. The rational duration of pre-microwave heating of churned dough blanks is determined – 70–80 s and final convective heating during bread baking – up to 14 min. The use of combined microwave-convective heating of churned dough blanks reduces the baking process by 26 min.
The presented approach, together with the method of optical evaluation of air bubbles, allows us to develop an algorithm for optimal control of the process of combined baking bread. The accelerated technology of churned yeast-free bread has been developed and is highly promising for widespread implementation in civil and military bakery.
The demand for protein-fortified foods is increasing, and so is the necessity of the complete utilization of milk constituents in the food industry. The research objective was to study various technological and sensory indicators of ice cream fortified with whey protein concentrate.
The study featured ice cream samples with 8% of mass fraction of fat and 10% of nonfat milk solids with whey protein concentrations of 1–5 %. The dynamic viscosity was studied by rotational viscosimetry, dispersion – by microstructural methods, thermal stability – by thermostatic methods, and titratable acidity – by standard methods.
Whey protein concentrate in amount of 1–5 % increased the titratable acidity by 1.05–1.90 times and the dynamic viscosity – by 1.16–2.90 times. With an extra addition of 4% whey protein concentrate, the viscosity of the mix exceeded the technologically permissible values. The consistency coefficient increased by 19.4 times, and the flow index decreased by 4.8 times. During freezing, the mix revealed the high capability to air saturation with mass fraction of melt whey protein concentrate of 1 and 2%. Thermal stability also increased: mass fraction of melt after 60 min of retention decreased by 3 times. After adding 1–3% whey protein concentrate, the dispersion of air bubbles and ice crystals improved. It was determined in accordance with the density of distribution by their sizes. The hardness of ice cream decreased 1.4–8.3 times as whey protein concentrate increased. A greater mass fraction of whey protein enhanced the creamy taste and improved the texture.
Based on the main technological and sensory quality indicators, the mass fraction of whey protein concentrates should be under 3%. The results may be used in protein-fortified ice cream production.
The development of the Antarctic krill fishery is a promising direction of Russian food industry. Euphausia superba is the largest source of animal protein in the global oceans. According to the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), the year of 2021 saw a steady increase in the global catch of krill. The Government of the Russian Federation approved a program for the development of the oceanic fishery for crustaceans. The assessment of its biological safety is of particular interest because the extraction of this raw material in Russia is currently undergoing a restoration process. The purpose of the study was to analyze samples of Antarctic krill E. superba for parasites and microorganisms that could affect its sanitary condition.
The study featured the microplankton of E. superba crustaceans (n = 130) caught in 2019–2020 by the Federal Agency for Fishery. The methods included an incomplete helminthological analysis, as well as compressor, microbiological, and histological studies.
The visual inspection, helminthological dissection, and compressor microscopy revealed no helminth larvae or protozoa. In a microbiological study for safety indicators according to CU TR 021/2011, EAEU TR 040/2016 and Sanitary Rules and Norms SanPiN, the quantity of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (QMAFAnM) were did not exceed 1.0×103 at 37 and 25°C. Opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms were not detected. When examining cultivate for the isolation of Staphylococci, were found Cocci, but we did not identify them. When the material was sown on the Sabouraud nutrient medium at 24°C, Penicillium microscopic fungi grew on the plates in the amount of 3.0×102. Histological examination of carapace, gills, and internal organs detected no parasitological organisms, pathological inclusions, or any tissue changes.
The Antarctic krill contained no parasites and was microbiologically safe. After tests on Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes, it can be used in the food industry.
Microbial energy is a promising area of innovative development in bio- and nanotechnology. Recent studies have revealed that microbial communities of thermal springs have excellent implementation prospects in this area. The present article introduces the microbial diversity of the Abakan Arzhan thermal spring and their isolates that are potentially applicable in microbial electricity synthesis.
The research featured microbial isolates obtained from a microbiota analysis of water and slit samples from the Abakan Arzhan thermal spring. The study involved a metagenomic analysis of the microbial community, as well as such molecular biology methods as nucleic acid extraction, PCR, sequencing, phylogenetic, and bioinformatic analysis. The Silva library was used to compare 16S RNA sequences
Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Proteobacteria proved to be the dominant phylotypes for water samples, while Firmicutes, Thermomonas, Gammaproteobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phylotypes for slit samples. The analysis of minor phylotypes confirmed the presence of Geobacter and Shewanella in the samples. The total number of obtained enrichment cultures was nine. Two types of resistant colonies were discovered during the isolation of extremophilic iron-reducing isolates. The samples were grown on a medium containing iron (III) acetate and iron (III) nitrate, and the isolates appeared to be in the process of Fe(III) reduction. The isolates showed an intense iron recovery of 409 and 407 µg/mL after 72 h of cultivation.
The study confirmed the ability of the acquired isolates to reduce iron, making them a priority for future microbial energy research. The isolates belonged to the Shewanella algae and Geobacter sulfurreducens species, as determined by 16S RNA morphology and phylogenetic analyses.
Brewer's spent grain is a brewing industry waste product that contains various valuable biologically active substances. However, polymers can complicate their extraction. This article focuses on innovative extraction methods, including sustainable deep processing that destroys the internal structures of plant matrix. The research objective was to review publications on the sustainable brewer's spent grain processing as a source of secondary raw materials and plant matrix organic compounds.
The study featured the last 5–10 years of foreign and domestic analytical and technical publications on grain structure and extraction methods.
Unlike the traditional acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic methods of grain processing, physical and mechanical methods aim at extracting biogenic peptides, phenolic compounds, and fatty acids. The nature of the processing depends on the type of the extracted compound. Thus, for the extraction of reducing compounds intended for sorption, exposure to high temperatures (≥ 150°C) is the most effective method. A combined treatment with acids or alkalis of the cellulose-lignin complex makes it possible to achieve a 76.2% yield of hemicelluloses. Acid hydrolysis of arabinoxylans is effective at 120–160°C. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with physical treatment makes it possible to reach 60% of arabinoxylans in a mix with phenolic compounds. When extracting nitrogen-containing, phenolic, and lipid compounds, the degree of grinding of the biomaterial and the organic solvent is of great importance. The optimal degree makes it possible to preserve the spatial structure while maintaining a high yield (86%) of organic compounds. Ultrafiltration concentrates the isolated biogenic compound and preserves its activity with a high yield of up to 95%.
The analysis proved that the brewer's spent grain processing can be both feasible and environmentally friendly. It produces a high yield of pure organic compounds, e.g., peptides, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, etc.
Crystalline sediment of potassium hydrotartrate and calcium tartrate in wines is a major problem of wine industry. Reliable identification of crystals can establish the cause of their formation and facilitate appropriate technological solutions. The research objective was to study the morphological features of potassium and calcium salts of tartaric acid via microscopy.
The study featured natural crystal sediments that developed in 105 samples of white and red wines over six months after the end of fermentation, as well as when crystallization was provoked by freezing. The microscopic examination involved a Micmed-5 optical microscope and a PHENOMproX scanning electron microscope. Identification of cations in the composition of crystals followed the method of energy-dispersive spectroscopy, as well as the method of quality reaction with sulfate-anion in acidic medium.
Co-precipitation of colloidal substances was typical of potassium hydrotartrate. It violated the crystal lattice construction and determined the wine color, polymorphism (truncated ellipsoid → lanceolar → rhomboid → geometrically irregular shapes), surface roughness, and optical opacity. The expressiveness increased with the crystal growth (3–350 μm). Calcium tartrate demonstrated no evolutionary changes; it was morphologically uniform, colorless, and transparent. Its crystals had smooth faces and clear edges, regardless of their size (1–150 μm) and the chemical composition of wine.
The research systemized the morphological features of tartrate crystals formed in wines. The obtained results are important for the technochemical control in the process of destabilization diagnosis. The data can be recommended for further studies in applied research laboratories and institutes.
The World Health Organization insists on limiting easily digestible carbohydrates, saturated fats, and trans-isomers of fatty acids in human diet. Therefore, formulations of high-calorie confectionery products have to be modified. The research objective was to develop confectionery creams with a modified carbohydrate profile and a reduced calorie content, fortified with omega-3 fatty acids and dietary fibers.
The study featured a traditional formulation of butter cream and experimental samples of confectionery creams on vegetable oils with a modified carbohydrate profile. The research involved standard methods of assessing sensory and physicochemical properties of the control and experimental cream samples. The content of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers was estimated by enzymatic gravimetric method, while the content of tocopherols was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.
The test samples of creams on vegetable oil with modified carbohydrate profile had a fiber content of 4.0–18.5 g/100 g, represented by oat bran powder with 28% beta-glucan, arabinogalactan, and inulin. The amount of omega-3 fatty acids was 0.2 g/100 g, and the fat content was 15–26%. Easily digestible carbohydrates were represented exclusively by lactose of milk powder (0.5–3.5 g/100 g of cream). The test creams were fortified with D-α-tocopherol acetate: 2.6–4.5 mg/50 g. The density of the resulting products was 0.75–0.90 g/cm3, which made it possible to use them both as independent desserts and as semi-products.
The developed confectionery creams complied with the legislation of the EurAsEC on food products fortified with dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. They can be labeled as sugar-free (≤ 0.5 g/100 g) or low sugar (≤ 5 g/100 g) products. Therefore, they are safe for customers with obesity and diabetes.
Food additives from non-traditional plant raw materials are a promising source of new fortified bakery products. However, they can affect the protein-starch structure of wheat flour and the rheological profile of the semi-finished bakery products, thus changing the quality of the finished product. The research objective was to study the effect of a novel plant food additive on the moisture, water absorption, and protein-proteinase complex of flour mixes and the rheological properties of wheat dough.
The study featured flour mixes of top-grade wheat flour and the new food complex additive (10, 16, and 22%), as well as dough semi-finished products. The food complex additive consisted of whole grain wheat flour and powders of germinated spelt, pumpkin seeds, oyster mushrooms, and gooseberries in a ratio of 56.3:25.0:17.2:0.9:0.6, respectively. The moisture content was determined by the gravimetric method, while the water absorption and rheological properties were described using a Farinograph-AT. The content of wet gluten was measured by washing, the content of dry gluten was determined by drying, and the quality of gluten was tested according using an IDK-3M device.
The additive decreased the water absorption and the dough development time, contributed to the gluten relaxation, and increased the amount and humidity of wet gluten. At 16 and 22% of the additive, the amount of dry gluten decreased by 3.4 and 4.0%, respectively; at 10%, it increased by 3.3%. The best stability, dough softening degree, and farinograph quality indicator were observed at 16%.
The results can be used to produce new bakery products fortified with the new complex plant food additive, with the amount of water and kneading time adjusted for each particular case. Further research will feature the effect of the additive on the properties of dough semi-finished products during fermentation and proofing.
Sweetened condensed milk is a popular food in various climatic zones, including those regions where average winter temperature falls below –30°C. Such low temperatures can trigger crystallization because they disrupt the native structure of biopolymers. These processes spoil the quality of sweetened condensed milk. However, no scientific publications feature the cryoscopic temperature of sweet condensed milk or systematize the data on its low-temperature storage.
Sugar, sugar-milk, and milk solutions of various concentrations were frozen to determine their cryoscopic temperature by the thermographic method using a Testo 176T4 meter (Germany) with K-type probes (NiCr-Ni) at –78.5°C. The phase transitions were studied using a Mettler Toledo DCS 822e DSC analyzer.
The nucleation temperature, the cryoscopic temperature, and the subcooling degree depended on the concentration and the type of the solute. For sugar solutions, the cryoscopic temperature varied from –0.4 ± 0.1 to –6.4 ± 0.1°C; for sugar-milk solutions, it ranged from –2.1 ± 0.1 to –10.9 ± 0.1°C; for whole milk solutions, it was from –0.4 ± 0.1 to –4.6 ± 0.1°C. The thermographic method failed to obtain the phase transition and the cryoscopic temperature in analogue models of sweetened condensed milk. The loss of fluidity was about –30°C when the storage time exceeded 2 h. This effect was comparable to 54 min of storage at –35°C. The differential scanning calorimetry meth od showed that the phase transition occurred at –80°C.
This research opens new prospects for differential scanning calorimetry studies of phase transitions in condensed sweetened dairy products.
Providing senior citizens with specialized gerontological products is one of the most important tasks of the contemporary food industry. The research objective was to develop targeted functional foods for elderly population based on the peculiarities of their metabolism.
The new products included raw materials with a low glycemic index and a high protein content but a low fat and carbohydrate content, e.g., lentil, pea, and barley flour. Kelp powder served as a source of iodine. The content of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates was studied by infrared spectroscopy using a Spectastar 2500 analyzer. Vitamins, minerals, and trace elements were measured by classical and modern analysis methods.
The research also included a sensory evaluation of the new cereals and cereal products. As for the basic nutrients, the protein content was 20.96–24.33 g/100 g, fat – 3.36–3.49 g/100 g, carbohydrates – 45.07–47.10 g/100 g, energy – 327–333 kcal/100 g. One portion (150 g) satisfied the recommended daily intake of proteins by 18.0%, fats – by 2.9%, carbohydrates – by 9.1%, dietary fiber – by 30.5%, and energy – by 9.13%.
The new products had a good nutritional value and were rich in protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, and micro- and macro-elements, e.g., iodine. The new cereals and cereal products can also be used in diets for senior patients with comorbid pathology.
Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins are becoming increasingly popular ingredients due to their beneficial effect on the immune system and other functional properties. We aimed to develop a technology for obtaining peptides from poultry by-products and identify their bioactivity.
Pepsin was the main reagent for the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis. Specialized equipment and methods were used to determine the key indicators. The molecular weight and bioactivity of the resulting peptides were calculated by using the Peptide Mass Calculator and PeptideRanker online resources.
First, we developed a flow chart for obtaining bioactive peptides and produced hydrolysates from poultry by-products. The hydrolysates had identical physicochemical parameters, with no significant differences. The molecular weight distribution revealed that most protein fractions were represented by peptides with a molecular weight below 20 kDa. Then, we evaluated the bioactivity of the peptides. The hydrolysate obtained using pepsin with an activity of 30 units per 100 g of material showed higher bioactivity in the FD peptides (0.922094). The hydrolysate obtained using pepsin with an activity of 45 units per 100 g of material had greater bioactive properties in the CYG p eptides (0.947378).
Based on the results, we designed a flow chart for obtaining hydrolysates from poultry by-products and evaluated the bioactive properties of the peptides obtained. For further work, these properties should be confirmed by in vitro experiments to determine the reliability of our data and identify specific bioactive properties of the peptides.
The qualitative composition of commercial milk is a relevant issue of the food industry. The khainak, or yattle, is a hybrid between the yak and domestic cattle. The research objective was to study the seasonal protein composition of khainak milk from the Northern Kyrgyzstan highlands.
The study featured samples of khainak milk obtained from farms located in the Issyk-Kul region at an altitude of 2840 m above sea level. Standard research methods included high pressure liq uid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Khainak milk has more protein than cow milk, and the mass fraction of protein in it is 3.91–4.39%. In this research, the mass fraction of protein in khainak milk obtained in spring, summer, and autumn exceeded that of cow milk by 0.54, 1.02, and 0.84%, respectively. The total nitrogen content correlated with the mass fraction of protein, i.e., it was at its highest in summer (0.689 ± 0.004%). The content of non-protein nitrogen remained almost the same (0.0489–0.0496%). Spring milk contained by 0.2% more whey protein than summer milk (0.94 ± 0.05%) and autumn milk (0.97 ± 0.05%). Summer milk demonstrated a 1% increase in casein proteins, compared to spring and autumn samples. The average β-lactoglobulin content was 2.35 mg·mL–1, while α-lactoalbumin was 2.12 mg·mL–1 of the total albumin fraction. In terms of amino acid composition, khainak milk was balanced except for tryptophan. In the warm season, the content of essential amino acids was higher than in the cold season (P < 0.05), which corresponded to the changes in total protein co ntent.
Khainak milk is richer in protein and some other components than cow milk, which makes it a valuable non-traditional dairy raw material for such protein products as cheese or cottage che ese, including their functional variants.
Modern cost-effective propagation methods yield a large amount of high-quality healthy planting material of economically valuable forest berry plants. However, ex vitro adaptation of Vaccinium species and in vitro cultivation of the Kamchatka bilberry remain understudied. The research objective was to study the effect of growth-regulating substances on the organogenesis and adaptation to non-sterile conditions of the lingonberry and the Kamchatka bilberry during clonal micropropagation.
The study featured regenerant lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) of Koralle, Kostromichka, and Kostromskaya Rozovaya cultivars, as well as the Sakhalin and Kuril varieties of the Kamchatka bilberry (Vaccinium praestans Lamb.). A chemical analysis was performed to reveal the following dependencies: the effect of sterilizing agents and sterilization time on the viability of explants, the effect of the nutrient medium and the growth-regulating substances on microshoots and roots, and the effect of the substrate on the survival of plants in non-sterile conditions.
The highest survival rate of lingonberry (72%) and bilberry (96%) explants belonged to 0.2% of AgNO3 with 10 min of sterilization time. The maximal values of the total shoot length in vitro were observed at 0.2 mg/L of 2-iP: AN nutrient medium (7.2 cm) for lingonberries and WPM 1/2 nutrient medium (10.5 cm) for bilberries. The longest total root length in vitro for lingonberries was registered when using 2.0 mg/L (5.8 cm) of indoleacetic acid, while for bilberries it was 1.0 mg/L (1.9 cm) of indolylbutyric acid. The maximal survival rate ex vitro belonged to the high-moor peat substrate (89–92%) for lingonberries and a 1:1 mix of peat with sand (91–95%) for bilb erries.
Clonal micropropagation with growth regulators (2-iP, indolylbutyric and indoleacetic acids) and peat substrates proved expedient for in vitro cultivation and ex vitro adaptation of the lingonberry and the Kamchatka bilberry. This scheme delivered a large amount of high-quality planting material with high plant survival.
Trans-cinnamic acid is a phenolic compound with a wide range of bioactive properties, including antioxidant and antibacterial effects. It also has high potential in the food and cosmetic industries. We aimed to isolate trans-cinnamic acid from the Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) and study its geroprotective activity on Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes used as a model organism.
Our study objects included the S. baicalensis root culture and its extract, trans-cinnamic acid isolated from the extract, and C. elegans nematodes. Trans-cinnamic acid was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The acid’s geroprotective activity was studied by evaluating its effect at concentrations of 10, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L on the lifespan, stress resistance, and reproductivity of C. elegans. For the lifespan study, the nematodes were cultivated at 20°C for 61 days. To assess their resistance to oxidative stress, 15 μL of 1M paraquat was added to each well of the plate. Thermal stress resistance was determined by raising the temperature to 33°C. For the reproductivity study, the nematodes were cultivated in the S-medium with the addition of Escherichia coli OP50 and trans-cinnamic acid at required concentrations for 72 h.
The maximum increase in lifespan (9.8%) was observed in the nematodes treated with 50 μmol/L of trans-cinnamic acid. Under oxidative stress, all the concentrations of trans-cinnamic acid increased the survival of nematodes, while under thermal stress, trans-cinnamic acid reduced the percentage of surviving nematodes. At a concentration of 100 μmol/L, trans-cinnamic acid increased the nematodes’ reproduction by 1.48 times.
Based on our data, trans-cinnamic acid isolated from S. baicalensis can be recommended as a bioactive compound with geroprotective activity. However, further research is needed on other model organisms with detailed toxicity studies.
The modern food industry sees raw milk as a source of functional ingredients. Technologies of protein ingredients have a great scientific and practical importance because membrane fractionation methods preserve the native structure and properties of protein components. The resulting proteins have good fat profile, moisture retention, and emulsification characteristics, as well as perform some useful technological functions in food systems. They have no status of food additives and can be applied in various branches of food production. Unfortunately, the Russian food industry has no such technologies of its own. This article introduces some technological recommendations for the p roduction of domestic micellar casein concentrate.
The research involved skim milk, commercial micellar casein concentrates from various manufacturers, curd samples with 9.0% of fat in dry matter, and Rossiysky cheese produced according to traditional formulation and technology. The experiment relied on standard research methods of physical and chemical analysis to establish the chemical composition of the samples, e.g., fractional composition of skim milk proteins, grain-size distribution, amino acid profile, etc.
The study involved a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, as well as functional and technological properties of commercial micellar casein concentrates from various manufacturers. A set of experiments made it possible to define the thermal effect on raw material and to predict the prospects for usage of the new technology. Samples with a high ratio of casein:whey proteins and a moderately high heat treatment increased the curd and cheese yield by 10–12% in comparison with the traditional formulation. Samples with the maximal concentration of undenatured milk-serum protein nitrogen increased the yield of protein dairy products by 2–3% in comparison with other samples of micellar casein concentrates. The ratio of casein:whey proteins was 80:20 in skim milk obtained at PJSC Dairy “Voronezhsky”. The optimal pore diameter was ≥ 15 nm. As for the microbiological properties, QMA&OAMO was 6×104 CFU/dm3, and no pathogenic microorganisms were detected.
Therefore, low-temperature pasteurization proved feasible at ≤ 76 ± 2°C and 10–15 s of hold time. The micellar casein concentrate added certain functional and technological properties to the finished product, depending on the specific application scope.
The new technology will enable the domestic food industry to ov ercome the existing import dependence.
New alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages from non-traditional vegetable raw materials expand the domestic product range and allow food producers to develop new market segments. The present research objective was to summarize and analyze the current data on the use of tomatoes in alcohol production.
The review covered Russian and foreign open access scientific publications and patents registered in Pubmed, E-library, Cyberleninka, Espacenet, and Patentscope in 2005–2021.
Most publications featured tomato juice in soft drinks production as a means to increase their nutritional value, improve sensory profile, expand the product range, and develop new functional products, e.g., with antioxidant properties, for diabetic consumers, etc. Tomato pulp, juice, or puree is used in beer production. No publications featured the effect of tomato cultivars on the technical properties of the finished product.
The analysis revealed the need to study the effect of red, yellow, and dark tomatoes on the sensory and physico-chemical quality of beer drinks. Another research prospect is a novel semi-finished product from tomato pomace that would increase the nutritional value of beer drinks.
Efficient production requires reliable scientific foundations for new energy-saving technologies and drying processes that are able to transform plant materials into functional products. Mathematical modeling and control can provide efficient drying of cold plasma pretreated plant materials and predict its results.
The present research featured raw potatoes and apples that underwent an electrophysical treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma in an air gas medium. The Luikov drying model served as the main model of heat and mass transfer as a system of coupled differential equations of humidity and temperature potentials. The mathematical modeling procedure and the program code were implemented in the MathCAD software.
The cold plasma pretreatment proved to decrease the drying time. A greater disintegration index resulted in a shorter total drying time. The mathematical modelling of the heat and mass transfer processes almost coincided with the experimental results. The analysis of kinetic transfer coefficients of heat, moisture, and pressure potentials made it possible to develop a control parameter of the drying process of plant materials enti tled as the disintegration index.
The proposed mathematical model explained the emerging effects, while the refined kinetic coefficients supported by experimental data clarified the processes in the drying material.