ISSN 2074-9414 (Print),
ISSN 2313-1748 (Online)

Volume 51, Issue 4, 2021

13127
Abstract
Introduction. Mercury contamination is one of the most common environmental problems. The research objective was to study the qualitative composition and physicochemical properties of raw game meat obtained from the area near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit in order to define any possible contamination with xenobiotics.
Study objects and methods. The research featured rib eye muscle tissue and soft flesh of elks shot on the hunting farms of the Kemerovo Region aka Kuzbass.
Results and discussion. A complex set of experiments revealed the chemical composition of elk muscle tissue and flesh, as well as the mineral composition of elk muscle tissue. The samples were obtained from different parts of carcasses. The amino acid and fatty acid composition of elk muscle tissue made it possible to describe the biological value, mineral composition, and vitamin profile of elk meat. The physicochemical analysis included toughness, cooking losses, and moisture-retaining capacity, i.e. the properties that ensure juiciness. The research also featured the accumulation of xenobiotics in elk meat samples obtained from the biosinosis near the Beloosipovo mercury deposit.
Conclusion. The slaughter yield of elk meat was 51–53%, which exceeds the average yield of farm cattle meat by 4–6%. The moisture content was 73–78%, while the content of protein was between 20–24% and depended on the anatomical location of the muscle sample; the fat content reached 0.75–1.75%. The mercury accumulation at different storage temperature conditions ranged from 0.004 ± 0.001 to 0.009 ± 0.001 mg/kg, while the maximum allowable concentration of mercury is 0.03 mg/kg.
6669
Abstract
Introduction. Contemporary food industry strives to increase the production volume of high-quality and biologically complete protein products. The Foodnet market also raised the demand for functional foods in Russia. The research objective was to develop a new functional curd product fortified with probiotic microflora.
Study objects and methods. The study featured cow’s milk, skimmed milk, cream, whey protein concentrate Milkiland-WPC 80, pollen, glutamine, starter cultures DVS Danisco Probat 576 and Howaru Bifido ARO-1, buckwheat flour, and oat flour. The experiment included physicochemical, sensory, biochemical, and microbiological methods.
Results and discussion. The milk-protein base of the curd product was produced in a GEA Westfalia KDB 30 curd separator. The research involved 15 and 20% cream with two different starter cultures. In case of 15% cream, Probat 576 Howaru Bifido appeared to be 1.66 times more active than ARO-1 Howaru Bifido, in case of 20% cream the result was even higher – 1.73 times. Probat 576 also demonstrated a better active acidity, i.e. 5.5 after three hours, which was two hours faster than ARO-1. Mathematical modeling revealed the positive effect of buckwheat and oat flour on the cream fermentation process. Oat flour (5%) was the optimal prebiotic, while buckwheat flour added its color to the final product, thus spoiling its market quality.
Conclusion. The new biotechnology for a curd product fortified with probiotic cultures can expand the range of functional products for sports diet.
6770
Abstract
Introduction. The quality profile and nutritional values of cookies depend on the raw material. The research objective was to study the effect of oils and fats on the quality characteristics and storage capacity of cookies.
Study objects and methods. The study involved such types of oils and fats as margarine, confectionery fat, milk fat substitute, palm oil, sunflower oil, and high oleic sunflower oil. It was based on standard methods of sensory, physicochemical, structural, and rheological analyses.
Results and discussion. The experimental formulations relied on contemporary dilatory recommendations, consumer acceptability, and traditionality of sensory indicators. The mass fraction of fat was limited to ≤ 18%; added sugars – to ≤ 22%; salt – to ≤ 0.3%. For each type of oil and fat, as set of experiments was performed to define the optimal technological emulsion and dough parameters. Other aspects involved the patterns of moisture transfer, indicators of oxidative spoilage, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, physicochemical and microbiological indicators, storage capacity, etc. The samples with vegetable oils instead of fat had a lower content of saturated fatty acids, which fell from 8–9 to 2–3 g/100 g. However, the risk of oxidative spoilage increased significantly. On storage day 104, the content of linoleic acid in the samples with sunflower oil decreased from 62.0 to 60.4%, while the samples with high oleic sunflower oil maintained the same level of linoleic acid. The samples with confectionery fat and palm oil demonstrated the lowest rate of oxidative processes, while those with margarine and milk fat substitute had the best sensory profile after storage.
Conclusion. The cookies with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil appeared to have a shelf life of two months, while for those with milk fat substitute, margarine, palm oil, and confectionery fat it was six months. Further research should focus on various emulsifiers and antioxidants capable of forming bonds with proteins and starch fractions of flour, which could increase the resistance of liquid vegetable oils to oxidation.
4351
Abstract
Introduction. Green cabbage has a short shelf life. As a result, it becomes scarce by March and April, often due to miscalculated sell-by-date. The research objective was to establish qualitative indicators and optimal shelf life of late season green cabbage.
Study objects and methods. The study featured eleven late season varieties of green cabbage grown in alluvial meadow soil using N150P150K180 as fertilizer. The samples (25 cabbage heads) were put in layers into wooden containers with a capacity of 200–250 kg each and stored at 0...+1°C and a relative humidity of 90–95% for 7 months. By the end of storage, the samples were tested for the yield of marketable products, weight loss, diseases, etc.
Results and discussion. The highest yield belonged to Gertsoginya F1 (80.4%), Kilaton F1 (78.6%), and Beaumont Agro F1 (77.7%). The optimal shelf life did not exceed 5–6 months. The yield of commercial products depended on the solid matter content (r = 0.81) and, to a lesser degree, on the average content of ascorbic acid (r = 0.52), monosaccharides (r = 0.55), and nitrates (r = 0.55). The weight loss had a negative mean relationship with the content of solids (r = –0.55), ascorbic acid (r = –0.49), and nitrates (r = –0.59).
Conclusion. The optimal shelf life for most varieties and hybrids of green cabbage proved to be 4–5 months, whereas for Beau Monde Agro F1, Gertsoginya F1, Idilliya F1, and Kilaton F1, it was 5–6 months. Further research might reveal hybrids with longer shelf life.
5067
Abstract
Introduction. Semi-finished choux dough has neither vitamins nor minerals. However, its nutritional value can be increased by adding vegetable raw materials. The research objective was to evaluate the possibilities of using spicy vegetable raw materials in the formulation of semi-finished choux dough.
Study objects and methods. The study featured fresh parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum), celery (Apium) leaves and stems, and IR-dried powder of celery stalks. Standard research methods were used to determine the sensory, physico-chemical, and nutritional properties of the resulting choux samples.
Results and discussion. Classical semi-finished choux dough with craquelin served as control sample. Fresh spicy vegetable raw materials degraded the sensory characteristics of the product. However, powdered celery stalks did not interfere with the taste of the choux dough. They were added in the amount of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% by weight of wheat flour. The celery powder gave the dough a sour-spicy flavor, as well as increased the content of vitamins B (up to 10%) and beta-carotene (up to 70%) in the finished product.
Conclusion. The sample with 5% of IR-dried celery powder proved optimal for choux dough. It increased the content of vitamin B2 and beta-carotene, thus improving the nutritional value of the semi-finished product. In future, the powder can be tested as part of bakery filling in combination with ingredients that mask the typical celery taste.
4747
Abstract
Introduction. The demand for honeysuckle berries and planting material is growing. Clonal micropropagation is the most effective method for industrial plantations. The research objective was to study the effect of cytokinins and auxins on Russian and Canadian honeysuckle microshoots and roots.
Study objects and methods. The study featured regenerated honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis Turcz.) of three Russian cultivars (Bakcharsky Velikan, Doch Velikana, Yugana) and two Canadian cultivars (Boreal Beauty, Boreal Beast). The experiment focused on the effect of sterilizing agents and sterilization time on the viability of honeysuckle explants at the stage of culture introduction in vitro. The effect of the growth regulator Cytodef in the QL nutrient medium on organogenesis was studied at the stage of micropropagation proper, the effect of auxin IBA on plant root formation – at the stage of rooting in vitro.
Results and discussion. The greatest viability of honeysuckle explants (80–94%) was registered in the samples affected by Lizoformin 3000 (5%) and silver nitrate (0.2%) as sterilizing agents with a sterilization time of 10 min at the stage of in vitro culture introduction. The biggest quantity (8.8 pcs.) and total length (40.1 cm) of microshoots were observed when the content of cytokinin Cytodef in the culture medium QL was 0.3 mg/L at the stage micropropagation proper. The Boreal Beast cultivar had the largest total length of shoots (29.0 cm). The biggest quantity (5.5 pcs.) and total length (30.8 cm) of roots resulted from 0.5 mg/L of auxin IBA at the stage of rooting in vitro. Coconut substrate produced the highest survival rate (92–99%) at the stage of adaptation to non-sterile conditions in vivo, with the greatest number of leaves (8.1–10.2 pcs.) observed in Canadian cultivars.
Conclusion. Cytodef and IBA proved to be effective growth-regulating substances for microplants of Russian and Canadian honeysuckle cultivars in vitro, which makes them promising for berry plantations.
4730
Abstract
Introduction. Due to its natural composition, the deep water of Lake Baikal can be bottled without any conserving agents. The development of large-scale production of bottled Baikal water requires its detailed study in order to protect it from counterfeit and falsification. The purpose of this work was to study the isotopic and chemical composition of the deep water of Lake Baikal and offer indicators for its identification.
Study objects and methods. The research included deep water of Lake Baikal, sampled at various points, the water from the Angara River, and the tap water from the cities of Irkutsk and Shelekhov. The tests were performed using a quadrupole ICP-MS mass spectrometer and a Delta V Plus isotope mass spectrometer with a GasBench II module.
Results and discussion. All the water samples revealed fresh water with insignificant mineralization. As for salts, the deep water samples had a lower content of sodium and chlorides, as well as a higher content of silicon. As for metals, the deep water samples contained iron, manganese, copper, and zinc; in the tap water samples, these indicators were significantly higher. Unlike that of the Angara water samples, the isotopic profile of the deep water samples was somewhat “lighter”, both in the ratio of oxygen isotopes δ18O – by 0.73‰, and hydrogen δD – by 0.49‰. The tap water samples had a higher deuterium content. The content of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in the tap water samples was close to that in the Angara samples.
Conclusion. The complex physicochemical and isotope analyses expanded the list of identification indicators and made it possible to identify the deep water of Lake Baikal.
4208
Abstract
Introduction. Commercial pectin is usually obtained from apples or citrus fruits. However, some wild fruits, such as hawthorn, are also rich in pectin with valuable nutritional and medical properties. The research objective was to study and improve the process of combined surfactant and enzyme-assisted extraction of pectin from hawthorn fruits.
Study objects and methods. The study involved a 1% solution of Polysorbate-20 surfactant and a mix of two enzymes, namely cellulase and xylanase, in a ratio of 4:1. The response surface methodology with the Box-Behnken experimental design improved the extraction parameters. The experiment featured three independent variables – temperature, time, and solvent-to-material ratio. They varied at three levels: 20, 40, and 60°C; 120, 180, and 240 min; 15, 30, and 45 mL per g. Their effect on the parameters on the pectin yield was assessed using a quadratic mathematical model based on a second order polynomial equation.
Results and discussion. The response surface methodology made it possible to derive a second order polynomial regression equation that illustrated the effect of extraction parameters on the yield of polyphenols. The regression coefficient (R2 = 98.14%) and the lack-of-fit test (P > 0.05) showed a good accuracy of the model. The optimal extraction conditions were found as follows: temperature = 41°C, time = 160 min, solvent-to-material ratio = 32 mL per 1 g. Under the optimal conditions, the predicted pectin yield was 14.9%, while the experimental yield was 15.2 ± 0.4%. The content of galacturonic acid in the obtained pectin was 58.5%, while the degree of esterification was 51.5%. The hawthorn pectin demonstrated a good complex-building ability in relation to ions of copper (564 mg Cu2+/g), lead (254 mg Pb2+/g), and cobalt (120 mg Co2+/g).
Conclusion. Combined surfactant and enzyme-assisted extraction made improved the extraction of pectin from hawthorn fruits. The hawthorn pectin can be used to develop new functional products.
4100
Abstract
Introduction. National economies are looking for tools to activate the explicit and hidden resource potential. Innovative resource-saving projects are such a tool. Feed production strives to increase its resource efficiency.
Study objects and methods. The present research featured the feed industry of the Russian Federation and regional feed mills. It involved structural, functional, and systematic approaches and standard research methods.
Results and discussion. Liquid waste proved to be an important resource potential of modern feed production. It contains substances with high nutritional, biological, and energy value and can be used to produce methionine. The experimental part featured an industrial enterprise in the Voronezh region, which expects to produce 1452 tons of methionine worth 58 080 thousand rubles. The profitability will be 616.76%, the gross return on sales − 86.1%, the payback time – 1.44 months, the efficiency of capital investments – 8.45.
Conclusion. The innovative project will reduce the negative impact on the environment, increase the resource efficiency of the enterprise, and provide additional income.
3834
Abstract
Introduction. Starfish (Asteroidea) are marine echinoderms with more than 160 species. Starfish are a valuable source of protein and fats. The present research featured the chemical composition of starfish, which can be used as a commercial source of lipids.
Study objects and methods. The study defined the optimal parameters for extracting the lipid fraction of Lysastrosoma anthosticta with supercritical carbon dioxide, as well as the qualitative composition of the obtained extracts.
Results and discussion. The yield of fatty acids obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide co-solvent was 1.8 times higher than that obtained with standard extraction according to the Folch method. The content of impurities was lower than in the samples with chloroform-methanol system. The polyunsaturated fatty acids isolated from L. anthosticta mainly belonged to ω-3 (18.0%), ω-6 (11.7%), ω-7 (21.2%), ω-9 (10.1%), and ω-11 (6.5%). The rest was saturated fatty acids, mainly palmitic (14%) and myristic (6%). The qualitative composition of the lipid fraction did not depend significantly from the isolation method. However, the supercritical extraction increased the product yield, extraction rate, and the quality of the extraction residue. Supercritical carbon dioxide left a dry residue, which had no typical smell and was brittle enough for grinding. Such residue can presumably be used to produce protein concentrate.
Conclusion. Supercritical extraction with chloroform can be recommended to isolate fatty acids from marine organisms at 60°C and 400 bar.
4052
Abstract
Introduction. Durum wheat is vital for high-quality pasta production. The present research tested the high technological potential of durum wheat varieties developed in the Saratov region. The research objective was to study the effect of the quality of durum wheat on the quality of pasta.
Study objects and methods. The study featured durum wheat of the following varieties: Saratovskaya Zolotistaya, Valentina, Nik, Krasnokutka 13, Luch 25, Pamyati Vasilchuka, Bezenchukskaya 182 and Annushka. The experiment involved an original PSL-13 press for standard spaghetti with a diameter of 1.8 mm. The content of protein, raw gluten, and their quality were determined by standard methods. The cooking properties of the pasta were evaluated according to the method developed in the South-Eastern Federal Agricultural Research Center.
Results and discussion. The indicators of raw gluten and protein are known to correlate. The samples of Saratovskaya Zolotistaya and Luch 25 had a high protein content of 15.3 and 15.6%, respectively, as well as a high content of raw gluten (33.2 and 35.1%, respectively). The raw gluten of Saratov varieties proved to be much better than in the control samples. The indicator of microSDs sedimentation was 30–36 mm. The strength of spaghetti followed the increase in crude gluten (33–35%) and protein (15.3–15.6%), which is typical of this type of pasta. The strength, coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.98), and sharing force (R2 = 0.92) depended on the protein content.
Conclusion. The study established the following optimal selection criteria for durum wheat varieties to be used in strong spaghetti production: virtuosity – 80%, raw gluten – 33–35%, protein content – 5–7% higher than normal, raw gluten – 72–80 units.
4651
Abstract
Introduction. Bakery products are an important part of traditional Russian menu. Activated water helps to improve the quality of flour products. The present research objective was (1) to activate water with mechanical energy to change the physicochemical properties of the dough; (2) to evaluate the energy efficiency of the new technological process, and (3) to determine the quality indicators of bread.
Study objects and methods. The research featured high quality wheat flour, drinking water, and pressed baking yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Standard research methods were used to assess the physical and chemical properties of water, namely acidity index (pH), surface tension coefficient, and biological activity. The physico-chemical properties of the dough were studied by maximum shear stress and adhesion.
Results and discussion. The samples of activated water demonstrated the following technological properties. Its acidity due decreased as pH fell down to 6.05. With a total mixing time of 10 min, the surface tension decreased by about 10%; after 5 min, it decreased by 4%, while the biological activity of activated water increased by 1.5 times. Mechanically treated water used for bread production contributed to the overall energy saving during kneading and increased its water-binding ability. Moisture removal was by 30–40% more intensive than in the control dough sample. Also, the quality of gluten changed as a result of higher shear stress, which gave the experimental dough better forming properties necessary for the production of high-quality bread. The mechanically activated water increased the specific volume of bread from 2.05 to 2.38 cm3/g.
Conclusion. The activated water improved the physico-chemical and rheological properties of dough, as well as the main sensory indicators of bread, e.g. porosity and bread crumb elasticity.
3865
Abstract
Introduction. Plant raw materials can be a source of biologically active substances and increase the nutritional value of food products. The present research objective was to determine the content of biologically active substances in powdered viburnum and barberry.
Study objects and methods. The study featured viburnum (Viburnum opulus L.) and barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.), dried by convection and crushed into particles of 50 microns.
Results and discussion. The total content of phenolic compounds in powdered viburnum was 3114.07 mg/100 g, in powdered barberry – 2272.7 mg/100 g. The content of flavonoids in powdered viburnum was 324.52 mg/100 g, in powdered barberry – 390.00 mg/100 g. The flavonoid profile of the powders included rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercintrin, and astralagin. The total content of catechins was 446 mg/100 g for viburnum and 506 mg/100 g for barberry. The catechins included mainly epigallocatechin and catechin. In powdered viburnum, the catechin composition was as follows: epicatechin – 196, catechin – 118, and epigallocatechin – 89 mg/100 g; in powdered barberry: epigallocatechin – 173, catechin – 111, and epicatechin – 74 mg/100 g. The antiradical activity in relation to trolox equivalent was 7560 mg/100 g in powdered viburnum and 9460 mg/100 g in powdered barberry.
Conclusion. The obtained viburnum and barberry powders can fortify food with biologically active substances and expand the range of functional products.
3877
Abstract
Introduction. Fermented milk beverages with various vegetable additives expand the range of functional foods with probiotics, vitamins, and minerals. The research objective was to develop a new technology for fermented milk drinks fortified with soy protein.
Study objects and methods. Heat-treated cow’s milk with Direct Vat Set bacterial starter served as the control sample, while the experimental samples featured fermented milk fortified with soy additives. The soy protein ingredient was obtained from powdered sprouted soybean. Soybeans were pre-germinated in a thermostat at 26°C for 24 h and blanched with steam for 15 min. After that, 1–9% of the soy substance was added to pasteurized milk and fermented at 38–40°C for 6–8 h. The resulting sample was tested for quality indicators and physicochemical composition.
Results and discussion. The best sensory properties belonged to the sample with 5% mass fraction of the soy additive. As a result, the soy-fortified beverages entitled Bifivit and Immunovit had a better nutritional value: protein – by 1.92 and 1.79 g, fat – by 0.77 and 0.75 g, vitamin E – by 0.16 mg, choline – by 23.82 mg, potassium – by 149 mg, phosphorus – by 19 and 22 mg, calcium – by 25 and 24 mg, magnesium – by 22 and 23 mg, respectively. One portion (100 g) of these drinks contained over 15% of recommended daily intake of protein, vitamin B2, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus. The content of lactic acid and bifidobacteria remained above the norm (1×108) both in fresh products and by the end of their shelf life.
Conclusion. The article introduces a technology of new functional soy-fortified fermented milk drinks with improved chemical and sensory properties.
4333
Abstract
Introduction. Sprouted grain can cause food poisoning, since inappropriate conditions can promote the growth of pathogenic microorganisms on the grain surface. As a result, products of long-term storage use thermally-treated sprouted grain, the parameters of which depend on the initial bacteria content. There are different ways to reduce bacterial contamination of sprouted grain, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. Natural substances with antimicrobial properties, such as medicinal herbs, can serve as decontaminators. However, no scientific research has been performed so far to determine the exact temperature of grain sprouting to minimize its microbiological contamination. The research objective was to investigate the effect of antimicrobial agents and sprouting conditions on the microflora of wheat and buckwheat grain.
Study objects and methods. The study featured wheat grain and green buckwheat grain. A set of experiments was performed to define the effect of antimicrobial agents and sprouting conditions on the quantity of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (QMAFAnM), molds, and yeasts. During sprouting at 10–30°C for 90 h, the grain was irrigated with distilled water, potassium permanganate solution (KMnO4), calendula infusion, and celandine i nfusion. QMAFAnM and the count of molds and yeasts were determined by standard methods; the qualitative analysis of the microflora was based on their morphological and cultural characteristics.
Results and discussion. Microflora development during sprouting of wheat and buckwheat grains was controlled by selecting appropriate conditions and grain treatment methods. The herbal infusions for sprouting reduced the total microbial insemination of grain during sprouting by 52–68%; the calendula infusion reduced the contamination with molds by 47–51%, yeasts – by 100%.
Conclusion. The research revealed the total microbial count and the count of mold and yeast colonies in dry sprouted grain. The optimal temperature of sprouting wheat and buckwheat was 20 ± 2°C in the infusion of medicinal herbs: it minimized the microflora of sprouted grain and reduced the sprouting time to 46 h. Calendula infusion could be recommended for commercial use in order reduce the microbiological contamination of sprouted grain. The initial microbial population of the product was found to affect the mode of heat treatment in long-term storage products.
6351
Abstract
Introduction. Anthropogenic activities cause large-scale environmental problems. The growing volumes of toxic emissions contribute to soil, water, and air pollution, thus posing a serious threat to all living systems and the global ecosystem. New reclamation methods are a relevant research topic as they help to restore and preserve ecosystems.
Study objects and methods. The research covered sixteen years of scientific publications from PubMed of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (USA), Elsevier (Scopus, ScienceDirect), Web of Science, and the national electronic library service eLibrary.ru.
Results and discussion. The authors reviewed various scientific publications to define the main technogenic objects that have a toxic effect on biota. Soil is more vulnerable to destructive effects, and mining wastes are responsible for the largest share of technogenically disturbed objects. Pollutants include many compounds, such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, acids, etc. Reclamation technologies reduce the man-induced impact on the environment, e.g. pollutants can be completely or partially destroyed, processed into non-toxic products, completely removed, stabilized into less toxic forms, etc. This review provides information on the main methods of reclamation of disturbed soils and substantiates the prospect of developing integrated reclamation technologies.
Conclusion. The present review featured the main pollutants of anthropogenic origin and the traditional soil reclamation methods. The most prospective new technologies of soil reclamation appeared to be a combination of such biological methods as phytoremediation, bioaugmentation, and biostimulation.
4576
Abstract
Introduction. Fruit and berry extracts contain biologically active components and acids that can inhibit or activate Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The research objective was to study the effect of berry extracts on the activity of baking yeast S. cerevisiae and the biochemical properties of wheat dough.
Study objects and methods. The experiment featured baking yeast Extra and dry berry extracts of raspberries, aronia, sea buckthorn, and rosehip (LLC Wisterra, Altai Region). The study involved standard and industry-specific control methods of raw materials and semi-finished bakery products, as well as som e standard methods of microbiological analysis.
Results and discussion. The raspberry extract (3–4%) suppressed the growth and reproduction of the yeast: after 1 h of exposure, the yeast cell count dropped by 1.5–2 times compared to the control sample. The stimulating effect of the sea buckthorn extract increased the growth rate of yeast cells (up to 40% compared to the control). The extracts of aronia and rosehip had practically no effect on the growth rate of yeast cells. However, 2–3% aronia extract increased the fermentation of the dough, as evidenced by a higher dough fermentation property, which was 2 min versus 3 min at the control after 150 min of exposure. Fruit and berry extracts caused a natural increase in the acidity of the dough, which affected the growth rate of yeast cells. Sea buckthorn extracts increased the acidity so much (up to 4.24 pH units) that it could be regarded as acid stress, which increased the growth rate of yeast cells (1.53×106–1.55×106 vs. 1.10×106 in 1 mL of control sample). The lowest growth rate was detected in the samples with the raspberry extract, which is known to have a strong fungistatic effect: the count of yeast cells decreased by 1.5–2 times after an hour of fermentation.
Conclusion. Berry extracts can be of practical interest to bakery enterprises as they help to control yeast fermentation and dough maturation time.
4175
Abstract
Introduction. Whole grain products can prevent some chronic diseases. Oats and oat-based foods are rich in beta-glucan, which makes them a perfect ingredient for functional foods. The present research objective was to introduce oat-based ingredients into the formulation of sugar cookies and study the quality of the finished product.
Study objects and methods. The study involved various formulations of sugar cookies with different proportions of oat meal and composite flour. Sensory, physicochemical, rheological, structural, and mechanical properties were determined according to standard methods.
Results and discussion. The mass shares of protein, fat, and dietary fiber increased together with the share of oat meal: protein – 11.9–12.5%, fat – 2.3–3.7%, dietary fiber – 4.1–4.5%. The swelling rates were 3.41–4.60, which was higher than in the wheat flour sample (2.94). Oat meal increased the viscosity of the model suspensions from 50 to 500 Pa·s The sample with the biggest share of oat meal had the greatest strength (1700 g). The water absorption also increased (193%): it was 220 when the share of oat meal was 20% and 221% when it was 30%. Oat meal decreased the water activity from 0.360 to 0.290 as its concentration grew.
Conclusion. The optimal amount of oat meal was 30% and that of oatmeal flakes – 10% of the flour amount. The research also defined the effect of oat meal and oat flakes on the composite flour blend, model dough, and sugar cookes. The article introduces a new commercial formulation of sugar biscuits.
3832
Abstract
Introduction. Products containing natural extracts are in great demand. However, poor production technologies make them too expensive to satisfy consumer demand. As a result, a variety of intensification methods have been developed to increase the economic efficiency of extraction, e.g. low-frequency mechanical vibrations. However, frozen raw materials have to be processed at low temperatures, which makes the method less efficient. The research objective was to intensify the extraction process from frozen berries in a vibration tray device by increasing the temperature of the system of interacting phases.
Study objects and methods. The research involved frozen cranberries and blueberries. They grow everywhere in Western Siberia and are rich vitamins and minerals. The berries were subjected to slow freezing at –18°C, which destroyed the cell structure and increased the processing efficiency. The study was carried out in a lab device with a vibrating tray. All parameters were measured by standard methods.
Results and discussion. The extraction device was equipped with a jacket into which a coolant was fed, i.e. water with a temperature of 55°C. A preliminary series of experiments revealed two negative aspects associated with the supply of coolant into the jacket. First, the surface layer started to thaw, which reduced the efficiency of grinding. Second, the processing time increased. A new method was developed to solve these problems: the coolant was supplied at the end of the grinding. The time of the coolant supply depended on the type of raw materials. The processes that occurred within the device depended on two factors: the frequency of vibrations of the tray and the diameter of the holes in the tray. These factors could be adjusted to intensify the process, but they increased the power costs and energy consumption. A series of experiments determined the optimal values of these parameters. A mathematical analysis revealed regression equations, i.e. how the destruction time and power costs affected the main parameters. The established optimal process parameters made it possible to determine the minimal time of the destruction process: for cranberries – 2.5 min, for blueberries – 1.5 min. The minimal power consumption was 17.8 watts for cranberries and 11.7 watts for blueberries.
Conclusion. The research increased the economic efficiency of the technological process of natural extraction, which can reduce the cost of the finished product and increase its availability. The values of the process parameters can be used to design new similar devices and serve as practical recommendations for berry extraction in vibration tray devices.
4155
Abstract
Introduction. Iodine is one of the most important elements for maintaining human health and cognitive skills. Contemporary food industry is looking for new functional foods fortified with macro- and micronutrients. Confectionery products occupy a fairly large segment of human diet. The present research objective was to substitute traditional white sugar with an experimental granulated sugar-containing product that contained maltodextrin, cane molasses, and Japanese kelp extract. This substitute could reduce the calorie content of jelly and increase its functional properties while maintaining its sensory profile, e.g. consistency, increasing its shelf-life, and simplifying the tec hnological process.
Study objects and methods. Granulated sugar-containing product is a new component for the confectionery industry, but its effect on technological processes is unpredictable. The research featured an experimental granulated sugar-containing product with maltodextrin, cane molasses, and Japanese kelp. The growth rate of granules and their structure were studied by scanning microscopy and radiography, the granulometric composition and solubility – by determining the relative dissolution rate, the effect of the granulated sugar-containing product on the sensory and physicochemical parameters of jelly – by refractometry and titrometry.
Results and discussion. The experimental granulated sugar-containing product contained sucrose both in crystalline and amorphous state, which affected the distribution of nutrients within the product. The growth rate of granules affected the resulting structure of the product and its solubility, which decreased by 2.5 times as the size of the granules grew. The dissolution rate decreased compared to crystalline sugar. As a result, the technological process of jelly production had to be adjusted. The developed jelly had a lower energy value and better nutritional qualities. The high content of vitamins and macro- and microelements makes it a functional product. The experimental jelly received 22.3 points for sensory profile. Its hysico-chemical parameters (soluble solids < 68%, acidity > 2.2 8%) met the standard requirements for this type of product.
Conclusion. The new granulated sugar-containing product simplified the technological process and improved the sanitary, hygienic, and working conditions.
4753
Abstract
Introduction. Statistical methods of data processing and IT technologies make it possible to introduce new modern methods of hazard and risk analysis in food industry. The research objective was to develop new software that would link together various risk-related production data.
Study objects and methods. The research featured food production company LLC Yug (Biysk, Russia) that specializes in functional products and various ready-made software automation solutions. The study also involved statistical methods, methods of observation, collection of primary information, sequential top-down development of algorithms, and the Java programming language.
Results and discussion. Food producers have a registration procedure for inconsistencies and violations of permissible limits at critical control points. The authors developed a new software program that allows production line operators to enter data on downtime and other violations of the production process. The program makes it possible for managers to receive up-to-date reports on various criteria, identify violations, and select appropriate corrective actions. This ready-made solution automates the process of accounting and hazard analysis. The program was tested at LLC Yug with the focus on the time that operators and managers needed to register the problem, analyze the data, develop corrective or preventive measures, and apply them.
Conclusion. The new software proved to be less time-consuming than standard procedures applied in food industry and made it possible to save the time that operators and managers spent on decision making and reporting.
6129
Abstract
Introduction. Coal industry increases soil pollution with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, resoiling is an urgent problem that requires an immediate solution. The present research objective was to substantiate the use of microorganisms from mine tips in order to decrease soil pollution with heavy metals and oil compounds.
Study objects and methods. The review featured five years of publications in Scopus, Web of Science, and Elibrary, which were subjected to analysis, systematization, and generalization.
Results and discussion. Coal industry changes landscapes, flora, fauna, and soil microbiome. Bioremediation uses various microorganisms as means of resoiling. Some microorganisms isolated from coal mining waste are resistant to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and are able to utilize them. For instance, such bacteria as Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are capable of degrading oil pollutants. Microorganisms of Enterobacter and Klebsiella species were found to be resistant to copper, iron, lead, and manganese. Bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Pseudoarthrobacter, and Sinomonas are now to be resistant to nickel, arsenic, and chromium. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase the activity of soil enzymes, improve soil fertility, and decompose various organic compounds.
Conclusion. Sequencing methods make it possible to determine the species composition of soils in mine tips in order to search for new strains capable of restoring former mining areas.
4851
Abstract
Introduction. Coal mining is the main source of anthropogenic impact on the landscapes of the Kemerovo Region – Kuzbass. The current mine reclamation rate lags far behind the annual increase in disturbed lands. A reclamation fund can be a perfect solution to this relevant issue. The present research objective was to analyze and structure the available data on the anthropogenic impact of coal mining in Kuzbass. The article reviews new effic ient methods of reclamation and resoiling.
Study objects and methods. The study featured ten years of research publications that were registered in the PubMed database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (USA), Elsevier (Scopus, ScienceDirect), the Web of Science, and the Russian Electronic Library (eLibrary.ru).
Results and discussion. The research revealed the following Kuzbass districts that experience the greatest mining impact: Novokuznetsk, Prokopyevsk, Kemerovo, Belovo, and Leninsk-Kuznetskiy. The authors also identified the most common pollutants associated with coal mining. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appeared to be the most dangerous pollutants: as waste coal burns, these substances cover considerable distances with the wind. Biodegradation seems to be the optimal solution because PAHs are known to be carcinogenic, and most mine tips are located near settlements. The article also features mine reclamation laws and introduces a list of plants with a high absorption capacity recommended for biological reclamation, as well as microorganisms and their consortia used for bioremediation.
Conclusion. The authors identified the most promising methods of mine reclamation in the Kemerovo region, i.e. bioremediation with pollutant-binding microbial consortia and plants.
4486
Abstract
Introduction. Modern food science needs new research of food emulsifiers, their composition, properties and effect on the structural characteristics of emulsions. It looks for modern technological solutions on how to select proper emulsifiers and their mixes to produce emulsions with different mass fractions of fat. The research objective was to study the effect of physical and chemical indicators of surfactants on the properties of food emulsions, as well as to develop practical recommendations for the selection of surfactants for various types of products.
Study objects and methods. The research featured model dairy fat emulsions and laboratory-made vegetable oil, as well as hard and soft mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids and lecithins. The emulsifiers were used to determine the melting point, fatty acid composition, iodine number, and solid triglyceride content at various temperatures. The melting point of emulsifiers was determined by fixing the melting temperature in a capillary oven. To identify the fatty acid composition, the methyl esters of fatty acids were subjected to the chromatogram method. After that, the separated components and their quantity were determined by the area of the peaks. The content of solid triglycerides in the emulsifiers was determined by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was obtained from the manufacturer's specifications.
Results and discussion. The solid mono- and diglycerides appeared to have a high content of stearic and palmitic acids. Oleic acid predominated in soft monoglycerides; unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic and oleic) also predominated in the monoglycerides/lecithin complex emulsifier. Solid monoglycerides had a high content of solid triglycerides at 35°C (82.93%), which correlated with the high melting point (80°C) and the lowest iodine number (3 mg I2/100 g) of all the samples. The optimal ratio of vegetable oil and the emulsifier was defined empirically. The emulsifiers were dissolved in refined deodorized vegetable oil at 5–7°C above the melting point of the emulsifier. The resulting ratios were between 6:1 and 10:1. The samples of creamy vegetable spreads were obtained using the studied emulsifiers and their compositions in different doses and ratios. The crystallization temperature and phase transition time were determined when studying the process of emulsion overcooling. The article introduces a list of technological and physicochemical indicators of emulsifiers: the fatty acid composition, the degree of saturation, the melting point, and the content of solid triglycerides. By finding out the physicochemical parameters of emulsifiers, producers can vary the ratio of the components of emulsifying compositions to achieve the desired properties of food emulsions. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance also proved to be an important index since the proportion of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups in surfactants affects the type of emulsions and makes it possible to adjust the fat content of the finished product.
Conclusion. The research results can expand the theoretical foundations of food emulsions. The article contains scientifically grounded recommendations on how to select optimal surfactants. The research opens up prospects for further studies of emulsifiers and their effect on the quality of finished products.
4194
Abstract
Introduction. Pectin-based protective coatings can produce a perfect biodegradable edible film. Secondary watermelon raw materials are a promising resource for this type of food coating as it contains 13.4% of pectin components, of which 8.1% is protopectin. The present research objective was to find the density and thermophysical characteristics of the pectin extract in order to optimize the drying process.
Study objects and methods. The research featured a pectin extract from watermelon rind. Its thermophysical properties were defined according to the thermocouple inertia method. The calorimetric method was used to change the aggregation state, while the pycnometric method was applied to calculate the density. The method of criterion equations helped to define the heat transfer coefficient.
Results and discussion. The average density of the final film material was 652 kg/m3 and that of the liquid semi-finished product was 1,028 kg/m3. The research also revealed the dependence of physical density and humidity W, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity. For different W, averaged were 3393, 3225, 3137, and 3113, respectively. The study also provided the criterion dependence for determining the heat transfer coefficient and modified α on the speed of the air coolant for artificial convection at conventional coolant temperature (≈ 100°C) in contact with the food product surface (≈ 80°C).
Conclusion. The article introduces the thermophysical characteristics and physical density of watermelon gel for various humidity and thermal agent parameters, as well as a modified criterion dependence for determining the heat transfer coefficient. The research results can be used to design dehydration operations, other thermophysical processes, and their equipment.